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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1990

Sushil

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integratedapproach not only to the five basic functional elements of wastemanagement itself (generation, reduction…

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2727

Abstract

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integrated approach not only to the five basic functional elements of waste management itself (generation, reduction, collection, recycling, disposal), but to the problems arising at the interfaces with the management of energy, nature conservation, environmental protection, economic factors like unemployment and productivity, etc. This monograph separately describes present practices and the problems to be solved in each of the functional areas of waste management and at the important interfaces. Strategies for more efficient control are then proposed from a systems perspective. Systematic and objective means of solving problems become possible leading to optimal management and a positive contribution to economic development, not least through resource conservation. India is the particular context within which waste generation and management are discussed. In considering waste disposal techniques, special attention is given to sewage and radioactive wastes.

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Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 90 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Fu-Chiang Yang

The purpose of this study is to address three managerial issues in a retail network under a centralised regime, including resource allocation, expansion and downsizing. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address three managerial issues in a retail network under a centralised regime, including resource allocation, expansion and downsizing. In particular, this study investigates how to optimise resource allocation across retailers and how to decide the optimal size of a retail network for an empirical case, where 27 retailers belong to an automobile parts supplier in Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

The centralised data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach is used to optimise resource allocation among retailers and to seek the possibility of either an expansion and/or downsizing for a retail network.

Findings

The case company knows the best way to (re)allocate its available resources and (re)arrange the outcome goals for its own retailers. The 27 retailers are assigned specific targets for input and output adjustments to become Pareto or technically efficient units. Besides, an experiment is designed to measure how changing the number of retailers affects the group efficiency of the retail network. To keep the current aggregated output level of the retail network, the centralised supplier needs at least 24 retailers. However, the retail network with 37 retailers can achieve maximal group efficiency.

Originality/value

Centralised resource allocation is an inherent feature of most supplier-retailer relationships, where the supplier is usually a central planner with the power to allocate available resources among its own retailers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess retail performance under a centralised regime.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Karen L. Ferguson and Thomas G. Reio

The purpose of this study is to test a model where human resource inputs (e.g. motivation, employee skill) and human resource processes/practices (e.g. training and…

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18025

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test a model where human resource inputs (e.g. motivation, employee skill) and human resource processes/practices (e.g. training and development; profit sharing) are hypothesized to contribute uniquely and positively to organizational outputs, i.e. job performance and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The cross‐sectional study consisted of 350 business professionals (91 percent managers; 9 percent consultants) from a midwestern US professional organization who took a battery of survey measures via the internet.

Findings

After statistically controlling for the background variables (organizational type, size and status), the hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that both the human resource inputs and process/practice variables explained statistically significant variance in each of the nine regression models. The effect size in each model was medium to large.

Originality/value

The findings illustrate the considerable utility of researchers and managers examining the entire human resource system of an organization when searching for productive leverage points to improve organizational outputs like job and firm performance. The results suggest that human resource managers can have a positive influence on firm performance through implementing and supporting organizational policies and procedures that serve to positively motivate workers (e.g. reasonable incentive compensation and rewards, fair grievance procedures, and performance management), and learning and development activities that stimulate optimal task and contextual job performance.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Joseph Deutsch, Audrey Dumas and Jacques Silber

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the determinants of scholastic performance using an efficiency analysis perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the determinants of scholastic performance using an efficiency analysis perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) at the pupil level using the 2009 PISA survey in Azerbaijan. Before applying DEA with multiple outputs, this paper integrates the maximum amount of available information on inputs via the use of correspondence analysis.

Findings

The results show that scholastic efficiency depends positively on the externalities due to the resources of the school and to a peer effect. The analysis of the determinants of these externalities shows how they influence scholastic performance and has some policy implications.

Practical implications

Education policies should promote the resource externality, because its effect is more homogeneous among pupils. The mechanisms generating school externalities should be taken into consideration by educational authorities, when allocating resources to school and should give some guidelines about how to use these resources and how to manage a school in order to promote peer effects externalities.

