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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Graham J. Treloar, Peter E.D. Love and Olusegun O. Faniran

Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required to produce a product, and is significant because it occurs immediately and can be equal over the life cycle of a…

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1655

Abstract

Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required to produce a product, and is significant because it occurs immediately and can be equal over the life cycle of a building to the transient requirements for operational energy. Methods for embodied energy analysis include process analysis, input‐output analysis and hybrid analysis. Proposes to improve the reliability of estimating embodied energy based on input‐output models by using an algorithm to extract systematically the most important energy paths for the “other construction” sector from an Australian input‐output model. Demonstrates the application of these energy paths to the embodied energy analysis of an individual commercial building, highlighting improvements in reliability due to the modification of energy paths with process analysis data. Compares materials and elements for the building, and estimates likely ranges of error.

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Logistics Information Management, vol. 14 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Petra Tausl Prochazkova and Marta Noskova

This paper aims to investigate the issue of performance measurement of social enterprises with main particular focus on economic performance approach reflecting local…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the issue of performance measurement of social enterprises with main particular focus on economic performance approach reflecting local aspect, since the local aspect plays a significant role in social entrepreneurship concept. Thus, comparison of two instruments that consider local aspects: local multiplier 3 (LM3) and Input-Output analysis is examined. Input-Output analysis is empirically used to calculate social enterprises’ impact on the Czech economy and to confirm the assumption to be more suitable instrument for economic performance measurement of social enterprises in comparison to local multiplier 3 method.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted two-phase approach. At first a qualitative approach was used to compare the two selected instruments (LM3 and Input-Output analysis). Consequently, a quantitative research was applied to determine the impact of social enterprises’ activities on the economies of individual regions. The research was carried out on a sample of social enterprises (143 subjects) in the Czech Republic covering the year 2015. For this approach, Symmetric Input-Output tables and multipliers were calculated and revenue data from each observed social enterprise were used.

Findings

The findings of the research indicate effects of social enterprises’ activities on the economy in individual regions of the Czech Republic. The results clearly show that the impact of social enterprises on the Czech economy is not negligible. Calculated impacts differ in sectors as well as in regions. Besides, of these findings, the assumption that the Input-Output analysis is more appropriate instrument for economic performance measurement of social enterprises, especially in situation of a larger sample of social enterprises in different regions, in comparison to LM3 method, was confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study is the dependence on the Symmetric Input-Output tables, which are usually published by local statistical offices and it takes some time to construct them. A more significant limitation and future research direction relates to the lack of generally accepted measurement framework in the sector of social enterprises and lack of the data, especially quantitative, in the Czech Republic.

Practical implications

The findings of the research represent a significant contribution to the process chain of understanding the role of social enterprises in (local) economy. The lack of proven impact of social enterprises to economy is considered as important limit of this sector development, not only from the perspective of investors and donors but also from the perspective of policymakers and even social enterprises themselves. The Input-Output analysis can be applied for any region of any country and can contribute to reduce scepticism about economic performance of social enterprises, thus to support putting social and environmental goals of social enterprises into practice.

Social implications

This research has been carried out on the so far largest identified sample of social enterprises in the Czech Republic and provides data for discourse among stakeholders about social enterprises’ impact; thus, it enables to understand their impact and make capable to enlarge their support network and development.

Originality/value

This research is a pioneering attempt to provide data about economic impact of social enterprises using Input-Output analysis in the Czech Republic. No previous research identifies such a large sample of Czech social enterprises and collects quantitative data about them, as well as considers Input-Output analysis as an option instead of LM3 method. The effort of this research has been to react on a research gap in studies related to the impact of social enterprises (reflecting local aspect). This paper could be understood as beneficial not only from the perspective of the Czech Republic but also worldwide.

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Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Hyojin Kim and Byung-Gook Kim

The purpose of this paper is to be limited to provide an overall economic structure linked with a particular hospitality industry by identifying the economic structure of…

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4200

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to be limited to provide an overall economic structure linked with a particular hospitality industry by identifying the economic structure of relations between the two hotel industries and other industries within a particular state in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses of output, labor income and employment multipliers from the input–output system were performed using the IMPLAN 3.0 software. The study attempted to compare the hotel/motel industry (industry code 411) and the accommodations industry (industry code 412) with the top ten industries and averages of each set of multipliers to estimate the relative importance and contribution of the two hotel industries to the economy of Texas. After this comparison, the aggregated input–output tables and multipliers were prepared to determine the economic inter-relationship between the two combined hotel industries (industry code 411 plus industry code 412) and the non-hotel industries, using the criteria of the NAICS (North American Industry Classification System).

Findings

The three findings of this study are summarized as follows. First, the two hotel industries impacted the state economy due to a high induced effect from output and a considerable direct, indirect and induced effect from labor income and employment, despite their relatively lower multipliers and the economic downturn in the state. Second, the hotel-related industry had a strong inter-dependent relationship with the finance and insurance-related industries. Finally, while the hotel industry generated more labor income and employment than did the other accommodations industry, it is interesting that the other accommodations industry created more output than did the hotel industry.

Research limitations/implications

Other than limitations pertaining to assumptions of input-output model, an input-output analysis alone cannot become the best analytical method for decision-making. The study was a cross-sectional study with 2009 data and did not incorporate a time-series flow of the state economic structure over several decades. A study of the inter-relationship among varied states bordering the state could be worthwhile to identify the flow of inputs and outputs.

Originality/value

Despite a considerable number of research in measuring the economic impacts, this paper was of great significance, in that the economic impact of the hotel industry that has never been performed in a particular state of the USA was analyzed. Additionally, these quantified economic data and results should be helpful to future plans and policies associated with the hotel industry.

