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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Richa Chaudhary, Madhu Lata and Mantasha Firoz

The purpose of this study is to present an empirical account of the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of workplace incivility (experienced and instigated) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present an empirical account of the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of workplace incivility (experienced and instigated) in the Indian workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consisted of 1,133 employees working in service organizations mainly banks, hotels, academic institutions and information technology firms. The authors tested the proposed model on the same set of respondents in two different studies. The phenomenon of instigated incivility and its determinants were examined in Study 1, while Study 2 looked at experienced incivility and its antecedents. The data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical operations in SPSS 24.

Findings

The results of both studies revealed that employees’ age, gender, educational qualification, position, nature of the organization, type of the organization and duration of working hours significantly predict the onset of workplace incivility. Nevertheless, marital status and tenure failed to predict the manifestation of uncivil behaviors in the organization.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this study was restricted to the Indian service sector with a focus on only two types of workplace incivility (instigated and experienced).

Practical implications

The managers are advised to be mindful of employees’ socio-demographic differences while devising interventions to tackle the issues of uncivil acts at work.

Originality/value

This study is one of the pioneer attempts to explore the impact of socio-demographic factors on employees’ tendency to instigate and experience incivility at work in India. In doing so, the study enriches the scant literature on workplace incivility by establishing the role of individual differences in determining the occurrence of incivility in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Kristoffer Holm, Eva Torkelson and Martin Bäckström

The purpose of this paper is to explore how witnessing workplace incivility from coworkers and supervisors relates to instigating incivility toward others. A further aim…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how witnessing workplace incivility from coworkers and supervisors relates to instigating incivility toward others. A further aim was to investigate if witnessed incivility is indirectly related to instigated incivility via perceived stress and low job satisfaction. An additional aim was to study if control, social support and job embeddedness moderate the relationships between witnessed and instigated incivility.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 978 individuals, sourced from a Swedish trade union, completed an online questionnaire.

Findings

The results showed that witnessed incivility, mainly from coworkers but also from supervisors, was related to instigated incivility. Although witnessed incivility was related to both perceived stress and low job satisfaction, witnessed incivility was not linked to instigated incivility via perceived stress or low job satisfaction. In addition, the results showed that participants who had witnessed coworker incivility and at the same time perceived high levels of control, social support (from coworkers) or job embeddedness on average reported higher levels of instigated incivility. Similarly, participants who had witnessed supervisor incivility and at the same time perceived high levels of control, social support (from coworkers and supervisors) or job embeddedness on average reported higher levels of instigated incivility.

Originality/value

The findings expand the literature on bystander workplace incivility and highlight the importance of including experienced psychosocial work factors in models of incivility.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Dheeraj Sharma, Madhurima Mishra, Shivendra Kumar Pandey and Koustab Ghosh

This study aims to examine the role of leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) perceptions in triggering the instigation of uncivil behavior in the workplace

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) perceptions in triggering the instigation of uncivil behavior in the workplace. This study also explores the intervening role of envy and the buffering role of aggression-preventive supervisor behavior within the proposed relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in two phases separated by an interval of four weeks. The final sample consisted of 224 full-time white-collar employees working in five large pharmaceutical manufacturing organizations in India.

Findings

The findings indicate that employees’ subjective perceptions of being involved in poorer-quality LMX relationships than their workgroup members generate envy, which, in turn, evokes them to instigate uncivil behaviors onto those higher-LMX counterparts. The indirect effect of LMX social comparison on instigated workplace incivility through envy gets attenuated when supervisors engage in aggression-preventive behavior.

Practical implications

To protect organizations from the financial and productivity losses associated with incivility, supervisors are encouraged to exhibit aggression-preventive behavior if they form differentiated exchange relationships with the subordinates in their teams. Supervisors are further advised to avoid the altogether neglect of lower-LMX subordinates as doing so may give rise to negative emotions (envy) and behavior (incivility) among them.

Originality/value

This study expands the limited body of knowledge on the antecedents of uncivil employee behavior in the workplace. Specifically, it unveils that incivility toward coworkers may be stemming from unfavorable LMX social comparisons and ensuing negative emotions such as envy. It also offers insights on reducing uncivil behavior by highlighting that the impact of LMXSC and envy on incivility instigation gets buffered in the presence of aggression-preventive supervisor behavior.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Sevgi Emirza and Engin Bağış Öztürk

Given the harmful effects of workplace incivility and the calls for revealing the antecedents of instigated incivility, this study examines how employee-instigated

Abstract

Purpose

Given the harmful effects of workplace incivility and the calls for revealing the antecedents of instigated incivility, this study examines how employee-instigated incivility unfolds as a result of negative mood contagion from leaders to employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon affective events theory, the authors hypothesized that leader negative mood is contagious and has an indirect relationship with employee-instigated incivility through employee negative mood. For hypothesis testing, data were collected from 243 leader-employee dyads and tested using bootstrapped mediation analysis.