Originality/value

The authors distinguish various sources of efficiency: that of the pupil and that due to school externalities operating via resources and peer effects. The authors relate the efficiency due to school externalities to individual, family and school characteristics.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Yaw M. Mensah, Kevin C. K. Lam and Robert H. Werner

We present, in this study, a method for comparing the relative effectiveness of different non-profit institutions with similar objectives. In addition, we show how this…

Abstract

We present, in this study, a method for comparing the relative effectiveness of different non-profit institutions with similar objectives. In addition, we show how this measure of relative effectiveness is related theoretically to their relative efficiency. Relative effectiveness is shown to be a product of the efficacy with which potentially utilizable resources can be converted into usable inputs, and the efficiency with which the inputs are converted to outputs or outcomes. Finally, drawing on developments in data envelopment analysis, we illustrate the new methodology using data from 109 institutions of higher education.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Stewart R. Miller and Anthony D. Ross

This study explores the applicability of the resource‐based view at the organizational unit level by investigating why resource utilization, as measured by efficiency…

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3476

Abstract

This study explores the applicability of the resource‐based view at the organizational unit level by investigating why resource utilization, as measured by efficiency, might differ within a firm. Using a downstream petroleum firm as the context for this study, the data envelopment analysis framework is applied to examine resource input congestion of its DCs (i.e. distribution centers). The study also provides a more granular analysis by decomposing distribution efficiency into managerial, scale, and programmatic efficiency, and examines the impact of corporate‐level decision making by including non‐discretionary variables. The analysis identifies opportunities to improve efficiency at the organizational unit level, using alternative views of the operational problem. The approach also provides practicing managers with an objective means to evaluate performance at the level of the organizational unit. Both the efficiency view and the managerial performance view are discussed simultaneously from a strategic view of firm resources.

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International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 23 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2021

Rita Shakouri and Maziar Salahi

This paper aims to apply a new approach for resource sharing and efficiency estimation of subunits in the presence of non-discretionary factors and partial impacts among…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to apply a new approach for resource sharing and efficiency estimation of subunits in the presence of non-discretionary factors and partial impacts among inputs and outputs in the data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

First, inspired by the Imanirad et al.’s model (2013), the authors consider that each decision-making unit (DMU) may consist of several subunits, that each of which can be affected by non-discretionary inputs. After that, the Banker and Morey’s model (1996) is used for modeling non-discretionary factors. For measuring performance of several subunits, which can be considered as DMUs, the aggregate efficiency is suggested. At last, the overall efficiency is computed and compared with each other.

Findings

One of the important features of proposed model is that each output in this model applies discretionary input according to its need; therefore, the result of this study will make it easier for the managers to make better decisions. Also, it indicates that significant predictions of the development of the overall efficiency of DMUs can be based on observing the development level of subunits because of the influence of non-discretionary input. Therefore, the proposed model provides a more reasonable and encompassing measure of performance in participating non-discretionary and discretionary inputs to better efficiency. An application of the proposed model for gaining efficiency of 17 road patrols is provided.

Research limitations/implications

More non-discretionary and discretionary inputs can be taken into consideration for a better analysis. This study provides us with a framework for performance measures along with useful managerial insights. Focusing upon the right scope of operations may help out the management in improving their overall efficiency and performance. In the recent highway maintenance management systems, the environmental differences exist among patrols and other geotechnical services under the climate diverse. Further, in some cases, there might exist more than one non-discretionary factor that can have different effects on the subunits’ performance.

Practical implications

The purpose of this paper was to measure the performance of a set of the roadway maintenance crews and to analyze the impact of non-discretionary inputs on the efficiency of the roadway maintenance. The application of the proposed model, on the one hand, showed that each output in this model uses discretionary input according to its requirement, and on the other hand, the result showed that meaningful predictions of the development of the overall efficiency of DMUs can be based on observing the development level of subunits because of the impact of non-discretionary input.

Originality/value

Providing information on resource sharing by taking into account non-discretionary factors for each subunit can help managers to make better decisions to increase the efficiency.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Subhadip Sarkar

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into distinguish cost leaders from the architects of diversification (Porter, 1985) using a non-central principal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into distinguish cost leaders from the architects of diversification (Porter, 1985) using a non-central principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. The central theme of this paper is based on the assumption that the operational strategy of a competing firm can be understood by observing its resource consumption and technological practice vis-à-vis its rivals present in the market.

Design/methodology/approach

Depending on the previous surveys, two inputs (spending per student and percentage of non-poor income group) and two outputs (average scores attained by students in science group and in language group six private schools, located within the outskirt of Durgapur) were analyzed.

Findings

Out of six schools (A, B, C, D, E and F), A, E and F were found efficient; however, the proposed model identifies that out of them, only E and F remain cost efficient. The efficiency scores, due to cost, are very close to the outputs of other three accepted papers.

