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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Elaine James, Chris Hatton and Mark Brown

The purpose of this paper is to analyse rates of inpatient admissions for people with learning disabilities in England and to identify factors associated with higher rates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse rates of inpatient admissions for people with learning disabilities in England and to identify factors associated with higher rates of inpatient admission.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary analysis of data submitted as part of the Transforming Care programme in England.

Findings

2,510 people with learning disabilities in England were inpatients on 31st March 2016. Findings indicate that people with learning disabilities are at risk of higher rate of inpatient admission than can be explained by prevalence within the general population; this risk may be associated with areas where there are higher numbers of inpatient settings which provide assessment and treatment for people with learning disabilities.

Research limitations/implications

Variability in the quality of the data submitted by commissioners across the 48 Transforming Care Plan areas mean that greater attention needs to be paid to determining the validity of the common reporting method. This would improve the quality of data and insight from any future analysis.

Practical implications

The study’s findings are consistent with the hypothesis that geographical variations in the risk of people with learning disabilities being admitted to inpatient services are not consistent with variations in prevalence rates for learning disability. The findings support the hypothesis that building alternatives to inpatient units should impact positively on the numbers of learning disabled people who are able to live independent lives.

Originality/value

This is the first study which examines the data which commissioners in England have reported to NHS England on the experience of people with learning disabilities who are admitted as inpatients and to report on the possible factors which result in higher rates of inpatient admission.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Yim Lun Wong, Rinzi Bhutia, Khalodoun Tayar and Ashok Roy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the trend of admissions and inpatient characteristics in a NHS intellectual disability hospital from 1975 to 2013, in particular…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the trend of admissions and inpatient characteristics in a NHS intellectual disability hospital from 1975 to 2013, in particular looking at the effect following the Winterbourne View scandal.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective review of all admissions over a three-year period (January 2011-January 2013) was completed. This information was compared with admissions to the same hospital in three-year period over the last four decades (1975-1977, 1985-1987, 1995-1997, and 2003-2006). Number of admissions, gender, age, source of admission, length of stay, reasons for admission, type of admission, and diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses were included.

Findings

There were 87 admissions (including 29 from out of area) in the study period of 2011-2013. The number of admissions had varied over the years but male admissions were consistently higher than female. A majority of people stayed over six months. For the first time in five decades, there were more formal inpatients than informal ones. The diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder had increased.

Originality/value

This study has examined admission trends over five decades. It has highlighted that the Mental Health Act legislation is being used more frequently and that co-morbid mental disorders, such as ASD are commonly associated with those admitted to hospital. A well planned-out community health care system, as well as adequate social provision are keys to maintain people with intellectual disability in the community. Furthermore, a better understanding of the symptomology of challenging behaviours, and appropriate use of mental health legislation are crucial in providing a high-quality service that has clear treatment goals and values. Some of these issues have contributed to the failure of the recent initiative to reduce the size of the inpatient intellectual disability following Winterbourne View scandal.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 December 2010

Lisa Rippon

Children and young people with an intellectual disability (referred to in this article as young people) have a higher incidence of mental illness and challenging behaviour…

223

Abstract

Children and young people with an intellectual disability (referred to in this article as young people) have a higher incidence of mental illness and challenging behaviour than individuals without cognitive impairment. Inpatient assessment and treatment in a learning disability‐specific provision rather than mainstream inpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) is most beneficial for those young people who experience a more severe intellectual disability or whose presenting complaint is challenging behaviour not associated with a co‐morbid mental illness. Assessment and treatment of this complex group of young people can only be successful if the services which manage them have access to a highly experienced and comprehensive multidisciplinary team. Admission is only worthwhile if recommendations that arise from the assessment can be transferred to the community and those involved in supporting the young person are motivated to work in collaboration with the inpatient team.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Karen Dodd, Vicky Laute and Selven Daniel

This paper aims to describe the development and evaluation of integrated intensive support service (ISS) for adults with learning disabilities who have complex needs and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the development and evaluation of integrated intensive support service (ISS) for adults with learning disabilities who have complex needs and are at risk of admission to an inpatient unit.

