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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Olle Häggström

This paper aims to contribute to the futurology of a possible artificial intelligence (AI) breakthrough, by reexamining the Omohundro–Bostrom theory for instrumental vs…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the futurology of a possible artificial intelligence (AI) breakthrough, by reexamining the Omohundro–Bostrom theory for instrumental vs final AI goals. Does that theory, along with its predictions for what a superintelligent AI would be motivated to do, hold water?

Design/methodology/approach

The standard tools of systematic reasoning and analytic philosophy are used to probe possible weaknesses of Omohundro–Bostrom theory from four different directions: self-referential contradictions, Tegmark’s physics challenge, moral realism and the messy case of human motivations.

Findings

The two cornerstones of Omohundro–Bostrom theory – the orthogonality thesis and the instrumental convergence thesis – are both open to various criticisms that question their validity and scope. These criticisms are however far from conclusive: while they do suggest that a reasonable amount of caution and epistemic humility is attached to predictions derived from the theory, further work will be needed to clarify its scope and to put it on more rigorous foundations.

Originality/value

The practical value of being able to predict AI goals and motivations under various circumstances cannot be overstated: the future of humanity may depend on it. Currently, the only framework available for making such predictions is Omohundro–Bostrom theory, and the value of the present paper is to demonstrate its tentative nature and the need for further scrutiny.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Laura von Gilsa and Dieter Zapf

This chapter describes the role of service employees’ motives for emotion regulation in interactions with customers. To date, there has been little research and…

Abstract

This chapter describes the role of service employees’ motives for emotion regulation in interactions with customers. To date, there has been little research and theoretical work on motives for emotion regulation in service work. The reason for this may lie in the fact that there is an implicit general assumption that employees regulate their emotions in customer interactions because of display rules given by the organization. We argue that service employees have more motives for emotion regulation than adhering to display rules. We propose that three fundamental motive categories which are relevant for general emotion regulation are also relevant in the service work context. Moreover, we argue that the different motive categories are important antecedents for the further emotion regulation process. We propose that depending on the motive category different emotion regulation strategies are used as well as moderating effects of the motives with an impact on the consequences of emotion regulation such as well-being. The chapter concludes by pointing to practical implications.

Details

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Theo M.M. Verhallen and W. Fred van Raaij

Many psychological models of consumer behaviour use the construct of attitude, whereas in economic models behaviour is determined by costs and benefits under budget…

Abstract

Many psychological models of consumer behaviour use the construct of attitude, whereas in economic models behaviour is determined by costs and benefits under budget constraints. In this article, a behavioural cost‐benefit approach to consumer behaviour is proposed. Behavioural costs include time, physical and psychic costs of initiating, maintaining and changing behaviour. A behavioural model is proposed, in which cost‐benefit trade‐offs of behaviours play a central role. Some marketing applications on the evaluation of products, on the prediction of behavioural intentions and on shopping behaviour are discussed.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 20 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

William E. Shafer, Margaret C.C. Poon and Dean Tjosvold

The aim of this study is to examine the relations among organizational ethical climate, goal interdependence (cooperative vs competitive goals), and organizational and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the relations among organizational ethical climate, goal interdependence (cooperative vs competitive goals), and organizational and professional commitment among auditors in Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a field survey of 293 auditors employed in two offices of an international accounting firm: one in Hong Kong and one in Singapore.

Findings

Structural equation analyses indicate that instrumental ethical climates that focus on the pursuit of self‐interest and firm profitability promote more competitive and less cooperative goals among auditors. Benevolent/cosmopolitan (public interest) climates appear to enhance cooperative goals among employees. Cooperative goals in turn were associated with increased affective and normative organizational and professional commitments. Competitive environments significantly reduced affective and normative organizational commitment as well as affective professional commitment. Compared with their Hong Kong counterparts, Singaporean auditors perceived the ethical climate in their firm to be more positive or supportive of ethical values, and also felt the work environment in the firm was more cooperative and less competitive. In addition, the Singaporean auditors exhibited somewhat higher levels of emotional attachment to both their firm and the public accounting profession.

Originality/value

No prior accounting study has examined the influence of cooperative/competitive goals on work outcomes in a public accounting setting, or the role of ethical climates as potential antecedents of such goals. The results of the current study indicate that the development of cooperative and competitive goals is significantly related to the perceived ethical climate in public accounting firms, and that such goals may have significant effects on employee commitment not only to their organization but also to their profession. The significant differences between auditors in Hong Kong and Singapore have not previously been documented, and raise questions for future research.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Norrel A. London

Establishment of large‐scale education projects in developing nations isoften problematical. After project approval it is sometimes difficultfor initiatives to “get off…