Research limitations/implications

The input and output vectors have to be non-negative. In case of a negative input (output) set, separate treatment must be applied on them before the application of non-central PCA. Any decision-making unit (DMU) producing an output of 0 will prohibit the use of the non-central PCA.

Practical implications

It can be applied to problems which may or may not be having the information regarding input price for detecting cost-efficient DMUs as in the case of the Banker’s model. Banker’s model remains inconclusive about the fact, whether a DMU is a mere cost leader or it is reigning in both fields. Present model does not have such limitations. Targets to remain cost efficient can be obtained for any competing DMU. Unlike the Banker’s model, the proposed one ascribes unequal weight to the cost of consumption to each resource. This weight vector is determined from the industrial practice. It remains unique in the sense that it relies on few intermediate input variables to measure the performance of a DMU. These variables are dependent on large number of other independent variables, which reflect the extent of its control on the resources to signify the strategic position of it. Moreover, the proposed model offers an ideal frontier of ultimate performers, which provides a very stringent benchmark based on constant return to scale for incorporating those renowned organizations, which operate in various places in West Bengal. However, it also offers lower limits of performance to the strongly efficient performers by using the goal-oriented data envelopment analysis for analyzing the problem on a local basis. The extended model, in addition, is worthy of carrying out SDEA operations.

Social implications

Under the present scenario, a new model is proposed here to concentrate on the variation present in the market due to specific consumption of resources. All inputs are assumed scarce and desirable for the production of each output (Liu et al., 2010). Thus, a good cost-cutting performance occurs because of an economic use of resources while fulfilling the standards. Unlike Taguchi et al. (1989) and Taguchi (1991), a linear societal loss function, which is solely adhered to the resource consumption, is added here instead of a formal cost function.

Originality/value

The central theme of this paper is as follows: determination of technical efficiency scores for the schools; determination of economic efficiency (with partial information about price); identification of cost leaders and differentiation architects; to prescribe the model of a cost leader so that education can be imparted to a full potential; and to prescribe a non-central PCA and a slack-based optimization model. Superiority in the domain of cost leadership is decided based on the closeness of any DMU from this frontier.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Mohammad Nemati, Reza Farzipoor Saen and Reza Kazemi Matin

The objective of this paper is to propose a new data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for assessing sustainability of suppliers with partial impacts between inputs

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to propose a new data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for assessing sustainability of suppliers with partial impacts between inputs, desirable outputs and undesirable outputs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines partial impacts of inputs on desirable and undesirable outputs and applies weak disposability assumption to propose a novel DEA model to determine the sustainability of suppliers.

Findings

This paper shows the type of resource sharing in DEA models and takes into account sustainable development and sustainability assessment concepts for sustainable supplier selection problem and develops a DEA model for selecting the most sustainable suppliers with partial sharing of resources. To select the most sustainable suppliers, this model helps managers to consider aggregate efficiency, overall efficiency and bundle efficiency. The paper introduces the supplier which is efficient at all levels as the most sustainable supplier.

Originality/value

For the first time, this paper suggests a new DEA model by partial impact between inputs and good outputs/bad outputs for selecting sustainable supplier and deals with the situations in which each supplier has several subunits. The new model calculates aggregate efficiency, overall efficiency and subunit efficiency of supplier. paper introduces the supplier which is efficient in all levels including aggregate efficiency, overall efficiency and subunit efficiency as the best supplier.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 121 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Andrews Agya Yalley and Harjit Singh Sekhon

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate the production process within services from the dominant manufacturing-based production process, with the objective of…

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2720

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate the production process within services from the dominant manufacturing-based production process, with the objective of delineating the production process in services and highlighting its implication for service productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study critically reviewed the extant literature on the production processes in manufacturing and services from a multidisciplinary perspective and proposed a framework for the service production process and its relationship with service productivity.

Findings

The production process for services differs from the dominant manufacturing-based production process and entails an input, transformation process and outcome dimensions. Therefore, any advancement in services, particularly the conceptualisation and measurement of service productivity, is dependent on the application of a service-specific production process.

Research limitations/implications

The understanding and delineation of the production process in services would further scholarly understanding of what is means to be productive in services and the impact on the validity of the conceptualisation and measurement of service productivity and other service-related concepts.

Practical implications

The proposed service-based production process can further managerial understanding of the measurement and management of productivity in services.

Originality/value

This paper delineates the production process in services and highlighted its implication for service productivity. This study, therefore, is a step forward in developing service-specific concepts and measures, particularly service productivity.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 63 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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