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Book part

Sheryl A. Larson, K.Charlie Lakin and Lynda L. Anderson

This article describes the use of the National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement (NHIS-D) to estimate the prevalence and general characteristics of persons…

Abstract

This article describes the use of the National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement (NHIS-D) to estimate the prevalence and general characteristics of persons with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities in the non-institutionalized U.S. population. It provides estimates of the populations of non-institutionalized persons with intellectual disability (defined categorically), with developmental disabilities (defined functionally) and with both. It describes how the prevalence of intellectual and/or developmental disabilities varies by age, poverty status and other demographic variables. It describes how intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities are operationally different, and how the people identified in those groups differ substantially both in number and in demographic characteristics. An analysis of poverty status among adults reveals that poverty is significantly more common for women, people who were not white, people with intellectual or developmental disabilities, adults with less than 12 years of education, and people living with a spouse or alone (as compared to people living with relatives such as parents or siblings).

Details

Using Survey Data to Study Disability: Results from the National Health Survey on Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-007-4

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Article

Hannah Kiddle and Dave Dagnan

This paper examines how developmental risk factors associated with depression in typically developing adolescents may interact with the particular life experience of…

Abstract

This paper examines how developmental risk factors associated with depression in typically developing adolescents may interact with the particular life experience of adolescents with intellectual disabilities and influence vulnerability to depression. We suggest that a consideration of developmental factors and their interaction with the person's social environment may offer a possible framework for prevention and early intervention with adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article

Hagai Katz and Uzi Sasson

Many social services today are provided through solutions that require interaction between nonprofits and business. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of…

Abstract

Purpose

Many social services today are provided through solutions that require interaction between nonprofits and business. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the relationship between the different players in such mixed markets. One such market is workforce integration programs for persons with disabilities. The authors studied the relationships and interactions between collaborating nonprofits and business firms within the context of actor–network theory (ANT) by examining the process of workforce integration.

Design/methodology/approach

The study included in-depth interviews and questionnaires with 47 managers of employers that were hiring persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as in-depth interviews with ten senior managers in five nonprofit organizations involved in work integration of persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The interview data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis and content analysis.

Findings

The authors found an intricate relationship between employers and nonprofits promoting workforce integration. While it seemed that both players were involved in different and complementary aspects and phases of the integration process, the relationship revealed complicated power relations, interdependencies and imbalanced collaborative patterns, resulting in relatively symmetric relations, known as strategic bridging.

Practical implications

Business compliance with workforce integration depends on continued support by nonprofit services.

Social implications

Findings are essential for promoting workforce integration, and policies need to support the role of nonprofit services.

Originality/value

The study highlights the co-dependence between nonprofits and businesses, contrary to common views that nonprofits are dependent on businesses.

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Emily C. Bouck and Erin Bone

This chapter reviews the intervention research literature – particularly interventions deemed evidence-based – for students with intellectual disability across academic and

Abstract

This chapter reviews the intervention research literature – particularly interventions deemed evidence-based – for students with intellectual disability across academic and life-skills instruction. Although the focus of this chapter is the spectrum of students covered under the term “intellectual disability,” the majority of research on evidence-based interventions for students with intellectual disability focus on students with more moderate and severe intellectual disability, rather than students with mild intellectual disability. The majority of the interventions determined to be evidence-based within the literature for students with intellectual disability – across both academic and life skills – tend to be those that fall within the purview of systematic instruction.

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Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

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Article

Marco O. Bertelli, Kerim Munir, James Harris and Luis Salvador-Carulla

The debate as to whether intellectual disability (ID) should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of World Health…

Abstract

Purpose

The debate as to whether intellectual disability (ID) should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is being finalized. Defining ID as a health condition is central to retaining it in ICD, with significant implications for health policy and access to health services. The purpose of this paper is to include some reflections on the consensus document produced by the first WHO Working Group on the Classification of MR (WHO WG-MR) and on the process that was followed to realize it. The consensus report was the basis for the development of official recommendations sent to the WHO Advisory Group for ICD-11.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed qualitative approach was followed in a series of meetings leading to the final consensus report submitted to the WHO Advisory group. These recommendations combined prior expert knowledge with available evidence; a nominal approach was followed throughout with face-to-face conferences.

Findings

The WG recommended a synonym set (“synset”) ontological approach to the conceptualisation of this health condition underlying a clinical rationale for its diagnosis. It proposed replacing MR with Intellectual Developmental Disorders (IDD) in ICD-11, defined as “a group of developmental conditions characterized by a significant impairment of cognitive functions, which are associated with limitations of learning, adaptive behaviour and skills”. The WG further advised that IDD be included under the parent category of neurodevelopmental disorders, that current distinctions (mild, moderate, severe and profound) be continued as severity qualifiers, and that problem behaviours removed from its core classification structure and instead described as associated features.

