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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Qinghua Zhai and Jing Su

This paper aims to evaluate the progress made in understanding the impact of multi-level institutions on entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the progress made in understanding the impact of multi-level institutions on entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on scientific articles published between 1992 and 2017, the authors take a unique focus on both institutional theory applied and research topics of this area. Bibliometric method and systematic literature review method are used.

Findings

The results demonstrate that although institutional theory is well prepared for entrepreneurship context operating at different levels, the major knowledge foundation used predominantly focuses on macro and meso level. When it comes to research topics, entrepreneurship is often simplified as the founding of new venture, and the unique venture founding process has rarely been explored.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to provide a full picture of the multi-level institutions and their consequences on different kinds of entrepreneurial activities. The authors’evaluation of this research area also points out directions for future study.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 10 March 2021

Claudel Mombeuil, Anestis K. Fotiadis and Withz Aimable

While diaspora entrepreneurs remain important sources of capital and innovation, many developing countries are facing serious challenges to tap into these sources because…

Abstract

Purpose

While diaspora entrepreneurs remain important sources of capital and innovation, many developing countries are facing serious challenges to tap into these sources because of their weak institutional settings and the endemic and systemic corruption. To this end, this study explores how institutional reforms and control of corruption can influence diaspora entrepreneurship. This study also seeks to provide perspectives on how diaspora entrepreneurs can influence institutional reforms and market policies.

Design/methodology/approach

To meet these objectives, qualitative and interpretive research approaches were employed.

Findings

Using responses collected from Haitian diaspora entrepreneurs living in the USA, this paper highlights different attributes of institutional reforms and control of corruption that can influence diaspora entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

Based on these insights, this paper argues that Haitian diaspora entrepreneurs need to play a proactive role as policy entrepreneurs by supporting competent and well-intention political leaders to gain office and by joining forces with local actors to advocate for institutional reforms, market reforms and control of corruption in order to be able to exploit market opportunities. In this respect, further perspectives for diaspora entrepreneurship, limitations and consideration for future research are highlighted.

Originality/value

By collecting insights on institutional reform and diaspora entrepreneurship from diaspora entrepreneurs, this paper makes important contribution to the entrepreneurship literature.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Zeynab Aeeni, Mahmoud Motavaseli, Kamal Sakhdari and Mehrzad Saeedikiya

The underlying assumptions of Baumol’s theory of entrepreneurial allocation limits its potential to answer some key questions related to the entrepreneurship allocation…

Abstract

Purpose

The underlying assumptions of Baumol’s theory of entrepreneurial allocation limits its potential to answer some key questions related to the entrepreneurship allocation. Hence, this paper aims to highlight the inherent limits of Baumol’s theory and suggest a new approach for understanding the entrepreneur-institution relationship and their functions.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper with a narrow focus on the literature.

Findings

The paper argues that Baumol’s adherence to neoclassic economics assumptions about entrepreneur and institution, such as entrepreneurs as rational choice taker with predetermined goals or institutions as exogenous, limits the potential of his theoretical framework to explain productive entrepreneurship in weak institutional settings. As such, underlying on Austrian economics assumptions about entrepreneur and his/her agency, this paper proposes a reconceptualization of productive entrepreneurship as an outcome of the interaction between entrepreneur and context.

Practical implications

Going beyond Baumol’s main proposition of one-sided influence of institutions on entrepreneurship allocation, this research highlights the influence of individual factors and entrepreneurial action on choosing entrepreneurial paths by entrepreneurs. So, future policies to stimulate productive entrepreneurship should consider these factors and go beyond Baumol’s mere focus on institutional improvement.

Originality/value

Going beyond one-sided influence of institutions on entrepreneurship allocation, this paper suggests an interaction centric approach which considers the role of actors and institutions as the co-creator of each other in the social process and argues that any effort for explaining the entrepreneurship should consider the co-creative nature of the actors and institutions as well as the endogenous nature of institutions. The proposed approach will help expanding entrepreneurship literature through finding answers to some key under-examined questions in the promising research stream of entrepreneurship allocation.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2019

Talah S. Arabiyat, Metri Mdanat, Mohamed Haffar, Ahmad Ghoneim and Omar Arabiyat

The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of how different aspects of the national institutional environment may influence the extent of innovative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of how different aspects of the national institutional environment may influence the extent of innovative entrepreneurial activities across countries. Several institutional and conductive factors affecting a country’s capacity to support innovative entrepreneurship are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Institutional theory is used to examine the national regulatory, normative, cognitive and conducive aspects that measure a country’s ability to support innovative entrepreneurship. A cross-national institutional profile is constructed to validate an entrepreneurial innovation model. The impacts of country-level national institutions on innovative entrepreneurial activity as measured by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data are assessed through structural equation modeling.