Design/methodology/approach

Existing services were remodelled. The service explored external service models and established an integrated ISS comprising intensive community support and intensive support beds.

Findings

Data indicates that the majority of people referred to the service avoid both admission to an inpatient unit and placement breakdown. Most people admitted to the inpatient unit are not known to community services. Length of stay has significantly reduced.

Practical implications

Other services can use the information to remodel how to provide intensive support and avoid admission to an inpatient unit.

Originality/value

It demonstrates how remodelling can drive improvements to reduce placement breakdown and risk of admission.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2018

Francine Washington, Samantha Bull and Ceri Woodrow

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether two regional intellectual disability (ID) assessment and treatment (A&T) units in England were meeting the recommended…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether two regional intellectual disability (ID) assessment and treatment (A&T) units in England were meeting the recommended length of stay stipulated by the Learning Disability Professional Senate, in line with the Transforming Care (TC) agenda. A secondary purpose of the study was to evaluate the reasons for admissions and delayed discharges in order to inform how to reduce these.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective evaluation of 85 admissions across two A&T units was conducted over a three-year period (2013–2016) following publication of the TC agenda.

Findings

There were 85 admissions compared to 71 discharges. Of the 85 admissions, 11 were readmissions. The most common factors thought necessary to prevent admission were early support for care providers or alternative service provision. There were barriers to discharge in over half of admissions; the main reason was a lack of suitable service provision.

Practical implications

The study suggests that providing specific support or training to care providers could prevent (re)admission and ensure shorter admissions. Further research to establish reasons for the reported lack of suitable providers would be beneficial.

Originality/value

This study provides current admission and discharge rates for regional A&T units, as recommended by the TC national guidance. It also provides potential reasons underlying preventable admissions and delayed discharges and therefore indicates what might be necessary to prevent admissions and reduce the length of inpatient stays for people with ID and/or autism.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Charlie Place, Andy Scally, Laura Gow, Amy Wade, Rob Barrowcliff, Iram Nasim and Miriam Nyamuchiwa

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) – often known as “legal highs” – are a varied group of substances that are causing concern due to their possible effects on mental…

Abstract

Purpose

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) – often known as “legal highs” – are a varied group of substances that are causing concern due to their possible effects on mental health. Particular concerns have been raised about synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists often known as “Spice”. The purpose of this paper is to identify the prevalence of NPS use and explore any association with acute psychological disturbance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors reviewed the case notes for 153 admissions to a male acute inpatient ward. Prevalence of reported NPS use and admissions to psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) were recorded.

Findings

In total, 18.9 per cent of individuals admitted to acute inpatient care were reported to have used NPS. NPS users were almost ten times as likely as their non-NPS using peers to require care in PICU. This result was statistically significant (Fisher exact test: p<0.001). Although caution is required given the limitations of this study, the data and clinical experience suggest that synthetic cannabinoids may be the specific type of NPS that is being used by this group.

Practical implications

Mental health professionals can expect to care for people using NPS in acute inpatient environments, and so they need to understand the nature and effects of these substances. It is possible that NPS use may be associated with sustained acute psychological disturbance.

Originality/value

There have been few studies on the prevalence of NPS use in inpatient environments and none of them have published that explore the association with PICU admission. Despite the limitations of this study, it has significant value by identifying an urgent need for comprehensive research in this area.

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2009

Christine Healey, Catherine Mills, Vikki Fahey, Cathy Hyde‐Price, Jinesh Shah and Peter Kinderman

The New Ways of Working (NWW) initiative was launched in 2004 to build a more flexible and skilled mental health workforce. This paper explores the journey through…

Abstract

The New Ways of Working (NWW) initiative was launched in 2004 to build a more flexible and skilled mental health workforce. This paper explores the journey through inpatient care under a new acute care team (ACT) model, piloted in Mersey Care NHS Trust as part of the redesign of services under the NWW. Fourteen service users were interviewed face‐to‐face, using an interview schedule of open‐ended questions administered by service user and carer interviewers. Service user perspectives on the admission process and inpatient care were reported as predominantly negative. Service user perspectives on the discharge process and aftercare were reported as predominantly positive. The need for clear and unambiguous care pathways, adequate information, good communication, and to have continuity of care and positive relationships with staff emerged as key themes.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2016