Findings

As hypothesized, leader negative mood was associated with employee-instigated incivility indirectly through employee negative mood. This finding supports that negative mood of the leader is contagious and might unintendedly trigger employee-instigated incivility toward other at work.

Research limitations/implications

Given the cross-sectional design of this study, causal inferences could not be drawn. The direction of relationships between the variables is based on the theoretical assumptions, rather than a test of the causal ordering of the variables.

Originality/value

This study advances the limited literature on the antecedents of employee-instigated incivility by demonstrating the impact of negative mood experienced by leaders on uncivil behaviors of employees.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Shanshan Qian, Vivien K.G. Lim and Yongduan Gao

This study examines why and when qualitative job insecurity (JI) leads to instigated workplace incivility.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines why and when qualitative job insecurity (JI) leads to instigated workplace incivility.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from 227 Chinese full-time employees from multiple organizations at two time points. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Results show that qualitative JI is positively related to instigated workplace incivility through negative emotions; this indirect relationship is weaker among employees with higher self-compassion and stronger among employees with higher rumination.

Originality/value

The authors shift the predominant focus on the predictor of instigated workplace incivility from quantitative JI to qualitative JI. Based on the transactional model of stress and the stressor–emotion model of counterproductive work behavior (CWB), they provide new theoretical insights on why qualitative JI affects workplace incivility and identify new boundary conditions that affect employees' reactions to qualitative JI.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Jennifer M.I. Loh and Natasha Loi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of burnout as a mediator in the relationship between workplace incivility (WI) and instigated WI.

1500

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of burnout as a mediator in the relationship between workplace incivility (WI) and instigated WI.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 303 white collar employees from small- to medium-size industries in Australia was conducted. Self-reported measures were used to obtain data on WI, burnout, and instigated WI. Mediation analyses with bootstrap via PROCESS was used ascertain the proposed relationship.

Findings

Results indicated that WI was positively linked to instigated WI. Importantly, results indicated that burnout fully mediated the relationship between WI and instigated WI.

Research limitations/implications

The correlational and self-report nature of the study exclude inference about causality between variables and may be more prone to bias. However, despite these limitations, pre- and post-cautionary steps were taken to ensure that these biases were kept at bay as much as is possible.

Practical implications

The study highlights that burnout may be an important underlying mechanism responsible for target’s and perpetrator’s uncivil relationships toward each other. Management should be cognizant of possible burnout among employees who experienced WI and to take appropriate training as preventive measures for WI.

Originality/value

This study responded to the call for more empirical investigation of WI. This study also integrated conservation of resources and the spiral of incivility theories to develop a theoretical model which linked WI to instigated WI.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2022

Deborah Gervasi, Guglielmo Faldetta, Lamberto Zollo and Sara Lombardi

Pervasive and rampant workplace incivility effects have called for more studies on antecedents and possible deterrents of the onset of negative organizational behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

Pervasive and rampant workplace incivility effects have called for more studies on antecedents and possible deterrents of the onset of negative organizational behaviors. Based on social exchange theory (SET), this study proposes a framework investigating the underlying mechanisms of team–member exchange (TMX) on instigated incivility.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypothesized model explores the combined effect of interventions on teams and organizational levels. Indeed, the personal norm of negative reciprocity (PNR) and the psychological contract violation (PCV) are hypothesized as mediating variables of such a relationship. The model is empirically tested using covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) on a sample of 330 employees of organizations with a team-based design. PNR and PCV resulted as a full mediating variable of the relationship between TMX and instigated incivility.

Findings

Findings suggest that, by encouraging high-quality TMX, human resource (HR) managers could reduce employees’ willingness to instigate incivility toward colleagues other than team members. However, focusing only on TMX may be insufficient because of the role played by individual attitudes and organizational levers such as PNR and PCV.

