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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Petra Tausl Prochazkova and Marta Noskova

This paper aims to investigate the issue of performance measurement of social enterprises with main particular focus on economic performance approach reflecting local…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the issue of performance measurement of social enterprises with main particular focus on economic performance approach reflecting local aspect, since the local aspect plays a significant role in social entrepreneurship concept. Thus, comparison of two instruments that consider local aspects: local multiplier 3 (LM3) and Input-Output analysis is examined. Input-Output analysis is empirically used to calculate social enterprises’ impact on the Czech economy and to confirm the assumption to be more suitable instrument for economic performance measurement of social enterprises in comparison to local multiplier 3 method.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted two-phase approach. At first a qualitative approach was used to compare the two selected instruments (LM3 and Input-Output analysis). Consequently, a quantitative research was applied to determine the impact of social enterprises’ activities on the economies of individual regions. The research was carried out on a sample of social enterprises (143 subjects) in the Czech Republic covering the year 2015. For this approach, Symmetric Input-Output tables and multipliers were calculated and revenue data from each observed social enterprise were used.

Findings

The findings of the research indicate effects of social enterprises’ activities on the economy in individual regions of the Czech Republic. The results clearly show that the impact of social enterprises on the Czech economy is not negligible. Calculated impacts differ in sectors as well as in regions. Besides, of these findings, the assumption that the Input-Output analysis is more appropriate instrument for economic performance measurement of social enterprises, especially in situation of a larger sample of social enterprises in different regions, in comparison to LM3 method, was confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study is the dependence on the Symmetric Input-Output tables, which are usually published by local statistical offices and it takes some time to construct them. A more significant limitation and future research direction relates to the lack of generally accepted measurement framework in the sector of social enterprises and lack of the data, especially quantitative, in the Czech Republic.

Practical implications

The findings of the research represent a significant contribution to the process chain of understanding the role of social enterprises in (local) economy. The lack of proven impact of social enterprises to economy is considered as important limit of this sector development, not only from the perspective of investors and donors but also from the perspective of policymakers and even social enterprises themselves. The Input-Output analysis can be applied for any region of any country and can contribute to reduce scepticism about economic performance of social enterprises, thus to support putting social and environmental goals of social enterprises into practice.

Social implications

This research has been carried out on the so far largest identified sample of social enterprises in the Czech Republic and provides data for discourse among stakeholders about social enterprises’ impact; thus, it enables to understand their impact and make capable to enlarge their support network and development.

Originality/value

This research is a pioneering attempt to provide data about economic impact of social enterprises using Input-Output analysis in the Czech Republic. No previous research identifies such a large sample of Czech social enterprises and collects quantitative data about them, as well as considers Input-Output analysis as an option instead of LM3 method. The effort of this research has been to react on a research gap in studies related to the impact of social enterprises (reflecting local aspect). This paper could be understood as beneficial not only from the perspective of the Czech Republic but also worldwide.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Graham J. Treloar, Peter E.D. Love and Olusegun O. Faniran

Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required to produce a product, and is significant because it occurs immediately and can be equal over the life cycle of a…

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1655

Abstract

Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required to produce a product, and is significant because it occurs immediately and can be equal over the life cycle of a building to the transient requirements for operational energy. Methods for embodied energy analysis include process analysis, inputoutput analysis and hybrid analysis. Proposes to improve the reliability of estimating embodied energy based on inputoutput models by using an algorithm to extract systematically the most important energy paths for the “other construction” sector from an Australian inputoutput model. Demonstrates the application of these energy paths to the embodied energy analysis of an individual commercial building, highlighting improvements in reliability due to the modification of energy paths with process analysis data. Compares materials and elements for the building, and estimates likely ranges of error.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 14 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Yen-Hao Hsieh and Soe-Tsyr Yuan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a service-dominant (S-D) logic-based input-output analysis approach to systematically measure the effects of technology spillover…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a service-dominant (S-D) logic-based input-output analysis approach to systematically measure the effects of technology spillover in the service sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a case to demonstrate the feasibility and contributions of the S-D logic-based input-output analysis approach.

Findings

This study adopted the idea of customer involvement to formulate the S-D logic-based input-output analysis approach. Service providers can apply this systematical approach to find potential opportunities to spread information technology and co-create values with customers.

