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Introduction – Stability of commercial banks is on the back stone of a country’s economy and its development, making bank stability one of the main concerns of financial…
Introduction – Stability of commercial banks is on the back stone of a country’s economy and its development, making bank stability one of the main concerns of financial regulators. The bank stability models for large and small economies differ significantly.
Purpose – In this chapter we examine the determinants of bank stability in a small post-transition economy, based on the case of Latvia. Latvia has a well-organized banking system, providing a wide range of services to local and international customers. Besides, the Latvian banking sector is quite unique in Europe as it comprises two sets of banks with radically different target groups of customers and sources of revenue.
Methodology – To carry out this study we analysed panel data of the quarterly financial statements of Latvian banks operating during the period 2012-2017.
Findings – We found evidence of a negative significant relationship between size and bank stability, negative significant impact of liquidity risk on bank stability, a positive significant relationship between capital adequacy and bank stability, as well as a positive significant relationship between credit risk and stability. These results increase the importance of a sufficient level of capital adequacy ratio and liquidity to maintain bank stability. In general, the results of the study confirm the results of other studies on bank stability of small economies, with some exceptions due to the unique situation in term bank business models applied by Latvian banks. The current study provides valuable policy implications to small post-transition economies and stakeholders in general.
Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on…
Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on limited perception rather than the full value and meaning of what risk is, as a result, the way it is being tackled is incorrect. The individuals are often limited in their perceptions and ideas and do not embrace the full multifaceted nature of risk. Regulators and individuals want to follow norms and checklists or overuse models, simulations, and templates, thereby reducing responsibility for decision-making. At the same time, the wider use of technology and rules reduces the critical thinking of individuals. We advance the automation process by building robots that follow protocols and forget about the part of risk assessment that cannot be programed. Therefore, with this study, the objective of this study was to discover how people define risk, the influencing factors of risk perception and how they behave toward this perception. The authors also determine how the perception differed with age, gender, marital status, education level and region. The novelty of the research is related to individual risk perception during COVID-19, as this is a new and unknown phenomenon. Methodology: The research is based on the analysis of the self-administered purposely designed questionnaires we distributed across different social media platforms between February and June 2020 in Europe and in some cases was carried out as a interview over communication platforms such as “Skype,” “Zoom” and “Microsoft Teams.” The questionnaire was divided into four parts: Section 1 was designed to collect demographic information from the participants; Section 2 included risk definition statements obtained from literature and a preliminary discussion with peers; Section 3 included risk behavior statements; and Section 4 included statements on risk perception experiences. A five-point Likert Scale was provided, and participants were required to answer along a scale of “1” for “Strongly Agree” to “5” for “Strongly Disagree.” Participants also had the option to elaborate further and provide additional comments in an open-ended box provided at the end of the section. 466 valid responses were received. Thematic analysis was carried out to analyze the interviews and the open-ended questions, while the questionnaire responses were analyzed using various quantitative methods on IBM SPSS (version 23). Findings: The results of the analysis indicate that individuals evaluate the risk before making a decision and view risk as both a loss and opportunity. The study identifies nine factors influencing risk perception. Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that we can continue to develop models and rules, but as long as the risk is not understood, we will never achieve anything.
Global economy, growing importance of innovations as well as wide use of technologies have changed the banking business worldwide. Financial technologies (FinTech) have…
Global economy, growing importance of innovations as well as wide use of technologies have changed the banking business worldwide. Financial technologies (FinTech) have become an integral part of banking, and nowadays banks have started to compete beyond financial services facing increasing competition from nonfinancial institutions providing, for example, payment services. Start-up service providers, search engines, and social networks have expanded their services “interfering” in the fields traditionally covered by banks. The rapid rise of FinTech has changed the business landscape in banking asking for more innovative solutions. These recent tendencies require the banks to increase investment in FinTech, rethink service distribution channels, especially the business-to-consumers models, increase further standardization of back-office functions, etc. Some members of the financial services industry see the boom in FinTech as a threat to traditional banking industry. Others believe that FinTech has become a challenge that can be turned into an opportunity as it provides more flexibility, better functionality in some areas, and aggregation of services. The aim of the paper is to analyze the recent trends in banking, identifying opportunities and risks of FinTech for banks. A timely integration of FinTech into business allows banks to get an advantage in growing competition. This paper provides an extensive analysis of recent trends in FinTech and banking, examining experience of leading European and US banks, as well as surveys conducted among members of the financial services industry in different countries. The authors have studied the development of the financial innovation and technology market, assessed the existing practices applied in the field of FinTech, identified the main risks related to development of FinTech and financial innovations the banks are exposed to on the micro- and macrolevel. The paper provides recommendations for regulators and banks to ensure reduction of risks associated with development of FinTech. Analysis of FinTech market has shown growing competition, including from nonfinancial institutions. The paper provides practical recommendations to commercial banks for strengthening the position in financial innovations and controlling the risks associated with introduction of financial innovations.
Derivatives are nowadays widely used globally both for speculative and hedging purposes. However, as experience shows, inadequate use of derivatives may cause severe…
Derivatives are nowadays widely used globally both for speculative and hedging purposes. However, as experience shows, inadequate use of derivatives may cause severe problems and even bankruptcy of firms. Thus, it is essential to help organizations design a robust proactive governance and internal control structure, which will help to prevent new financial debacles and scandals when using derivatives. Taking into account the frequent use and the growing fraud caused by derivatives, the aim of the paper is to identify considerations for internal control important to ensure better governance of firms using derivatives. The main findings are based on an analysis of interviews that were conducted with experts directly or indirectly involved with derivatives from different European countries. The interviews were semistructured following the approach proposed by Patton (1990). An analysis of the data collected from the interviews was carried out using a thematic approach. The paper identifies and analyzes the main “sources” of derivatives misuse, including poor design and mis-categorization of instruments, convenience to blame derivatives, unsophisticated players, insufficient regulatory environment, poorly designed internal controls, inadequate communication, poor firm culture, etc. It also provides an extensive analysis of the main recommendation for internal control concerning awareness of derivatives design, the human aspects, regulations, communication, knowledge, and training. Sound internal controls could avoid new debacles without adding other restrictions to the market. Moreover, it provides recommendations for internal control important to ensure better governance of firms using derivatives.