Originality/value

The authors enrich current works on incivility by analyzing the role of positive sentiments in minimizing deviant behaviors. Further, the authors investigate negative organizational phenomena through a positive lens and contribute to building a more comprehensive understanding of the factors that might produce uncivil behaviors.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 60 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Gi Ryung Song and Kyoung Seok Kim

Most existing studies treat the relationship between experienced incivility and behavioral responses as linear. However, the current study examines the curvilinear…

Abstract

Purpose

Most existing studies treat the relationship between experienced incivility and behavioral responses as linear. However, the current study examines the curvilinear relationships between experienced incivility and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and instigated incivility using conservation of resources (COR) theory and by referring to related studies that have identified typical positive and negative employee nontask behaviors. Furthermore, this study identifies turnover intention as a moderator of these curvilinear relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

All samples were obtained from respondents working for Korean companies listed on the Korean Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (KOSDAQ); 228 samples were used for the analysis. A quadratic regression function was established to analyze the curved relationships according to hierarchical stages.

Findings

Our analysis determined that a U-shaped curvilinear relationship exists between experienced incivility and OCB, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship exists between experienced and instigated incivility. However, the moderating effect of turnover intention is significant only in the relationship between experienced and instigated incivility.

Originality/value

This study exhibits three points of originality—first, by simultaneously considering two dependent variables as responses to experienced incivility and examining their response patterns; second, by using a curvilinear relationship model to investigate the relationship between experienced incivility and its dependent variables; and finally, by finding a moderator to the curved relationship.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Anselmo Ferreira Vasconcelos

The purpose of this paper is to peruse a strike enacted by the police force (PF) from a southeast state of Brazil and its consequences to the population through the lens…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to peruse a strike enacted by the police force (PF) from a southeast state of Brazil and its consequences to the population through the lens of workplace incivility (WI) theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on a qualitative research design and social constructivism paradigm. In addition, it uses the template analysis, a peculiar form of thematic analysis, which is grounded on the hierarchical coding. Accordingly, it allows the researcher to yield a broad structure (obviously through the task of analyzing textual data, i.e. published texts) as well as providing enough flexibility to comply with the needs of a study.

Findings

Overall, there was a slightly shift between the initial template and the second one. Rather, the initial thematic assumptions were largely confirmed, namely, antecedents, strike strategy, reactions and consequences; yet, findings also showed other theme, i.e. mitigating decisions. The template analysis used here turned to be a consistent path given that it allowed finding a range of categories related to the themes, which substantiated the results. On the other hand, this investigation shows that even society, as a whole, may be seriously affected by WI.

Research limitations/implications

This investigation has some limitations regarding that it is a qualitative endeavor. Therefore, the outcomes cannot be generalized, and it constitutes the chief limitation of this study.

Practical implications

In terms of practical implications, findings suggest that public managers, mayors and governors must pay strong attention to the task of motivating their workforce. Robust human resource policies and fair salary may avoid job dissatisfaction.

Social implications

Data also indicated that incivility may be related to complex dynamics whose negative impacts may go beyond the workplaces.

Originality/value

This study expands the theory of WI by paying attention to a generally neglected group (police officers). In addition, it focuses on an emergent economy, which is at odds with robust problems of finance and public management nature. In doing so, it provides evidence of other consequences of WI. Broadly speaking, citizens and businesses are consumers of public services, including safety. Finally, it suggests that WI may be associated with two instigators simultaneously. In this case, it was intertwined with governor’s weak human resources policies and the civil servants’ irresponsibility.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2022

Maria Tresita Paul Vincent, Nimmi P.M., Geetha Jose, Anjali John and Vijay Kuriakose

This study aims to explore how family incivility is linked to workplace bullying among employees. This study examines the role of psychological safety as an explanatory…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how family incivility is linked to workplace bullying among employees. This study examines the role of psychological safety as an explanatory mechanism linking both. This paper also looks into the moderating roles of optimism between family incivility and psychological safety and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) between psychological safety and workplace bullying.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from the conservation of resources theory and work home resources model, this study developed various hypotheses. The proposed relationships were tested using responses gathered from 260 teaching faculty across the universities in India. This study used Warp-PLS for data analysis.

Findings

The findings suggest that psychological safety mediated the relationship between experienced family incivility and workplace bullying. This study also found support for the mediating role of psychological safety. Further, this study has proved that trait optimism and OBSE are boundary conditions influencing the outcomes of family incivility.

Practical implications

The findings have practical implications for teachers, educational institution leaders and policymakers. This study augments the importance of cultivating optimism and OBSE to combat conflicting situations. Employees who practice optimism on a daily basis are high in psychological safety and when supported with OBSE by the institution, the impact of family incivility and its adverse effects in the workplace is reduced, curbing the instances of workplace bullying.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to establish the role of “organizational resource,” OBSE, as a coping mechanism in tackling the adverse effects of family incivility. From a resource perspective, this study is one of the first to look into the enablers and inhibitors of resource creation in an individual while experiencing family incivility.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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