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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2021

Dinuka B. Herath and Davide Secchi

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Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1976

A. George Gols

An informal survey conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., about three years ago showed that there were 200 corporations in the United States that, at one time or another…

Abstract

An informal survey conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., about three years ago showed that there were 200 corporations in the United States that, at one time or another, have used input‐output in some form in their corporate planning work. Of these 200 corporations, all of which have sales in excess of $500 million annually, 60 firms indicated that they used input‐output regularly and intended to continue to do so. From some other informal questionnaires that ADL circulated among some 50 or so major United States' corporations for whom it had undertaken input‐output studies, it was found that input‐output analysis was typically used in connection with forecasting work. A few other types of application have been made that tie directly into corporate planning.

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Planning Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Marketing and Sales
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-881-1

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Economic Complexity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-433-2

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An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2014

Lan Guo, Bernard Wong-On-Wing and Gladie Lui

We examine how input- (vs. output-) based performance evaluation and incentive intensity impact employees’ autonomous motivation, thereby influence their proactive work behaviors.

Abstract

Purpose

We examine how input- (vs. output-) based performance evaluation and incentive intensity impact employees’ autonomous motivation, thereby influence their proactive work behaviors.

Methodology

We collected survey responses from 309 employees of different firms. Multi-group Structural Equation Modeling analyses were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Input-based evaluation had a positive effect on autonomous motivation and proactive work behaviors when task uncertainty was high, but a negative effect when it was low. Autonomous motivation had a positive effect on proactive work behaviors.

Research implications

Our results on the moderating effect of task uncertainty provide insights into inconsistencies in earlier studies. Moreover, applying self-determination theory of motivation to incentive research can provide some insights into why sometimes, incentives can negatively affect performance.

Practical implications

The study of proactive work behaviors is important because despite their necessity in the fast-changing business environment, they are relatively unexplored in the incentive literature. Proactivity is especially important for tasks that are high in uncertainty because the exact tasks to achieve those goals are hard to specify.

Originality/value of paper

We investigate the effect of performance management system on proactive work behaviors, mediated by autonomous motivation and moderated by task uncertainty.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Nadine McCloud and Subal C. Kumbhakar

One of the foremost objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in the European Union (EU) is to increase agricultural productivity through subsidization of…

Abstract

One of the foremost objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in the European Union (EU) is to increase agricultural productivity through subsidization of farmers. However, little empirical research has been done to examine the effect of subsidies on farm performance and, in particular, the channels through which subsidies affect productivity. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model in which input productivity, efficiency change, and technical change depend on subsidies and other factors, including farm location, we analyze empirically how subsidies affect the performance of farms. We use an unbalanced panel from the EU's Farm Accountancy Data Network on Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy farms and partition the data into eight regions. The data set covers the period 1997–2003 and has a total of 6,609 observations. The results suggest that subsidies drive productivity through efficiency and input productivities and the magnitudes of these effects differ across regions. In contrast to existing studies, we find that subsidies have a positive impact on technical efficiency. The contribution of subsidies to output is largest for dairy farms in Denmark and Southern, Central, and Northern Sweden.

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Bayesian Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-308-8

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2015

James Langenfeld, Jonathan T. Tomlin, David A. Weiskopf and Georgi Giozov

To develop a framework for systematically defining the relevant market for intermediate goods that incorporates downstream market conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a framework for systematically defining the relevant market for intermediate goods that incorporates downstream market conditions.

Methodology/approach

We combine the well-established “Hicks-Marshall” conditions of derived demand for inputs with “critical loss/critical elasticity of demand” to yield insights into the definition of antitrust markets for intermediate goods and the competitive effects from a merger.

Findings

We show that examining “Hicks-Marshall” conditions can provide a more rigorous framework for analyzing relevant markets for intermediate goods. We also show that solely examining demand substitution possibilities for direct customers of an input can lead to an incorrect market definition.

Research limitations/implications

Our framework may be difficult to apply in circumstances when several different downstream products use the input being examined and each of those downstream products has a different elasticity of demand.

Practical implications

We illustrate how reasonable ranges for key parameters relating to the ability of firms to substitute to other inputs and to adjust to downstream market conditions will often be sufficient to define antitrust markets for intermediate goods in practice.

Originality/value

Previous antitrust analysis has not systematically analyzed the impact of downstream market conditions in assessing market definition for intermediate goods. The framework we develop will be useful to future researchers attempting to define relevant markets for intermediate goods and evaluating the competitive effects of a merger.

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Economic and Legal Issues in Competition, Intellectual Property, Bankruptcy, and the Cost of Raising Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-562-8

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 31 May 2016

Chunyan Yu

This chapter provides a survey of alternative methodologies for measuring and comparing productivity and efficiency of airlines, and reviews representative empirical…

Abstract

This chapter provides a survey of alternative methodologies for measuring and comparing productivity and efficiency of airlines, and reviews representative empirical studies. The survey shows the apparent shift from index procedures and traditional OLS estimation of production and cost functions to stochastic frontier methods and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods over the past three decades. Most of the airline productivity and efficiency studies over the last decade adopt some variant of DEA methods. Researchers in the 1980s and 1990s were mostly interested in the effects of deregulation and liberalization on airline productivity and efficiency as well as the effects of ownership and governance structure. Since the 2000s, however, studies tend to focus on how business models and management strategies affect the performance of airlines. Environmental efficiency now becomes an important area of airline productivity and efficiency studies, focusing on CO2 emission as a negative or undesirable output. Despite the fact that quality of service is an important aspect of airline business, limited attempts have been made to incorporate quality of service in productivity and efficiency analysis.

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Soraya Hidalgo-Gallego, Valeriano Martínez-San Román and Ramón Núñez-Sánchez

In this chapter, we estimate the allocative efficiency of Spanish airports in the pre-privatization period from 2009 until 2014. The estimation of an input-oriented…

Abstract

In this chapter, we estimate the allocative efficiency of Spanish airports in the pre-privatization period from 2009 until 2014. The estimation of an input-oriented distance system of equations allows us to calculate different allocative efficiency measures using two approaches. The results show that allocative inefficiencies exist for Spanish airports during this period. Moreover, in breaking down allocative efficiency changes by periods coinciding with different government strategies of privatization, we find important differences. In the initial period, when the government encouraged decentralized management of airports and privatization of the largest airports, allocative efficiency improved (from 2009 to 2012). In the second period, however, when the government focused on centralized airport management and privatization of the system as a whole (from 2012 to 2014), inefficiencies slightly increased again.

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The Economics of Airport Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-497-2

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