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Tourism Review, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Yen-Hao Hsieh and Soe-Tsyr Yuan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a service-dominant (S-D) logic-based input-output analysis approach to systematically measure the effects of technology spillover…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a service-dominant (S-D) logic-based input-output analysis approach to systematically measure the effects of technology spillover in the service sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a case to demonstrate the feasibility and contributions of the S-D logic-based input-output analysis approach.

Findings

This study adopted the idea of customer involvement to formulate the S-D logic-based input-output analysis approach. Service providers can apply this systematical approach to find potential opportunities to spread information technology and co-create values with customers.

Originality/value

The S-D logic-based input-output analysis approach has elasticity to dynamically employ different perspectives to evaluate the effects of technology spillovers in order for integrity and precision. The proposed approach is to delineate the possible target values that related to specific services based on the notions of operant resources and customer involvement in a selected service sector. Service providers within the service sector have to offer innovative service activities and manage existing services for customers to participate in.

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Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1976

A. George Gols

An informal survey conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., about three years ago showed that there were 200 corporations in the United States that, at one time or another…

Abstract

An informal survey conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., about three years ago showed that there were 200 corporations in the United States that, at one time or another, have used input‐output in some form in their corporate planning work. Of these 200 corporations, all of which have sales in excess of $500 million annually, 60 firms indicated that they used input‐output regularly and intended to continue to do so. From some other informal questionnaires that ADL circulated among some 50 or so major United States' corporations for whom it had undertaken input‐output studies, it was found that input‐output analysis was typically used in connection with forecasting work. A few other types of application have been made that tie directly into corporate planning.

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Planning Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Abstract

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An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

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Book part
Publication date: 14 June 2002

Alex R. Hoen

Abstract

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An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Troy Matthews and Graham J. Treloar

Energy used in buildings is a major contributor to Australia’s energy consumption and associated environmental impacts. The advent of complex glazing systems such as…

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1117

Abstract

Energy used in buildings is a major contributor to Australia’s energy consumption and associated environmental impacts. The advent of complex glazing systems such as double glazing, particularly in northern America and Europe, has partially closed a weak thermal link in the building envelope. In milder climates, however, building envelope features may not be as effective in life cycle energy terms, i.e. including the embodied energy of their manufacture. A net energy analysis compares the savings in operational energy to the additional requirements for embodied energy, in terms of the energy payback period and energy return on investment. The effectiveness of double glazing is determined for an Australian residential building. A wide range of building operation regimes was simulated. These results support the principle of installing double glazing in residential buildings in Melbourne, Australia, at least in terms of net primary energy savings.

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Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2018

Timo Tohmo

The purpose of this study is to examine the total economic impact of tourism at the regional level in Central Finland. This paper aims to clarify the extent to which…

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1081

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the total economic impact of tourism at the regional level in Central Finland. This paper aims to clarify the extent to which tourism contributes to regional output, employment, income and taxes in tourism-related sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a regional input–output analysis. The author calculates the effects of tourism on regional output, demand, wages, employment and national and regional taxes in Central Finland.

Findings

The author’s regional input–output analysis reveals that tourism has a substantial impact on production in Central Finland (including the direct and indirect effects of consumption by tourists in different sectors). Moreover, the effects of tourism expenditures on employment and residents’ incomes in tourism-related sectors in Central Finland are quite significant.

Research limitations/implications

Many limitations of this study stem from the assumptions of the input–output model. Other limitations relate to the analysis of the impacts of tourism on household taxes, savings, consumption and net income. Our study uses average figures, which may overstate the effect of tourist expenditures on taxes because tourism jobs are often low paying.

Practical implications

The study yields results that can be used to frame regional policy. The results may be useful for policymakers in planning for tourist attractions. Furthermore, local authorities may use the results to guide decisions regarding infrastructure investments or improvements to the operating environment of tourism industries.

Originality/value

Many studies analyse the economic impact of events at the regional level using input–output analysis. National-level tourism impact studies using the input–output technique have also been conducted. Studies focussed on the economic impact of tourism at the regional level typically examine the macroeconomic (income, output and employment) effects of tourism. Consequently, these studies have focussed on estimating output, employment and income multipliers (Mazumder et al., 2012). The author’s contribution is a regional input–output analysis of direct and indirect impacts of tourism expenditures on production, demand, wages, income and employment in the whole economy at the regional level (in Central Finland). The author also analyses the impacts of tourism on national and regional taxes. The results of this study could be used by planners and policymakers involved in regional planning and development.

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Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Graham J. Treloar, Hani Gupta, Peter E.D. Love and Binh Nguyen

Residential building construction activities, whether it is new build, repair or maintenance, consumes a large amount of natural resources. This has a negative impact on…

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5532

Abstract

Residential building construction activities, whether it is new build, repair or maintenance, consumes a large amount of natural resources. This has a negative impact on the environment in the form depleting natural resources, increasing waste production and pollution. Previous research has identified the benefits of preventing or reducing material waste, mainly in terms of the limited available space for waste disposal, and escalating costs associated with landfills, waste management and disposal and their impact on a building company's profitability. There has however been little development internationally of innovative waste management strategies aimed at reducing the resource requirement of the construction process. The authors contend that embodied energy is a useful indicator of resource value. Using data provided by a regional high‐volume residential builder in the State of Victoria, Australia, this paper identifies the various types of waste that are generated from the construction of a typical standard house. It was found that in this particular case, wasted amounts of materials were less than those found previously by others for cases in capital cities (5‐10 per cent), suggesting that waste minimisation strategies are successfully being implemented. Cost and embodied energy savings from using materials with recycled content are potentially more beneficial in terms of embodied energy and resource depletion than waste minimisation strategies.

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Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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