Originality/value

The S-D logic-based input-output analysis approach has elasticity to dynamically employ different perspectives to evaluate the effects of technology spillovers in order for integrity and precision. The proposed approach is to delineate the possible target values that related to specific services based on the notions of operant resources and customer involvement in a selected service sector. Service providers within the service sector have to offer innovative service activities and manage existing services for customers to participate in.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Hyojin Kim and Byung-Gook Kim

The purpose of this paper is to be limited to provide an overall economic structure linked with a particular hospitality industry by identifying the economic structure of…

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4185

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to be limited to provide an overall economic structure linked with a particular hospitality industry by identifying the economic structure of relations between the two hotel industries and other industries within a particular state in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses of output, labor income and employment multipliers from the inputoutput system were performed using the IMPLAN 3.0 software. The study attempted to compare the hotel/motel industry (industry code 411) and the accommodations industry (industry code 412) with the top ten industries and averages of each set of multipliers to estimate the relative importance and contribution of the two hotel industries to the economy of Texas. After this comparison, the aggregated inputoutput tables and multipliers were prepared to determine the economic inter-relationship between the two combined hotel industries (industry code 411 plus industry code 412) and the non-hotel industries, using the criteria of the NAICS (North American Industry Classification System).

Findings

The three findings of this study are summarized as follows. First, the two hotel industries impacted the state economy due to a high induced effect from output and a considerable direct, indirect and induced effect from labor income and employment, despite their relatively lower multipliers and the economic downturn in the state. Second, the hotel-related industry had a strong inter-dependent relationship with the finance and insurance-related industries. Finally, while the hotel industry generated more labor income and employment than did the other accommodations industry, it is interesting that the other accommodations industry created more output than did the hotel industry.

Research limitations/implications

Other than limitations pertaining to assumptions of input-output model, an input-output analysis alone cannot become the best analytical method for decision-making. The study was a cross-sectional study with 2009 data and did not incorporate a time-series flow of the state economic structure over several decades. A study of the inter-relationship among varied states bordering the state could be worthwhile to identify the flow of inputs and outputs.

Originality/value

Despite a considerable number of research in measuring the economic impacts, this paper was of great significance, in that the economic impact of the hotel industry that has never been performed in a particular state of the USA was analyzed. Additionally, these quantified economic data and results should be helpful to future plans and policies associated with the hotel industry.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1976

A. George Gols

An informal survey conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., about three years ago showed that there were 200 corporations in the United States that, at one time or another…

Abstract

An informal survey conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., about three years ago showed that there were 200 corporations in the United States that, at one time or another, have used inputoutput in some form in their corporate planning work. Of these 200 corporations, all of which have sales in excess of $500 million annually, 60 firms indicated that they used inputoutput regularly and intended to continue to do so. From some other informal questionnaires that ADL circulated among some 50 or so major United States' corporations for whom it had undertaken inputoutput studies, it was found that inputoutput analysis was typically used in connection with forecasting work. A few other types of application have been made that tie directly into corporate planning.

Details

Planning Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

U. Dinesh Kumar, Haritha Saranga, José E. Ramírez‐Márquez and David Nowicki

The evolution of six sigma has morphed from a method or set of techniques to a movement focused on business‐process improvement. Business processes are transformed through…

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3569

Abstract

Purpose

The evolution of six sigma has morphed from a method or set of techniques to a movement focused on business‐process improvement. Business processes are transformed through the successful selection and implementation of competing six sigma projects. However, the efforts to implement a six sigma process improvement initiative alone do not guarantee success. To meet aggressive schedules and tight budget constraints, a successful six sigma project needs to follow the proven define, measure, analyze, improve, and control methodology. Any slip in schedule or cost overrun is likely to offset the potential benefits achieved by implementing six sigma projects. The purpose of this paper is to focus on six sigma projects targeted at improving the overall customer satisfaction called Big Q projects. The aim is to develop a mathematical model to select one or more six sigma projects that result in the maximum benefit to the organization.

Design/methodology/approach

This research provides the identification of important inputs and outputs for six sigma projects that are then analyzed using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to identify projects, which result in maximum benefit. Maximum benefit here provides a Pareto optimal solution based on inputs and outputs directly related to the efficiency of the six sigma projects under study. A sensitivity analysis of efficiency measurement is also carried out to study the impact of variation in projects' inputs and outputs on project performance and to identify the critical inputs and outputs.

Findings

DEA, often used for relative efficiency analysis and productivity analysis, is now successfully constructed for six sigma project selection.

Practical implications

Provides a practical approach to guide the selection of six sigma projects for implementation, especially for companies with limited resources. The sensitivity analysis discussed in the paper helps to understand the uncertainties in project inputs and outputs.

