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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Vesela Veleva and Berkeley W. Cue Jr

The purpose of this paper is to benchmark current adoption of green chemistry (GC) practices by the innovative and generic pharmaceutical companies and examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to benchmark current adoption of green chemistry (GC) practices by the innovative and generic pharmaceutical companies and examine the drivers, barriers and future opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined publicly available data for the top 10 “big pharma” and top ten generic drug manufacturers. Using the IQ Green Chemistry working group framework for effective GC programs, they scored each of the 20 companies in seven key areas.

Findings

The study finds that generic drug companies have not embraced GC at the level of the innovative pharmaceutical companies (average GC score of 2 vs 11 for “big pharma”). Top two barriers for them include: lack of pressure and incentives, and the burdensome regulatory process for making changes in the manufacturing process.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on publicly disclosed information. It is possible that some generic drug manufacturers have begun to work internally on GC but have not disclosed externally yet. Future research should include a survey or interviews of generic drug manufacturers.

Practical implications

The company-level analysis, benchmarking framework and results are of value for researchers and practitioners interested in advancing greater adoption of GC by the pharmaceutical industry.

Originality/value

This study provides the first company-level benchmarking of GC adoption by the largest innovative and generics drug manufacturers. It contributes to the literature on the barriers and drivers for greater adoption of GC.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Nazila Yousefi, Gholamhossein Mehralian, Hamid Reza Rasekh and Hossein Tayeba

Pharmaceutical market value in Iran exceeded to more than US$4bn in 2013, indicating annually over 20 per cent growth. In the past decades, Iranian pharmaceutical industry…

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Abstract

Purpose

Pharmaceutical market value in Iran exceeded to more than US$4bn in 2013, indicating annually over 20 per cent growth. In the past decades, Iranian pharmaceutical industry was supported by government policies, namely, generic substitution, import limitation and local production support; however, the local pharmaceutical manufacturer’s market share in value has been decreased gradually. This study aims to provide historical data on Iran pharmaceutical market to show the importance of new product development to attain greater market share and tries to motivate the pharmaceutical industry located in developing countries to develop more innovative medicines.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market by focusing on new products over a five-year period (2009-2014), and that was augmented by an expert panel to rank subjectively firms’ performance indicators to shed light on the importance of new product development to firms’ performance.

Findings

The expert panel results find out that new product development is one of the most important “result indicators” for Iranian pharmaceutical companies. Historically, in line with the experts’ opinion on the new product development, the Iranian pharmaceutical industry has shown its capability to develop new medicines by developing 3,095 new products (mostly new-to-firm) across about 100 firms. Despite this fact, the share of local manufacturers in new medicines’ market decreased from 52 per cent at the beginning of studied period to 24 per cent at the end, and the gap between the unit value of imported and domestically produced medicines has been significantly increased due to low-innovative medicines locally produced.

Research limitations/implications

This research was challenged with limitations such as lack of reliable published data on new medicines in the Iran pharmaceutical market.

Practical implications

This study highlights the fact that developing more innovative products in the generic pharmaceutical industry such as Iran can grant its market share.

Originality/value

This is an original study that shows the effect of innovative product development on market share through historical data.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Fereshteh Barei

The purpose of this study is to shed light on the importance of innovation and patient centricity to improve the existing pharmaceutical products. In the pharmaceutical…

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218

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to shed light on the importance of innovation and patient centricity to improve the existing pharmaceutical products. In the pharmaceutical industry, defining the “value” or “added value” of medicines is a very complex issue that requires objective information about how they can make people healthier and what “value” means to patients. In light of “value creation” strategy for the existing medicines, many original and generic pharmaceutical companies hope to create new portfolios to enter into new markets, to capture more market share or to strengthen their market position in the existing markets. The fact that “value” and “added value” are not static and change rather rapidly over the time, cannot always facilitate market access for the so-called improved or repurposed/repositioned versions now claiming “added-value” status. The only way “added value” category can promote smarter drug pricing scenarios and access to markets, is focusing on “patient Centricity” while innovating for satisfying their unmet medical needs.

Design/methodology/approach

This article is designed and structured by two methodologies: the first one is based on face to face interviews and the second one is focused on literature review regarding the value added pharmaceuticals.

Findings

There is an increasing confusion regarding “value-added” pharmaceuticals. This term is mainly used to define improved generic versions. This article discusses the “added-value” of this improvement for patients and manufacturers. By launching such products, these companies attempt to become more “innovative and patient-centric”. Furthermore, adopting a patient-centric strategy as a framework for optimizing the modified pharmaceuticals can create value, new pricing models may emerge through this strategy and can promote the “value” of these products by facilitating their access to higher margins.

Research limitations/implications

Limited to an European discussion around the value-added pharmaceuticals.

Practical implications

The facts about value added medicines. The real classifications of these products.

