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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Sabika Allehdan, Asma Basha and Reema Tayyem

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. GDM is defined as glucose intolerance of variable severity with onset or first…

Abstract

Purpose

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. GDM is defined as glucose intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The purpose of this paper is to produce information on prevalence, screening and diagnosis, pathophysiology and dietary, medical and lifestyle management of GDM.

Design/methodology/approach

This literature review aimed to document and record the results of the most updated studies published dealing with dietary, medical and lifestyle factors in managing GDM.

Findings

The prevalence of GDM differs worldwide based on population characteristics, race/ethnicity and diagnostic criteria. The pathophysiology of GDM is multifactorial and it is likely that genetic and environmental factors are associated with the occurrence of GDM. Medical nutritional therapy remains the mainstay of GDM management and aerobic and resistance physical activities are helpful adjunctive therapy when euglycemia is not attained by the medical nutritional therapy alone. When diet and exercise fail to achieve glycemic control, pharmacological agents such as insulin therapy and oral hypoglycemic medications are prescribed. Plasma glucose measurement is an essential part of glycemic control during pregnancy, as well as glycemic control can be evaluated using indicators of glycemic control such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin and fructosamine.

Originality/value

This review is a comprehensive review that illustrates the effect of healthy diet, medical therapy and lifestyle change on improving GDM condition.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Pooja R. Singhania and Kasturi Senray

Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon…

Abstract

Purpose

Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon various other factors in food such as the amylose:amylopectin ratio, co‐ingredients, methods of cooking, etc. which also impact its metabolic response. During days of fast, in India, potato and sago are the most commonly used food to provide quick source of energy. The purpose of this paper is to determine the functional and nutritional quality of fasting foods such as potato and sago, having higher amylopectin content, with respect to their relative glycemic and insulin response in normal healthy volunteers.

Design/methodology/approach

The postprandial glycemic response to boiled potato and sago khichdi in relation to equal quantity of bread (reference) was compared using Relative Glycemic Potency (RGP) represented as the Glycemic Bread Equivalent (GBE) of foods. Five clinically healthy subjects were fed 100 g of test foods and standard, and their blood glucose and insulin response was recorded at fasting (0 min) and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min.

Findings

It was found that both potato and sago khichdi produced peak glucose response at 30 min and levels returned to baseline within 60 min. The higher amylopectin content which facilitates faster absorption from the gastro‐intestinal tract and into the cell results in the total area under the curve (AUC) glycemic response to potato and sago khichdi to be significantly lower than that of bread (p < 0.05). The total AUC insulin response to potato (p <0.05) and sago khichdi was also lower than that of bread.

Practical implications

Therefore, starch‐based foods rich in amylopectin lead to quicker absorption of sugar to supply the energy to the energy‐deprived cells common in fasting condition.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the starch present in these fasting foods is typically characterized by a higher amylopectin:amylose ratio.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Pooja R. Singhania and Kasturi Sen Ray

Rice is considered a high glycemic index food. However, the overall glycemic response to whole foods differs based on the presence of co‐components, cooking or processing…

Abstract

Purpose

Rice is considered a high glycemic index food. However, the overall glycemic response to whole foods differs based on the presence of co‐components, cooking or processing technique, starch composition, and amount of food consumed. The purpose of this paper is to observe the relative glycemic impact (RGI) of foods based on postprandial glycemic response to equal quantities of test foods and standard‐bread expressed as glycemic bread equivalent (GBE), using rice and its products.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, five clinically healthy adult volunteers were fed 50 g test foods and bread on different days after an overnight fast. Blood sugar and insulin levels at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after consuming food were recorded and corresponding area under the curve was calculated.

Findings

The GBE was highest for puffed rice at 107 g, whereas same amount of rice kheer and plain boiled rice induced glycemic response equivalent to 19.5 g and 11 g of bread, respectively. RGI of puffed rice was found to be significantly higher than that of rice kheer and boiled rice (p<0.01). Similarly, the total insulinemic effect of puffed rice (71 g) was found to be significantly higher than that of rice (6 g, p<0.01) and rice kheer (19 g, p<0.05).