Hermine L Graham, Emma Jean Griffith, Alex Copello and Max Birchwood

To provide a summary of the principles, theories and basic components of a recently developed brief integrated motivational intervention (BIMI) for working with…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a summary of the principles, theories and basic components of a recently developed brief integrated motivational intervention (BIMI) for working with individuals experience co-ccurring severe mental health and substance use problems in inpatient settings, including the outcomes of a feasiblity randomised controlled trial (RCT). There are greater financial costs and a negative impact on functioning associated with psychiatric admissions for people who experience co-occurring severe mental heath and substance misuse problems. In addition, their engagement in treatment is often problematic.

Design/methodology/approach

The BIMI described was evaluated via a feasibility RCT that assessed whether the opportunity to discuss use of substances whilst on an inpatient ward represented an opportunity to engage inpatients in thinking about their use and the impact it has on their mental health.

Findings

The BIMI is delivered in short burst sessions of 15-30 minutes over a two-week period adopting a simple 3-step approach that can be delivered by routine ward staff. It incorporates an assessment of substance use, mental health and motivation followed by personalised feedback, a focus on increasing awareness of the impact on mental health and development of goals and a change plan. The intervention has been shown to lead to higher levels of engagement in clients exploration of substance use and the impact on mental health. Findings suggest both staff and inpatients found the intervention feasible and acceptable.

Originality/value

Routine ward staff were trained to deliver a brief intervention to inpatients during an acute hospital admission.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 9 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Mark Huthwaite, Jane Elmslie, Susanna Every-Palmer, Eve Grant and Sarah E. Romans

The purpose of this paper is to study weight changes during psychiatric hospitalization, so as to identify “obesogenic” features in a mixed (forensic and rehabilitation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study weight changes during psychiatric hospitalization, so as to identify “obesogenic” features in a mixed (forensic and rehabilitation) inpatient service.

Design/methodology/approach

An observational study of psychiatric inpatients, gathering sociodemographic, clinical, weight, dietary and sleep information and an actigraphic assessment.

Findings

A total of 51 patients, aged 19-68, 40 males, participated at a median of 13 months after their admission. When studied, only 6 percent had a healthy weight, 20 percent were overweight and three quarters (74 percent) were obese. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 35.3 (SD: 8.1). At admission, only three patients (8.3 percent) had healthy BMIs and over the course of their hospital stay, 47 percent gained further weight. A high proportion was physically inactive and half slept more than nine hours a day. Participants received high calorie diets and half (53 percent) smoked cigarettes.

Practical implications

Although antipsychotic medication is known to cause weight gain, this should not be seen in isolation when attempting to explain psychiatric inpatient obesity. An inpatient admission is an opportunity to provide a healthier eating environment, health education and assertively promote less sedentary behavior and healthier sleep habits.

Social implications

Obesity adds to the burden of this already significantly disadvantaged group of patients.

Originality/value

The results confirm earlier research showing that forensic and rehabilitation psychiatric inpatients as a group are obese, gain weight while in hospital and often smoke. The authors add data demonstrating that they are often physically inactive, sleep excessively and consume an unhealthy diet despite the provision of health focused interventions as an integral part of their inpatient program.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Nicola Vick and Cheryl Kipping

Addressing the needs of people with a dual diagnosis is a core component of acute inpatient mental healthcare. In 2006/2007, the Healthcare Commission conducted a national…

Abstract

Addressing the needs of people with a dual diagnosis is a core component of acute inpatient mental healthcare. In 2006/2007, the Healthcare Commission conducted a national review of NHS acute inpatient wards in England. The review included five indicators of particular relevance to working with people with a dual diagnosis. This paper provides an overview of the review process, reports the dual diagnosis findings and considers their implications for improving the care and treatment of people with a dual diagnosis in the inpatient setting.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

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