Findings

Knowledge about the influence of specific institutional aspects on innovative entrepreneurship, and hence of institutional structures within and across countries, is enhanced. For new innovative enterprises, conductive and regulatory aspects seem to matter most. All conductive factors have a significant and positive impact on entrepreneurial activity rates.

Research limitations/implications

Results could support policy makers and practitioners in evaluating government policies’ effects on innovative entrepreneurship. Interventions should target both individual attributes and context. Future research could include longitudinal designs to measure the direction of causality.

Practical implications

Aspects such as regulatory institutions, and conductive factors such as information communication technology use and technology adoption, are important for innovation entrepreneurship development.

Originality/value

The literature on institutional theory and innovative entrepreneurship is highly limited. This study complements growing interest in empirical analysis of the effects of national institutions on innovative entrepreneurial activities and substantiates previous empirical work.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Mohsen Mohammadi Khyareh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of corruption in the relationship between entrepreneurship and institutional quality in a sample of 90 countries…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of corruption in the relationship between entrepreneurship and institutional quality in a sample of 90 countries from all around the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which developed a model where Corruption Perception Index as a proxy for corruption mediates the relationship between the variable rule of law as a proxy for institutional quality and opportunity entrepreneurship as a proxy for productive entrepreneurship. Correlation, Baron and Kenny approach (causal steps approach) and PROCESS Macro (normal test theory) developed by Hayes were used to find out the direct and indirect effects of institutional quality between corruption and entrepreneurship.

Findings

The bootstrap mediation results indicated that institutional quality was a significant predictor of corruption and corruption was a significant predictor of entrepreneurship. These findings support the mediation hypothesis. In addition, findings showed that there is a negative relation between corruption and productive entrepreneurship and a positive relation between institutional quality and productive entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

The current study only considered the single proxy for institutional quality, i.e. rule of law; therefore, some other proxies for institutional quality such as government effectiveness and doing business can be used for future studies. Moreover, the proposed model does not control for the country differences like GDP or development stages of countries.

Practical implications

The findings of this study indicate that the total association between institutional quality and entrepreneurship is not only direct but also that rule of law contributes to levels of entrepreneurship through reduced levels of corruption. As a result, countries with higher levels of rule of law tended to experience corruption at lower levels, which in turn contributed to the emergence of increased levels of entrepreneurship. Furthermore, these results may be beneficial for organizations fighting against corruption, because entrepreneurial activity can be add to the group of economical drivers constrained by corruption. It is also beneficial for policy makers who focus on promoting entrepreneurship, since one way to increase entrepreneurial activity is to lower the existing corruption level.

Originality/value

The results indicated that the direct effect of institutional quality on the entrepreneurship remained significant when controlling for corruption, thus suggesting partial mediation. In other words, corruption only mediates part of the effect of institutional quality on entrepreneurship, that is, the intervention (institutional quality) has some residual direct effect even after the mediator (corruption) was introduced into the model.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Ali Raza, Moreno Muffatto and Saadat Saeed

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial cognition and innovative entrepreneurial activity (IEA) across countries using an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial cognition and innovative entrepreneurial activity (IEA) across countries using an institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tests theoretical model using data collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness study and the Index of Economic Freedom (IEF). A multi-level analysis is performed based on set of 1,004,620 observations from 49 countries spanning 13 years (2001–2013).

Findings

The results suggest that in terms of formal regulations; the relationship between entrepreneurial cognitions and IEA becomes stronger when there is an increase in intellectual property right and business freedom regulations in a country. On the other hand, in terms of informal institutions the relationship between entrepreneurial cognitions and IEA becomes stronger when the level of institutional collectivism and uncertainty decreases and performance orientation increases.

Originality/value

The study indicates that entrepreneurship by innovation increases when the individuals possess high level of entrepreneurial cognition under suitable institutional conditions (e.g. intellectual property right, business freedom, institutional collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and performance orientation).

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Manjula S. Salimath and John B. Cullen

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and synthesis of the extant literature in entrepreneurship by utilizing an uncommon and unique lens. The lens focuses…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and synthesis of the extant literature in entrepreneurship by utilizing an uncommon and unique lens. The lens focuses on studies that explore the effects of formal (social institutions) and informal (national culture) institutional factors on entrepreneurship at the national level.

Design/methodology/approach

The design is a narrative literature overview of research published in peer reviewed journals in business and related fields from 1980 to 2009. North's classification of formal and informal institutions provides the structural framework. The overview includes salient published articles that empirically assessed the effect of at least one variable of the institutional context on entrepreneurship. The paper is organized as follows. After setting the context, legitimacy, and validity of contextual research in the entrepreneurship field in general, it reviews relevant research, focusing on the formal and informal institutional factors that affect entrepreneurship.

