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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2018

Thomas Belz, Dominik von Hagen and Christian Steffens

Using a meta-regression analysis, we quantitatively review the empirical literature on the relation between effective tax rate (ETR) and firm size. Accounting literature…

Abstract

Using a meta-regression analysis, we quantitatively review the empirical literature on the relation between effective tax rate (ETR) and firm size. Accounting literature offers two competing theories on this relation: The political cost theory, suggesting a positive size-ETR relation, and the political power theory, suggesting a negative size-ETR relation. Using a unique data set of 56 studies that do not show a clear tendency towards either of the two theories, we contribute to the discussion on the size-ETR relation in three ways: First, applying meta-regression analysis on a US meta-data set, we provide evidence supporting the political cost theory. Second, our analysis reveals factors that are possible sources of variation and bias in previous empirical studies; these findings can improve future empirical and analytical models. Third, we extend our analysis to a cross-country meta-data set; this extension enables us to investigate explanations for the two competing theories in more detail. We find that Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, a transparency index and a corruption index explain variation in the size-ETR relation. Independent of the two theories, we also find that tax planning aspects potentially affect the size-ETR relation. To our knowledge, these explanations have not yet been investigated in our research context.

Details

Journal of Accounting Literature, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-4607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Michela Cordazzo and Paola Rossi

Following the mandatory IFRS adoption in 2005, the Continental European accounting systems changed. This study investigates if it influenced the value relevance of…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the mandatory IFRS adoption in 2005, the Continental European accounting systems changed. This study investigates if it influenced the value relevance of intangible assets in Italy.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure the value relevance of intangible assets of non-financial firms listed on Borsa Italiana from 2000 to 2015, this study isolates the impact of several classes of intangible assets on stock prices and then classifies firms according to intangible asset intensity.

Findings

Goodwill, intellectual property and other rights, start-up costs or other intangible assets are significantly correlated with stock prices when Italian accounting standards were applied prior to 2005, whereas research and development expenditures are not associated with stock prices. The mandatory IFRS adoption has exerted positive effects only for goodwill and research and development expenditures, and it is negative for start-up costs. Further, when intangible-intensive firms are considered in the post-IFRS adoption period, declining value relevance exists relative to intellectual property and other rights or research and development expenditures; goodwill and other intangible assets increase in value relevance.

Research limitations/implications

This study is subject to country-specific determinants and firm-specific characteristics. It treats accounting standards as exogenous, and the classification reflects the concentration of intangible assets in an industry. By relying on investors’ assessments of risk, it does not sufficiently explore the risk conveyed by future abnormal earnings and earnings volatility.

Practical implications

This study offers insights for measuring and reporting intangible assets, by specifying that their value relevance depends on their level and aggregation.

Originality/value

This study investigates the value relevance of intangible assets in the post-IFRS period, in reference to intangible-intensive firms. It also divides intangible assets into several classes to specify the value relevance of goodwill.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Li Huang and Matthew Tingchi Liu

This study quantifies the casino-industry-specific intangible assets and brand equity models from a different perspective (relative to Interbrand approach, or EquiTrend…

Abstract

Purpose

This study quantifies the casino-industry-specific intangible assets and brand equity models from a different perspective (relative to Interbrand approach, or EquiTrend approach) to investigate the relationship between advertising expenditure and firms' intangible assets in the casino industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected the casino's data from the financial reports during the period of 2007–2018. The proposed model incorporates a brand structure moderator, and the peculiar characteristics (e.g. ΔS, HHI) of the casino industry based on previous research. We constructed three models for dependent variables using Tobin's Q−1. Model (1, 2, 3) as the primary regressions to firms' intangible assets (and thus serving as tests of hypotheses), as depicted in the diagrams of the firm's brand equity in different scenarios.

Findings

The results suggest that: (1) advertising expenditure has an adverse effect on firms' intangible assets; (2) the coefficients associated with brand structure dummy variables are both positive and significant; and the adverse effect is stronger for firms with house-of-brand's (HOB) and brand of house (BH) structure than for those with mixed branding structure (BH-HOB hybrid); (3) global brands have higher brand equity than local brands, with higher variance over time.