Originality/value

This paper introduces DEA as a tool for six sigma project selection.

Details

The TQM Magazine, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-478X

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2018

Timo Tohmo

The purpose of this study is to examine the total economic impact of tourism at the regional level in Central Finland. This paper aims to clarify the extent to which…

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1059

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the total economic impact of tourism at the regional level in Central Finland. This paper aims to clarify the extent to which tourism contributes to regional output, employment, income and taxes in tourism-related sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a regional inputoutput analysis. The author calculates the effects of tourism on regional output, demand, wages, employment and national and regional taxes in Central Finland.

Findings

The author’s regional inputoutput analysis reveals that tourism has a substantial impact on production in Central Finland (including the direct and indirect effects of consumption by tourists in different sectors). Moreover, the effects of tourism expenditures on employment and residents’ incomes in tourism-related sectors in Central Finland are quite significant.

Research limitations/implications

Many limitations of this study stem from the assumptions of the inputoutput model. Other limitations relate to the analysis of the impacts of tourism on household taxes, savings, consumption and net income. Our study uses average figures, which may overstate the effect of tourist expenditures on taxes because tourism jobs are often low paying.

Practical implications

The study yields results that can be used to frame regional policy. The results may be useful for policymakers in planning for tourist attractions. Furthermore, local authorities may use the results to guide decisions regarding infrastructure investments or improvements to the operating environment of tourism industries.

Originality/value

Many studies analyse the economic impact of events at the regional level using inputoutput analysis. National-level tourism impact studies using the inputoutput technique have also been conducted. Studies focussed on the economic impact of tourism at the regional level typically examine the macroeconomic (income, output and employment) effects of tourism. Consequently, these studies have focussed on estimating output, employment and income multipliers (Mazumder et al., 2012). The author’s contribution is a regional inputoutput analysis of direct and indirect impacts of tourism expenditures on production, demand, wages, income and employment in the whole economy at the regional level (in Central Finland). The author also analyses the impacts of tourism on national and regional taxes. The results of this study could be used by planners and policymakers involved in regional planning and development.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Younghee Noh

This paper seeks to rediscover the most suitable efficiency evaluation variables (input and output variables) for digital libraries and to employ the data envelopment…

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1219

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to rediscover the most suitable efficiency evaluation variables (input and output variables) for digital libraries and to employ the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to measure the resource utilization efficiency of university libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to analyze and evaluate university library efficiency, the paper introduces the DEA‐CCR Model and the DEA‐BCC Model. Based on these research tools, the Technical Efficiency (CCR*BCC) was determined. First, a reference group was created with a 100 percent efficiency rate, then the factors contributing to inefficient DMUs were analyzed, and the difference in the efficiency rate compared according to the different governing bodies of the libraries. Finally, the difference of efficiency according to the introduction and rejection of electronic resources was analyzed. It was possible to measure the technical efficiency, pure‐technical efficiency, and scale efficiency.

Findings

The results showed that the efficiency of university libraries varied significantly according to whether or not electronic resources were included in the evaluation. In addition, the findings confirmed decision making units (DMUs) have a 100 percent efficiency rate and a low efficiency rate as well as proposed benchmarking DMUs for inefficient DMUs and a direction for future improvements.

Originality/value

The paper identifies that there was a significant difference in efficiency, according to the presence of electronic resources in university libraries.

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Abstract

Details

An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Bahriye Ilhan and Hakan Yaman

The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the performance of the construction sector in Turkey and selected European Union (EU) countries using inputoutput (IO…

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1422

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the performance of the construction sector in Turkey and selected European Union (EU) countries using inputoutput (IO) tables for the years 1998 and 2002.

Design/methodology/approach

IO tables are used to analyze and compare the construction sector. First the inputoutput analysis and the construction sector are briefly introduced. Then, the data and methodology are specified. A set of indicators obtained from the data is used for the comparative analysis.

Findings

The construction sector of the selected 13 countries is examined in terms of Gross National Product (GNP) and National Income (NI) shares; direct and total construction backward and forward linkage indicators and direct and total construction inputs from manufacturing and services reflecting the technologies used in construction. The key findings are pointed out in the conclusion.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of data from Turkey relating to recent years and incompatibility of new and old data limit this study's scope to the two years.

Originality/value

The concept of using IO analysis for comparing the construction sector has been around for a considerable period of time. This paper has an importance for comparing the construction sector in Turkey and some selected EU countries, being the first study in that field in Turkey, and is therefore of direct importance for the Turkish construction sector.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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