Social implications

For patients and health care systems, it is important to trust to real value in pharmaceutical treatments. If their “added value” is not justified by scientific proofs, if it is not patient centric, then they can occupy the status of the next generation of generic medicines a category between innovative and pure generics.

Originality/value

This is an original topic which was never discussed before.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Micaela Pinho and Eva Dias Costa

Continuous introduction of advanced health technologies coupled with limited resources force governments to adopt rationing measures in all types of health systems. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Continuous introduction of advanced health technologies coupled with limited resources force governments to adopt rationing measures in all types of health systems. The mass media can influence the application of these measures by rising people and patients' expectations and demands for new forms of healing. This article intends to find evidence of this influence by reporting two recent cases which occurred in Portugal involving two innovative drugs, one for the treatment of hepatitis C and another for type I spinal muscular atrophy. The new drugs were not publicly funded despite promising excellent overall health outcomes because of their high cost and exaggerated burden on national health system (NHS).

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research was used to collect information conveyed by the conventional media and social networks.

Findings

After a strong dissemination through conventional and social media of the nonapproved treatments, the drugs swiftly garnered support among the public and triggered remarkable and relentless advocacy efforts. The findings of this paper suggest that society opinions and, by extension, the decision of policy-makers are very susceptible to the influence of the mass media.

Practical implications

New ways of sharing information are changing health research and public health.

Social implications

These stories raise complex tensions and important questions about resource-allocation decisions involving scientific research or innovative medicine. Societal preferences seem very vulnerable to information conveyed by the mass media.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to awaken attention to the influence that Portuguese mass media may exercise on future healthcare rationing decisions.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

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Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Afshin Mehrpouya and Rita Samiolo

Through the example of a “regulatory ranking” – an index produced with the aim to regulate the pharmaceutical market by pushing companies in the direction of providing…

Abstract

Through the example of a “regulatory ranking” – an index produced with the aim to regulate the pharmaceutical market by pushing companies in the direction of providing greater access to medicine in developing countries – this chapter focuses on indexing and ranking as infrastructural processes which inscribe global problem spaces as unfolding actionable territories for market intervention. It foregrounds the “Indexal thinking” which structures and informs regulatory rankings – their aspiration to align the interests of different stakeholders and to entice competition among the ranked companies. The authors detail the infrastructural work through which such ambitions are enacted, detailing processes of infrastructural layering/collage and patchwork through which analysts naturalize/denaturalize various contested categories in the ranking’s territory. They reflect on the consequences of such attempts at reconfiguring global topologies for the problems these governance initiatives seek to address.

Details

Thinking Infrastructures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-558-0

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Larisa Mihoreanu

The twentieth century started writing the history of modern health systems. Their evolvable rate is now higher than ever. The Western Europe was the forefront of setting…

Abstract

The twentieth century started writing the history of modern health systems. Their evolvable rate is now higher than ever. The Western Europe was the forefront of setting up the national health systems (NHS) to protect citizens and let them thrive. Successful models progressively crossed the borders and experiences became universal. Hence, this chapter tackles data to perceive the underwent radical transformations and capture intricate aspects to envision the next and get answers time ahead the patients‘needs. Health organizational structures and human resources management play crucially in improving system’s performances: managerial qualities, medical entities’ functionality, results’ forecasting are essential to build up credibility and aid strategic patterns to evolve.

Changes are welcome to better tailor performances, assure successful implementation, avoid inadequate, distressing reforms. Stable and consistent policies are also called for.

Grounded on fundamental patterns, open to applicatory innovation, countries follow specific arrangements to resound with healthcare robustness if goals are well-thought-of: keeping people healthy and safe, identifying and treating defectiveness or abnormal physiological functions affecting people, operations, circuits, and preserving health budget wisely balanced.

Activities and citizens are touched by any structural changes maneuvered. To confront them, a keen eye should be addressed to those nobody’s areas into synergistic efforts to cope with internal causes, face external forces and improve life through fair profitability on the way of full satisfaction.

Details

The Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives of Management: Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-249-2

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Ruslan T. Saygitov

The aim of this paper is to present results of a foresight study on identifying priorities for health-related research and development (R&D) in Russia for the period until…

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159

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present results of a foresight study on identifying priorities for health-related research and development (R&D) in Russia for the period until 2030.

Design/methodology/approach

Research priorities were identified through consistent integrated expert analysis and evaluation of the subject area, i.e. biomedical research preceding development of medical technologies.

Findings

Key global and national trends in the biomedical R&D sector and related areas (medicine and health) were identified. According to the experts, the following markets have the best prospects for Russia: regenerative medicine, biodegradable and other biocompatible materials, diagnostic systems, implants, surgical equipment, targeted delivery systems and non-invasive visualisation systems. Entering these markets requires providing support to R&D in the following areas: promising drug candidates, molecular diagnostics, molecular profiling and mechanisms of human diseases, cell technologies (therapies), new materials (biomimetics and other), bioelectronic, bioimaging and biosensors and human genome databases.