Practical implications

Despite being prepared from common raw ingredient, all the three test foods produced varied glycemic and insulin responses. This can be attributed to the different processing conditions, change in nutrient composition and total quantity consumed.

Originality/value

The GBE values may constitute a simple and easy‐to‐use tool for consumers to select food in terms of their predicted glycemic and insulin responses, especially in the diabetic or insulin‐resistant group.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Abstract

Purpose

Adipose tissue accumulation by trapping vitamin D and reducing its level may cause serious side effects. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), paraoxonase 1 (PON 1), insulin, free fatty acid (FFA), apolipoprotein-AI (Apo-AI) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) concentration in obese and overweight participants under low-calorie diet (LCD) program.

Design/methodology/approach

Healthy overweight and obese individuals (n = 70) with vitamin D deficiency were randomly assigned into 2 groups to receive either vitamin D supplements (an oral 2,000 IU vitamin D supplement) or placebo for 8 weeks.

Findings

All the participants were given an LCD program during the intervention. Vitamin D supplementation led to a significant increase in the levels of 25(OH)D (vitamin D vs placebo groups: 36.6 ± 9.8 vs 19.9 ± 3.5 ng/mL, p < 0.001), PON 1 levels (vitamin D vs placebo groups: 80 ± 25 vs 58 ± 23.2 ng/mL, p = 0.001), DHEA concentration (vitamin D vs placebo groups: 2.3 ± 0.7 vs 1.5 ± 0.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001) and Apo-AI levels (vitamin D vs placebo groups 3.7 ± 0.5 vs 3 ± 0.5 mg/dL, p < 0.001). Besides, intake of vitamin D supplements led to a significant decrease in FFA (vitamin D vs placebo groups: 3.1 ± 0.75 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 ng/mL, p = 0.001). After adjusting the analyses based on baseline levels, age and baseline body mass index measures, significant changes were observed in the insulin levels (0.03 ± 0.06 vs −1.7 ± 0.6 µIU/ml, p = 0.04). But the authors did not find any significant difference in the concentration of Apo-B between groups (vitamin D vs placebo groups: 71.5 ± 35.5 vs 66.6 ± 28.5 mg/dL, p = 0.05).

Originality/value

Overall vitamin D supplementation for eight weeks among vitamin D-deficient obese and overweight participants had beneficial effects on serum DHEA PON 1 FFA insulin and Apo- AI while it did not affect the Apo-B concentration.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Luis Acedo, Marta Botella, Juan Carlos Cortés, J. Ignacio Hidalgo, Esther Maqueda and Rafael Jacinto Villanueva

The purpose of this paper is to study insulin pump therapy and accurate monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients, which are current research trends in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study insulin pump therapy and accurate monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients, which are current research trends in diabetology. Both problems have a wide margin for improvement and promising applications in the control of parameters and levels involved.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have registered data for the levels of glucose in diabetic patients throughout a day with a temporal resolution of 5 minutes, the amount and time of insulin administered and time of ingestion. The estimated quantity of carbohydrates is also monitored. A mathematical model for Type 1 patients was fitted piecewise to these data and the evolution of the parameters was analyzed.

Findings

They have found that the parameters for the model change abruptly throughout a day for the same patient, but this set of parameters account with precision for the evolution of the glucose levels in the test patients. This fitting technique could be used to personalize treatments for specific patients and predict the glucose-level variations in terms of hours or even shorter periods of time. This way more effective insulin pump therapies could be developed.

Originality/value

The proposed model could allow for the development of improved schedules on insulin pump therapies.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Antoine G. Farhat, Marisa B. Mansour and Remi W. Attieh

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the effect of different dietary approaches on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the effect of different dietary approaches on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Design/methodology/approach

This review represents the history of PCOS, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. It also includes up‐to‐date research articles on different types of diets that have been shown some promising effects in the treatment of PCOS.