Originality/value

This study gives new evidence of the negative effect of advertising on the casino industry, which primarily reports the adverse effect of advertising in a sinful industry. Meanwhile, the proposed FBBE models can be an efficient tool to monitor a firm's annual brand equity performance with respect to their major competitors in the market.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 34 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Petr Parshakov and Elena Shakina

This study suggests an alternative to confirmatory content analysis (CA) and empirically demonstrates that explorative CA enables new insights into the mechanism of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study suggests an alternative to confirmatory content analysis (CA) and empirically demonstrates that explorative CA enables new insights into the mechanism of intellectual capital (IC) disclosure. In so doing, this research contributes to both methodological and empirical advancements in IC disclosure research.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing the assumptions of positive accounting theory and taking book value of intangible assets as a reference, our research design utilizes well-established text-mining (TM) tools based on a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. We assume that the degree of cohesion between officially disclosed and evaluated intangible assets on balance sheets and those contextually delivered in narrative form may affect how IC is ultimately disclosed in annual reports.

Findings

Our main finding is in line with the results and criticism of previous studies. We show that companies do not extensively disclose IC in their annual reports. However, some narrative forms for IC disclosure are identified and confirmed by several robustness checks.

Research limitations/implications

First, the findings provide internal validity only for large US enterprises. These firms have similar, well-structured reporting requirements. This analysis might be enriched by an examination and a comparison of different institutional contexts, such as emerging countries. Second, following previous studies, annual reports serve as the source of data. Consequently, the findings are relevant only for mandatory and voluntary disclosure of IC, mitigating the relevance of this study for contexts of involuntary disclosure.

Originality/value

This study makes two contributions. First, we add to the empirical literature by offering one more piece of evidence on whether and, if so, the extent to which companies disclose IC in their annual reports. Second, we provide further examination of confirmatory CA by proposing a number of statistically validated codes and tokens that are indicators of IC communication by companies.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Dinesh Jaisinghani

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the nature of profit persistence and to estimate the dynamic relationship between research and development (R&D) intensity

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the nature of profit persistence and to estimate the dynamic relationship between research and development (R&D) intensity and firm profitability in the Indian pharmaceutical industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic panel data model with generalized methods of moments (GMMs) technique has been deployed to estimate the relationship between R&D intensity and performance. Arellano and Bond (1991) estimation methodology has been used to generate the estimates. A sample of 55 publicly listed firms operating in the Indian pharmaceutical industry for the period 2005-2014 has been considered.

Findings

The study finds moderate to heavy profit persistence in the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The study also finds that there exists a positive relationship between R&D intensity and performance for the Indian pharmaceutical Industry. The results hold even after considering two separate measures of profitability – return on assets and return on sales. The results also hint at a possible non-linear relationship between R&D intensity and profitability.

Research limitations/implications

The results highlight positive profit persistence among pharmaceutical firms. The results also highlight the need for a sustained investment in R&D, as its benefits are driven in the long run. Thus, managers should devise proper policies R&D investments. Also, prospective entrants should properly study the existing entry barriers before deciding upon the mode and timing of entry.

Originality/value

The degree of profit persistence and the dynamic nature of relationship between R&D intensity and firm performance in the Indian pharmaceutical sector has not been studied. Thus, this paper fills this gap and also highlights the impact of certain firm- and industry-specific variables on profitability.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Leif Atle Beisland and Kjell Henry Knivsflå

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the mandatory shift from Norwegian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (NGAAP) to International Financial Reporting…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the mandatory shift from Norwegian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (NGAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Norway affected the valuation weights of earnings and book values, with the aim of gaining insights that are relevant for standard setters, investors and other users of accounting information.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors extend the IFRS literature on structural shifts between the pre- and post-adoption periods by comprehensively controlling for factors that vary between the IFRS sample and the domestic Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) sample. Moreover, the tests are designed to reveal the underlying accounting causes of the observed differences in value relevance.

Findings

IFRS are balance sheet-oriented and emphasize measurement at fair value. By contrast, NGAAP are earnings-oriented and focus on historical cost. IFRS also differ from NGAAP by recognizing more intangible assets. Overall, IFRS are thus less conservative than NGAAP. It was found that expanded fair value accounting increases the value relevance of book values and decreases the value relevance of earnings. However, the improved matching of intangible asset expenditures with the future economic benefits of such intangible assets increases the persistence and value relevance of earnings relative to book values.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a test methodology that is designed to identify the effects that specific accounting differences between the IFRS sample and the domestic GAAP sample have on value relevance. Consequently, this paper not only identifies the overall effects on value relevance but also contributes to the literature by identifying specific accounting differences between IFRS and GAAP that cause these overall effects, and thus obtain insights that are valuable for standard setters and other users of accounting information.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2011

Cristiano Antonelli and Alessandra Colombelli

Purpose – This chapter aims at exploring the effects of globalization on technological change by focusing on the determinants of the direction of technological change at…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims at exploring the effects of globalization on technological change by focusing on the determinants of the direction of technological change at the firm level of analysis by following the induced technological change approach implemented by the localized technological change hypothesis.

