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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

G. Crotty, O. Doody and R. Lyons

Despite the high incidence of aggressive behaviours among some individuals with intellectual disability, Ireland has paid little attention to the prevalence of aggressive…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the high incidence of aggressive behaviours among some individuals with intellectual disability, Ireland has paid little attention to the prevalence of aggressive behaviours experienced by Registered Intellectual Disability Nurses (RNID). Within services the focus is mainly on intervention and management of such behaviours. Therefore a disparity occurs in that these interventions and management strategies have become the exclusive concern. Resulting in aggressive behaviour being seen as a sole entity, where similar interventions and management strategies are used for ambiguously contrasting aggressive behaviours. Consequently the ability to document and assess-specific behaviour typologies and their prevalence is fundamental not only to understand these behaviour types but also to orient and educate RNIDs in specific behaviour programme development. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reports on a survey of the prevalence of verbal aggression, aggression against property and aggression against others experienced by RNIDs’ within four residential settings across two health service executive regions in Ireland. A purposeful non-random convenience sampling method was employed. Totally, 119 RNIDs responded to the survey which was an adaptation of Crocker et al. (2006) survey instrument Modified Overt Aggression Scale.

Findings

The findings of this study showed the experienced prevalence rate of verbal aggression, aggression against property and aggression against others were 64, 48.9 and 50.7 per cent, respectively. Cross-tabulation of specific correlates identifies those with a mild and intellectual disability as displaying a greater prevalence of verbal aggression and aggression against property. While those with a moderate intellectual disability displayed a higher prevalence of aggression against others. Males were reported as more aggressive across all three typologies studied and those aged between 20 and 39 recorded the highest prevalence of aggression across all three typologies. The practice classification areas of challenging behaviour and low support reported the highest prevalence of aggression within all typologies.

Originality/value

The health care of the person with intellectual disability and aggressive behaviour presents an enormous challenge for services. In-order to improve considerably the quality of life for clients, services need to take a careful considered pragmatic view of the issues for the person with intellectual disability and aggressive behaviour and develop realistic, proactive and responsive strategies. To do this, precise knowledge of the prevalence of aggressive behaviours needs to be obtained. This study is the first of its kind in the Republic of Ireland.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2009

Dave Dagnan, Karen Mellor and Claire Jefferson

There is increasing use of cognitive therapy with people with learning disabilities. This paper gives a detailed description of a clinically useful assessment approach…

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271

Abstract

There is increasing use of cognitive therapy with people with learning disabilities. This paper gives a detailed description of a clinically useful assessment approach that gives the therapist information that can be used to identify the appropriate approach to therapy.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Tom Berney

This review outlines the nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in childhood and early adolescence, its relationship to the autistic condition, and the disabilities and…

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279

Abstract

This review outlines the nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in childhood and early adolescence, its relationship to the autistic condition, and the disabilities and co‐morbid disorders that accompany it. On this basis it gives an overview of the needs of children and families with ASD and the mental health services that they require.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2009

P Standen, Nicola Anderton, Raj Karsandas, Steve Battersby and David Brown

An increasing body of work explores the effects of computer software on cognition but little focuses on people with intellectual disabilities (learning disabilities). To…

Abstract

An increasing body of work explores the effects of computer software on cognition but little focuses on people with intellectual disabilities (learning disabilities). To test whether interactive software may reduce choice reaction time (CRT), 16 people with severe intellectual disabilities were randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group. The intervention group spent eight sessions playing a switch‐controlled computer game that required a timed response while the control group spent the same amount of time playing a computer‐based matching game that did not require a timed response. Both groups completed a test of CRT before and after the intervention. The intervention group showed a significant reduction in their CRT from baseline while the control group did not.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2003

Deborah J Anderson

Research on women’s health has increased substantially in the past decade, but this has not been paralleled in the area of developmental disabilities. In developmental…

Abstract

Research on women’s health has increased substantially in the past decade, but this has not been paralleled in the area of developmental disabilities. In developmental disabilities research, there has been little attempt to disentangle the impact of age, intellectual disabilities, and other developmental disabilities on women’s health. The 1994–1995 Disability Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey, administered to a representative sample of the U.S. population, was used to describe the aging process in the community for women age 30 and older with mental retardation (MR), developmental disabilities (DD) or both (MR/DD). Definitions of MR and DD consistent with professional and legal standards were developed and adapted to the NHIS-D questions. Approximately 77 million civilian, non-institutionalized women in the United States were age 30 and older at the time of the survey. Among these women an estimated 0.56% have mental retardation or developmental disability. Compared with women in general, women with these disabilities were disproportionately absent in the community, had negative perceptions of their health status, and their health indicators tended to support these perceptions. Most women with these disabilities were independent in activities of daily living (ADL), but instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) posed more of a challenge, and limitations in major activities were common. Limitations in mobility were common among women with DD.