Findings

PCOS is nowadays considered the most common endocrine abnormality, with a range of 4‐12 per cent of women affected by the syndrome. It has been proven that diet, in addition to exercise and medication, plays an important role in the treatment of PCOS. The proper dietary approach for women with PCOS should focus on the PCOS symptoms and also improve weight loss, increase fertility, and decrease risks of cardiovascular diseases.

Originality/value

This paper provides accessible and comprehensive information on PCOS (since its discovery in 1935) to researchers, nutritionists, and women with PCOS who are interested in the effect of the diet on PCOS management.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Shonima Venugopal, Uma Iyer and Richa Sanghvi

Glycemic index (GI) is a physiological basis for ranking carbohydrate foods based on the blood glucose responses they produce after ingestion. Emblica officinalis (E

Abstract

Purpose

Glycemic index (GI) is a physiological basis for ranking carbohydrate foods based on the blood glucose responses they produce after ingestion. Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) is a medicinal plant that purportedly has hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic properties. This study aims to determine the glycemic and lipemic responses of freeze-dried E. officinalis powder-incorporated recipes.

Design/methodology/approach

Two sets of four equicarbohydrate (50 g) recipes (vegetable cutlet, handvo, muthiya and methi thepla) were developed, one without E. officinalis powder incorporation (standard) and one with E. officinalis powder incorporation at the 2 g level (test). After overnight fasting, 50 g glucose, standard and test recipes were administered to healthy adult volunteers at different instances (each 3–4 days apart) and blood glucose levels were measured using capillary sampling every 15 min for 2 h. The glycemic response and GI values were then calculated.

Findings

Among the standard recipes, lowest glycemic response was obtained by methi thepla (60.90 ± 15.54) and highest glycemic response by handvo (90.57 ± 33.88). Incorporation of E. officinalis powder brought about a non-significant reduction in the GI of methi thepla (p = 0.94), vegetable cutlet (p = 0.54), muthiya (p = 0.69) and handvo (p = 0.09). Maximum per cent reduction was for handvo, which shifted from the high to medium GI category. The lipemic response was lowest with muthiya, showing a fall in triacylglycerol (TG) levels (3.9%). E. officinalis powder incorporation in muthiya led to a further fall (7.8%) in TG levels.

Originality/value

Incorporation of freeze-dried E. officinalis powder in Indian recipes can bring about a reduction in the postprandial glycemic and lipemic responses.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Reny Marlina, Binar Panunggal and Gemala Anjani

Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus increases inflammation through pancreatic beta-cell destruction. Goat milk (kefir) and vitamin D3 have antioxidant and…

Abstract

Purpose

Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus increases inflammation through pancreatic beta-cell destruction. Goat milk (kefir) and vitamin D3 have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce pancreatic beta cells. Increase in total leukocyte count is one of the inflammatory and complication markers of diabetes. This study aims to analyze the effect of fermented goat milk (kefir) fortified with vitamin D3 on total leukocyte counts in diabetic brown rat (Rattus norvegicus).

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design with pre- and post-test methodology of control and experimental groups was used. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: negative control (K−), positive control (K+), kefir treatment (P1) and kefir fortified with vitamin D3 treatment (P2). The control group consisted of healthy rats; the other groups consisted of rats which were given streptozotocin–nicotinamide injections. Before and after intervention, fasting blood glucose levels and total leukocytes counts were measured. Blood glucose levels were analyzed using the GOD–PAP method and leukocyte counts were analyzed using an automatic hematological analyzer.

Findings

There was a significant decrease in total leukocyte counts in the P2 group (from 26.5 ± 7.7 to 20.4 ± 10.4 [p < 0.05]). However, the decrease in leukocyte count in theP1 group was not significant (from 22.1 ± 9.3 to 16.5 ± 6.2). The decrease in blood glucose levels in theP2 group was −81.4 ± 203.0 but not significant.

Originality/value

Kefir with vitamin D3 fortification can significantly reduce total leukocyte counts in diabetes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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