Methodology/approach – In the empirical analysis, we proxy the direction of technological change by means of the changes in the output elasticity of capital and analyze how it is affected by the changes in factor market costs and firms' attributes for a panel of 1,113 companies listed on UK and the main continental Europe financial markets for the period 1995–2003.

Findings – We find that small firms are more likely to introduce capital-intensive technological changes while large firms will introduce skill-intensive technological changes.

Research limitations/implications – Our model provides a clear analytical framework that interprets the growing skill intensity of the advanced economies as the result of the introduction of new technologies induced by the growing globalization and biased by the characteristics and the types of innovation strategies of the firms.

Originality/value of paper – In so doing, the chapter adds to the existing literature in that it first explores the effects of globalization upon factor markets and, second, it investigates the effects of the direction of technological change within a microeconomic perspective.

Details

Entrepreneurship and Global Competitiveness in Regional Economies: Determinants and Policy Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-395-8

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Gianluca Ginesti, Rosanna Spanò, Luca Ferri and Adele Caldarelli

This study aims to investigate whether the characteristics of the chief financial officer (CFO) have an impact on the intensity of the corporate research and development…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether the characteristics of the chief financial officer (CFO) have an impact on the intensity of the corporate research and development (R&D) investment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on hand-collected data for the CFOs of a sample of the largest European listed companies for the period 2013–2016, this study uses regression analyses to test empirically the association of CFO education, CFO gender and CFO age with R&D investment intensity.

Findings

The presence of female CFOs, CFOs with a Master of Business Administration (MBA) or Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree and older CFOs is positively associated with the intensity of R&D investment.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies on some observable characteristics of CFOs and focuses on large listed companies.

Practical implications

The results of this study may help investors, stakeholders and practitioners to understand better which type of CFO characteristics are more likely to result in higher firm-level R&D investment intensity.

Originality/value

This study offers the first insights into the impact of CFOs, as the most prominent C-suite executives, on the level of corporate investments in R&D activity.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Wan Adibah Wan Ismail, Khairul Anuar Kamarudin and Siti Rahayu Sarman

– The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of reported earnings in the corporate reports of Shariah-compliant companies listed on Bursa Malaysia.

2090

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of reported earnings in the corporate reports of Shariah-compliant companies listed on Bursa Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study hypothesises that companies with Shariah compliance status have higher quality of earnings because of greater demand for and supply of high-quality financial reports. The quality of reported earnings is measured using the cross-sectional Dechow and Dichev (2002) accrual quality model. The study uses a balanced panel data of 3,048 observations from 508 companies during a six-year period of 2003-2008.

Findings

This paper finds robust evidence that Shariah-compliant companies have significantly higher earnings quality compared to other firms. The results provide support for the arguments that Shariah-compliant companies supply a higher quality of reported earnings to attract foreign investment, have greater demand for high-quality financial reporting because of their Shariah status and are subject to greater scrutiny by regulators and institutional investors.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the existing literature on Islamic capital market, business ethics, firms’ governance and financial reporting quality. The study would give a better understanding on issues relating to earnings quality of Shariah-compliant companies and would be especially useful for financial statement users, including investment analysts.

Originality/value

This paper provides evidence on the quality of earnings in Shariah-compliant companies and offers new arguments that explain why such companies possess higher quality of earnings compared to their counterparts.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Mattias Hamberg, Egil Andre Fagerland and Kristoffer Kvamme Nilsen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which founding‐family firms create value. In particular, the paper investigates how agency costs and monitoring…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which founding‐family firms create value. In particular, the paper investigates how agency costs and monitoring capabilities influence the value creation process.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis relies on unique hand‐collected ownership data that has been collected for all Swedish publicly listed firms in the years 2001 to 2010 (2,128 observations). The research design employs level regression specifications and they are tested using pooled cross‐sectional regressions with controls for year and industry fixed effects.

Findings

The paper confirms previous studies that firms with founding family ownership have a higher value (Tobin's Q) and higher performance (RNOA). In contrast to prior studies, the paper finds that firm value and performance is significantly higher when ownership is concentrated the most. The paper also shows that firm value and performance is significantly lower for long‐term non‐founding‐family ownership.

Originality/value

This is one of the largest single‐country analyses of founding family owner effects on value and performance in publicly listed firms. The paper confirms known associations between ownership and performance in a unique institutional setting. The paper extends previous research findings by identifying differences in value and performance between founding family owners and long‐term non‐founding‐family owners.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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