Details

Using Survey Data to Study Disability: Results from the National Health Survey on Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-007-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Jill Bradshaw

The University Affiliated Programme (UAP) aims to improve service quality by working in partnership with local services. This article Reports on the establishment and…

Abstract

The University Affiliated Programme (UAP) aims to improve service quality by working in partnership with local services. This article Reports on the establishment and development of linked services: three services for people with learning disabilities, living in small community houses that opened in late 1999 and early 2000. The focus of resources on a small number of linked services was designed to maximise the effectiveness of the involvement of the Tizard Centre, along with the Subscriber Network. It was intended that work in the linked services would be disseminated through this network. The UAP has worked with service users and providers since 1996, during which time users have moved from a long‐stay NHS hospital to community services. The service provider is also now a private organisation. The article outlines some of the projects which have been introduced or developed in these linked services and discusses some of the issues that have arisen while working in partnership with them. The benefits of working through a UAP will also be identified.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

David Brown, Nicholas Shopland, Steven Battersby, Alex Tully and Steven Richardson

The aim of the Game On project is to adapt and create highly engaging and motivating serious games to teach employment skills to prisoners, ex‐offenders and those at risk…

Abstract

The aim of the Game On project is to adapt and create highly engaging and motivating serious games to teach employment skills to prisoners, ex‐offenders and those at risk of offending (termed offenders). The target audience first trialled existing serious games with work‐based educational content to identify their limitations and to highlight gaps in provision. From this, a development plan evolved for the adaptation of these materials and the creation of new materials using 3D games mods' to teach induction information to prisoners in an accessible format. Games features include an ability to personalise educational content, locale detection for use in a variety of countries, accessibility features including signing tracks and closed captions and accompanying activities for a blended learning approach. Retrial of these serious games and games mods' with trainers and offenders found that they provided positive measures of engagement and effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Robert Winterhalder

The purpose of this paper is to review the application of a syndromic approach to seizure disorders in intellectual disabilities, in the light of recent advances in…

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267

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the application of a syndromic approach to seizure disorders in intellectual disabilities, in the light of recent advances in research and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Report on classification in 2010.

Design/methodology/approach

The ILAE Report is reviewed with an emphasis on neurodevelopmental seizure disorders, which may present to clinicians working in the field of adult intellectual disability. The advantages of applying a syndromic approach and the difficulties often encountered are also discussed.

Findings

Adopting a syndromic approach to seizure disorders in adults with intellectual disability should lead to rational prescribing, appropriate packages of care, and an improvement in the quality of research in this field.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the importance of identifying epilepsy syndromes in adults with intellectual disability, in the light of recent international reports on classification. It is of value to clinicians (particularly psychiatrists and learning disability nurses) practising in the field of epilepsy and intellectual disability.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Mark Hardiman, Corrina Willmoth and James J. Walsh

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of compassion-focussed therapy (CFT) on anxiety in a small sample of adults with intellectual disability.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of compassion-focussed therapy (CFT) on anxiety in a small sample of adults with intellectual disability.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods design was employed. Participants (n=3) completed questionnaire measures of anxiety and self-compassion on three occasions: pre-intervention, post-intervention and, at three months follow-up. Post-intervention, they also took part in recorded interviews that were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Findings were then synthesised to develop a comprehensive understanding of their overall experience.

Findings

Final data synthesis revealed five themes: participant anxiety decreased (reliable for all participants); the faulty self; improved positive compassionate attitudes; increased sense of common humanity; and mindful distraction techniques.

Research limitations/implications

This research paper offers in-depth analysis of three participants’ experiences rather than reporting in less detail about a larger number of participants. The self-compassion scale required considerable support and reasonable adaptation to be used with these clients.

Originality/value

Only two other studies have explored the use of CFT with people with intellectual disabilities.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Jennifer Kurth, Alison Zagona, Amanda Miller and Michael Wehmeyer

This chapter provides “viewpoints” on the education of learners with extensive and pervasive support needs. That is, students who require the most support to learn, often…

Abstract

This chapter provides “viewpoints” on the education of learners with extensive and pervasive support needs. That is, students who require the most support to learn, often categorized as having intellectual disability, multiple disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, or related disabilities. The lenses through which we provide these viewpoints are historical and future-oriented; we begin with historic perspectives on the education of students with extensive and pervasive support needs, and then provide 21st century viewpoints for these learners. We interpret the notion of viewpoints in two ways: first, consistent with a viewpoint as indicating an examination of objects (in this case, practices and interventions) from a distance so as to be able to compare and judge; and, second, viewpoint as indicating our perspective on said interventions and practice.

Details

Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

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