Practical implications

Regularly updating research priorities is a necessary prerequisite of successful science and technology development of countries, innovative companies and academic institutions. Allocation of (always limited) financial resources on the basis of such priority-setting exercises’ results is evidence of adherence to scientific planning principles. Combined with monitoring and evaluation tools, priority setting for biomedical R&D must become an integral component of Russia’s innovation policy.

Originality/value

This is a first-ever presentation of Russian experience in setting research priorities for the health-related sphere. Global and national contexts for development of biomedical R&D are described; markets and research areas with the biggest potential for Russian companies are identified.

Details

foresight, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Arthur M. Diamond Jr

Since the 1960s, experts have predicted that we are on the verge of curing cancer. The purpose of this paper is to explore the obstacles to progress, and to propose…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the 1960s, experts have predicted that we are on the verge of curing cancer. The purpose of this paper is to explore the obstacles to progress, and to propose policies that will lead more quickly to more success.

Design/methodology/approach

To speed future cures, we need to look at the traits, and methods of those innovative medical entrepreneurs who achieved breakthroughs in the past, and learn what institutions and policies enabled, or blocked, their progress.

Findings

Breakthrough innovators tend to be less-credentialed outsiders who “see what others do not see,” often by nimble and persistent pursuit of serendipitous discoveries or slow hunches. For example, Freireich and DeVita were less-credentialed outsiders. Freireich cured childhood leukemia and DeVita cured Hodgkin’s lymphoma, by pursuing nimble trial-and-error experimentation in their anti-cancer chemotherapy cocktails. Min Chiu Li pursued his slow hunch that his patients would benefit from longer chemotherapy than the mandated National Cancer Institute protocol allowed. He was fired, but his patients were cured. Today, FDA-mandated regulatory protocols, often defended as applications of the precautionary principle, greatly restrict innovative medical entrepreneurs, thereby delaying cancer cures and costing lives.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a new approach to medical innovation, allowing cancer researchers to engage in trial-and-error experiments that follow up on serendipitous discoveries and plausible hunches. The result will be more cures and longer lives.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Mário Franco and Leonor Pais

The purpose of this paper is to deepen and contribute to knowledge of the use of social network sites (SNSs) in organisations, and more precisely, identify the advantages.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deepen and contribute to knowledge of the use of social network sites (SNSs) in organisations, and more precisely, identify the advantages.

Design/methodology/approach

To reach this objective, a cross-section study was adopted based on application of a questionnaire, the final sample consisting of 78 dental medicine organisations in Portugal.

Findings

The results obtained lead to the conclusion that a great number of the organisations studied are connected to SNSs, particularly Facebook. The advantages associated with marketing tools and breaking down barriers between the organisation and the world are those highlighted most in this study.

Practical implications

According to the empirical evidence obtained, organisations are found to use these sites for other purposes, such as communicating with clients/patients and receiving feedback on the service provided to increase satisfaction and improve the quality of services.

Originality/value

The study contributes to advancing theory in the field of internet research strategic. More precisely, this study is associated with the creation of a theoretical framework that shows the advantages of using SNSs in an innovative context: dental medicine organisations. A categorisation of these advantages and some implications for theory and practice are also some contributions of this study.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2018

Ayman Chit and Paul Grootendorst

Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat even in countries exercising aggressive antimicrobial stewardship. A market failure is also causing lackluster…

Abstract

Purpose

Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat even in countries exercising aggressive antimicrobial stewardship. A market failure is also causing lackluster innovation in antimicrobial medicines development. At the heart of the issue are antimicrobial stewardship guidelines that, rightfully, reserve innovative antimicrobials for emergency situations that arise due to multidrug-resistant organisms. This suppresses revenues and research and development (R&D) investment incentives of manufacturers. The public policy makers and researchers have taken aim at the problem. The researchers have published strategies to encourage the production of innovative antimicrobials, while policy makers have taken legislative steps to address the issue. Most notably, the USA enacted the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) act in 2012 and the EU created a commission to formally study possible policy solutions. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors describe incentives that drive pharmaceutical R&D and review the impact of a number of R&D stimulus policies in other pharmaceutical markets. The authors also discuss which policy levers are useful to boost R&D of new antimicrobials.

Findings

The authors find that a policy focused on extending intellectual property rights, as implemented in the GAIN act, are unlikely to be impactful. Instead, the authors see a need for the revision of the procurement policy to move away from paying per prescription and toward licenses and advanced market commitment models. Further, the authors note that the importance of steadfast public investment in basic biomedical research as it has been repeatedly shown to boost innovation.

Originality/value

The authors hope that the work can support the refinement of the GAIN act and the EU efforts.

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