Originality/value

Within the ID/IDD synset two different names combine distinct aspects under a single construct that describes its clinical as well as social, educational and policy utilities. The single construct incorporates IDD as a clinical meta-syndrome, and ID as its functioning and disability counterpart. IDD and ID are not synonymous or mirror concepts as they have different scientific, social and policy applications. New diagnostic criteria for IDD should be based on a developmental approach, which accounts for the complex causal factors known to impact the acquisition of specific cognitive abilities and adaptive behaviours. The paper focuses on a new clinical framework for the diagnosis of IDD that also includes and complements the existing social, educational and policy components inherent in ID.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article

Elspeth Bradley, Yona Lunsky, Anna Palucka and Soula Homitidis

The purpose of this paper is to determine: the extent to which an intellectual disability diagnosis meets current diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine: the extent to which an intellectual disability diagnosis meets current diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria; the prevalence of reported autism spectrum disorders (ASD); and the extent to which assessment of developmental issues is central to the diagnosis of psychotic disorder, in patients discharged with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and intellectual disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Of all patients discharged with psychotic disorder during a four‐year period (n=3339), chart reviews were completed on those also diagnosed with intellectual disability or borderline IQ.

Findings

The findings if this paper are threefold: only 39 percent of the 41 individuals discharged with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and intellectual disability met documented DSM criteria for intellectual disability; the prevalence of reported ASD was much lower than expected; and the average number of different discharge diagnoses per individual over time was 4.8. Schizophrenia diagnoses were made early in the diagnostic process and tended to persist even when ASD concerns were documented.

Originality/value

The results support the need to systematically assess the developmental issues of patients with intellectual disability as part of the psychiatric diagnostic formulation. Differential diagnoses of psychotic‐like behaviours seen in people with intellectual disability, and alternative frameworks for understanding these behaviours, which in turn should guide more effective interventions and treatment, are discussed.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article

Elspeth Bradley and Thomas Cheetham

The paper provides a Canadian perspective on the use of psychotropic medication in the management of problem behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities in Canada…

Abstract

The paper provides a Canadian perspective on the use of psychotropic medication in the management of problem behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities in Canada. Psychotropic medication and intellectual disabilities were explored in the context of Canadian health and social services, clinical practices, medical training and factors that have shaped these over the past few decades. Informal physician intellectual disabilities networks and the newly formed Canadian Network of the National Coalition on Dual Diagnosis provided the opportunity to survey the use of psychotropic medication for problem behaviours across the country. Geographic, political, cultural and other influences on the development of health and social services are described, as well as training requirements for physicians. Survey responses were received from all provinces and represented clinicians in mental health multidisciplinary teams, health and social services ministry representatives, agency staff (up to executive director level) and family members of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Psychiatry and family medicine perspectives of the authors from working in Canada and the UK with people with intellectual disabilities presenting with problem behaviours are described. In Canada there are no national, provincial or territorial policies or guidelines on use of psychotropic medication for the management of such behaviours. There are no requirements for physicians prescribing these medications to have training in the care of people with intellectual disabilities. Services for people with intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems in Canada appear to be more crisis‐reactive than those in the UK.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Book part

Michael L. Wehmeyer, Karrie Shogren, Miguel Angel Verdugo, Laura Nota, Salvatore Soresi, Suk-Hyang Lee and Yves Lachapelle

Historically, the condition we now refer to as intellectual disability has been conceptualized using models that were extension of the medical model. Recent advances…

Abstract

Historically, the condition we now refer to as intellectual disability has been conceptualized using models that were extension of the medical model. Recent advances, however, have emphasized person-environment fit models of disability that view disability, intellectual, and other cognitive disabilities, as the lack of fit between a person’s capacities and the demands of the context. This chapter examines these shifts in conceptualization and the ways in which this changes how interventions are designed to provide support to enable people with intellectual disability to live, learn, work, and play in their communities. Such interventions and supports include issues pertaining to Universal Design for Learning, multi-tiered systems of supports, and the primacy of promoting the self-determination of people with disabilities. The importance of efforts to promote social inclusion is also discussed, as well as strategies to promote transition to adulthood. Authors from several countries provide examples of how these new intervention paradigms are being implemented across the world.

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Special Education International Perspectives: Biopsychosocial, Cultural, and Disability Aspects
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-045-2

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Deborah J Anderson

Research on women’s health has increased substantially in the past decade, but this has not been paralleled in the area of developmental disabilities. In developmental

Abstract

Research on women’s health has increased substantially in the past decade, but this has not been paralleled in the area of developmental disabilities. In developmental disabilities research, there has been little attempt to disentangle the impact of age, intellectual disabilities, and other developmental disabilities on women’s health. The 1994–1995 Disability Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey, administered to a representative sample of the U.S. population, was used to describe the aging process in the community for women age 30 and older with mental retardation (MR), developmental disabilities (DD) or both (MR/DD). Definitions of MR and DD consistent with professional and legal standards were developed and adapted to the NHIS-D questions. Approximately 77 million civilian, non-institutionalized women in the United States were age 30 and older at the time of the survey. Among these women an estimated 0.56% have mental retardation or developmental disability. Compared with women in general, women with these disabilities were disproportionately absent in the community, had negative perceptions of their health status, and their health indicators tended to support these perceptions. Most women with these disabilities were independent in activities of daily living (ADL), but instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) posed more of a challenge, and limitations in major activities were common. Limitations in mobility were common among women with DD.

Details

Using Survey Data to Study Disability: Results from the National Health Survey on Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-007-4

Content available

Abstract

Details

Libraries and Reading
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-385-3

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