Abstract

Establishment of large‐scale education projects in developing nations is often problematical. After project approval it is sometimes difficult for initiatives to “get off the ground”. Examines one type of difficulty, interorganizational behaviour patterns, which may beset project establishment. The analysis is contextual. It draws on the experiences of Research Country (pseudonym) as this developing nation struggles to initiate its Third Education Project, approved for implementation by the World Bank. The data, gleaned from Government files and project documents, are presented in a scenario; and two major concepts in organizational theory, organizational myths and organizational goals, provide the frame of reference against which the data are analysed. The results reveal that the behaviour of organizations involved can influence the decision‐making process in project establishment, and as a result can slow down the process of project implementation.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Melissa Dawn Dodd

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a meso-level (organizational) social capital theoretical approach to public relations. A theory and conceptualization of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a meso-level (organizational) social capital theoretical approach to public relations. A theory and conceptualization of social capital as a resource- and exchange-based function of public relations is proposed. Here it is argued that public relations professionals serve as the managers of intangible resources on behalf of organizations. These intangibles serve as social capital for organizations and are managed through strategic, goal-directed communication behaviors. Social capital is conceptualized alongside other forms of capital that contribute to organizational advantage. The author proposes a conceptual social capital model of public relations and argues that the strategic management of intangible resources as social capital offers an ontology for public relations.

Design/methodology/approach

The author employed a process of open-system theory building. Extensive research from multi-disciplinary areas of scholarship – namely, sociology, business, and public relations – formed the basis for the conceptualized model and propositions.

Findings

Public relations theory is narrowly defined and does not offer an adequate ontology. This paper extends and refines existing public relations scholarship surrounding social capital to focus on competitive advantages for the organization. This paper uses input from the larger fields of sociology and business, while contextualizing social capital within the public relations scholarship. The result is a resource- and exchange-based social capital model of public relations and propositions for further theory building and empirical analyses.

Practical implications

The public relations discipline often struggles to demonstrate return-on-investment for organizations. The social capital model of public relations offers support for the capital generation and maintenance role of public relations for organizational advantage.

Originality/value

This paper represents one of the first comprehensive attempts at developing a meso-level social capital theory of public relations focused on intangible resource management for the organization.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2020

John Scott

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Guide to Talcott Parsons
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-654-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Tom McConalogue

Goal setting as a process is a little like participative management — most managers believe in it, but few practise it. Though the work of researchers like Locke has shown…

Abstract

Goal setting as a process is a little like participative management — most managers believe in it, but few practise it. Though the work of researchers like Locke has shown fairly conclusively that people who set specific goals achieve more than those who do not, there has not been any significant translation of the findings into practice[1]. More popular works like The One Minute Manager, in attempting to bridge the gap between theory and practice, may have over‐simplified the process of goal setting.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Bart A.G. Bossink

This article presents four basic innovation leadership styles: charismatic, instrumental, strategic and interactive innovation leadership. The leadership styles and their…

Abstract

This article presents four basic innovation leadership styles: charismatic, instrumental, strategic and interactive innovation leadership. The leadership styles and their characteristsics relate to process and product innovations in construction projects. A theoretical framework – which synthesizes these relations – enables explorative research into the effects of leadership on organizational innovativeness. Four case studies, observing the same manager in four comparable projects, explore the effects of each leadership style on a construction project’s innovativeness in ecological terms. On an analytical level the case study explorations indicate that a manager’s consistent performance of a leadership style stimulates the project’s ecological innovativeness when the manager also injects the project with ecological information, knowledge and competence. It also indicates that a manager’s consistent performance of a leadership style, without an injection of information, knowledge and competence in the project, does not stimulate the project’s ecological innovativeness.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1973

RACHEL ELBOIM‐DROR

This paper examines characteristics of three main education sub‐systems: the policy formation system, the management or control system and the implementation system. In…

Abstract

This paper examines characteristics of three main education sub‐systems: the policy formation system, the management or control system and the implementation system. In the policy formation system the main features are: intangibility of some education goals; lack of means‐ends continuum; inconsistency of goals; external dominance; the role of management and of teachers in education policy formation; value judgements; lack of feedback; heuristic processes; and incrementalism. Characteristics of the management system include: internal and external constraints; flat hierarchy; bases of authority; conflicting role demands; lack of colleague control; bureaucratic rules; size of staff; feminization; and management self‐image. Implementation system features are: organization of small symmetric sub‐units; organizational implications of goal conflict; compulsory attendance of clients; cognitive vs. emotive functions; resulting tensions and conflicts; sub‐cultures; clients' vulnerability; differential treatment of clients; obstacles to output measurement; and implication of measurement difficulties. The last section points out some implications of the analysis which seem to indicate similar and increasingly important developments in other public service bureaucracies. These include: diffuse and intangible goals; value sensitivity; high cost and external dominance; client service and client dependence; obstacles to output measurements; professionalization and feminization.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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