Findings

The review highlights the complex nature of entrepreneurship. Both formal and informal institutional factors affect entrepreneurship at multiple levels.

Research limitations/implications

The review is important as it synthesizes the results of published research and offers a starting point to understand the effect of macro contextual factors on entrepreneurship. It is also timely, as entrepreneurship plays a significant role in the economic well being of a nation, and many governments are actively seeking to increase entrepreneurial activity.

Practical implications

Policy makers can further entrepreneurship by understanding the role played by the institutional context. Applying appropriate institutional incentives is instrumental in enabling entrepreneurs in a more direct and effective manner.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new synthesis of formal and informal institutional effects on entrepreneurship at the nation‐level. As such, it goes beyond prior culture based reviews, and add to the understanding of macro nation effects of institutions on entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Samuel Gómez‐Haro, Juan Alberto Aragón‐Correa and Eulogio Cordón‐Pozo

The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how different dimensions of the institutional environment of a region may influence the level…

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4327

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how different dimensions of the institutional environment of a region may influence the level of corporate entrepreneurship of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops the relationship between the institutional environment, differentiated in regulatory, cognitive and normative dimensions, and entrepreneurship in existing firms, corporate entrepreneurship, via a questionnaire study covering 150 firms in Spain.

Findings

The relation between institutional environment and corporate entrepreneurship can be distinct. The results show that both the normative and cognitive dimension of the institutional environment influence an organisation's entrepreneurial orientation. They also show that regulatory dimension influences what type of corporate entrepreneurial activity is carried out.

Originality/value

Literature about institutional theory and entrepreneurship has been both descriptive and fragmented. This paper complements the increasing interest in the analysis of the influence of institutional frameworks on corporate entrepreneurship and answers recent calls in the literature to complete previous analyses in an empirical way that supports previous works.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Wesley D. Sine and Robert J. David

How do institutions affect entrepreneurship? Conversely, how do entrepreneurs impact institutions? Institutional theory has long struggled to explain the action and agency…

Abstract

How do institutions affect entrepreneurship? Conversely, how do entrepreneurs impact institutions? Institutional theory has long struggled to explain the action and agency inherent in entrepreneurship (DiMaggio, 1988; Barley & Tolbert, 1997). Contemporary institutionalist research in organization studies began with the question of how the institutional environment shapes the structures and behaviors of existing organizations. This research largely focused on how normative, regulative, and cognitive dimensions of the environment (Scott, 2008) constrain large, mature organizations and the circumstances that increase the adoption of new structures by such organizations (Meyer & Rowan, 1977; DiMaggio & Powell, 1983; Tolbert & Zucker, 1983). A subsequent wave of research in the institutional tradition focused on institutional change within mature organizational fields (see Dacin, Goodstein, & Scott, 2002). Some recent research has studied the actors – “institutional entrepreneurs” – that create new or transform existing institutions (e.g., Greenwood, Suddaby, & Hinings, 2002; Maguire, Hardy, & Lawrence, 2004). Much less attention, however, has been paid within the institutional-theory literature to entrepreneurship: the processes of founding and managing new organizations.

Details

Institutions and Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-240-2

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Georgios Chatzichristos and Nikolaos Nagopoulos

This study aims to illuminate the field conditions under which social entrepreneurship can become institutionalized and transform the existing institutional fields.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to illuminate the field conditions under which social entrepreneurship can become institutionalized and transform the existing institutional fields.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative case study was conducted among three social enterprises, within different regional institutional fields, following a most different systems design: OTELO, in Mühlviertel, ADC MOURA, in Baixo Alentejo and STEVIA HELLAS in Phthiotis.

Findings

The results indicate some of the field conditions under which an institutionalization of social entrepreneurship can thrive, namely, a high civil approval, a highly institutionalized and decentralized institutional field that allows the social enterprise to remain autonomous, as well the anchoring of the venture to a pre-existing counter-hegemonic narrative or/and to an embedded network that drives the dissemination a new institutional logic forward.

Research limitations/implications

The institutionalization of the voluntary collective action that social entrepreneurship embodies has significant limitations. The same is true for innovation, which tends to lose its innovative spirit as it becomes institutionalized. Future research has to explore if institutionalized social entrepreneurship can maintain a voluntary perspective and an innovative drift.

Originality/value

Most studies on institutional entrepreneurship deploy in-depth case studies while multi-case comparative research remains rare. The current comparative study adds significantly to the understanding of institutional entrepreneurship, as it compares different degrees of institutionalization and successful institutional entrepreneurs to non-successful ones.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

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