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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Dongwon Choi, Minyoung Cheong and Jihye Lee

While the Ohio State leadership approach had been forgotten for several decades, scholars in the field of leadership have begun revisiting the validity and the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

While the Ohio State leadership approach had been forgotten for several decades, scholars in the field of leadership have begun revisiting the validity and the role of leader consideration and initiating structure. Building on self-expansion theory, this study suggest the effects of leader consideration and initiating structure on employee task performance. Also, integrating self-expansion theory and regulatory fit theory, the purpose of this paper is to propose and examine the moderating role of employee regulatory focus on the relationship between the Ohio State leadership behaviors and employee task performance, which was mediated by emloyees’ creative behavior as well as citizenship behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypothesized model of this study, cross-sectional data were collected using questionnaires. Pairs of survey packages, which included group-member surveys and a group-leader survey, were handed out to employees in organizations. The authors collected data from 47 groups and 143 group members in 25 private companies in the Republic of Korea, including from financial, technology, manufacturing, and research and development organizations.

Findings

The results showed that leader consideration exerts significant effects on employee task performance. Also, the authors found the moderating role of employee regulatory promotion focus on the relationship between leader consideration/initiating structure and employee task performance, which were mediated by creative behavior and citizenship behavior.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the advancement of the Ohio State leadership approach by integrating self-expansion theory and regulatory fit theory to investigate the distinct mechanisms and boundary conditions of its leadership process. The current study also contributes to the literature on extra-role behavior that the Ohio State leadership behavioral dimensions can be considered as one of the antecedents of employees’ creative and citizenship behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Inger N. Basker, Therese E. Sverdrup, Vidar Schei and Alexander M. Sandvik

This paper examines the relationship between chief executive officers' (CEOs') leadership behaviors (consideration and initiating structure) and firm and individual…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the relationship between chief executive officers' (CEOs') leadership behaviors (consideration and initiating structure) and firm and individual performance (i.e. profitability, affective commitment and employees' willingness to change) in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) that need to adapt to changing environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data was collected from SMEs (28 firms, 235 employees) in the accounting industry along with objective performance register data (profit and return on assets). The predicted model was tested with multilevel structural equations modeling (MSEM) using a maximum likelihood estimator.

Findings

The CEO leadership behavior of initiating structure was positively related to firms' profitability, while the CEO leadership behavior of consideration was positively related to employees' willingness to change and affective commitment.

Practical implications

Small accounting firms typically offer standard services that are now being replaced by digital solutions. These firms have an incentive to offer new services, such as business advisory services. Therefore, leaders should embrace the duality of consideration and initiating structure to gain employees' willingness to change and optimize overall firm performance.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to leadership literature by examining a novel context (CEO consideration and initiation of structure in SMEs in uncertain environments) using a combination of firm performance measures (e.g. objective outcomes at the firm level and employees' willingness to change as a new measure at the individual level). In addition, it reports a comprehensive test of the full model using MSEM, the findings of which demonstrate the importance of dual leadership behaviors for CEOs.

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Giang Hoang, Elisabeth Wilson-Evered and Leonie Lockstone-Binney

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of empowering leadership, directive leadership and initiating structure on innovation in small and medium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of empowering leadership, directive leadership and initiating structure on innovation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and examine the mediating role of climate for innovation on those relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying structural equation modeling, the study empirically tested the model on a sample of 330 employees from tourism SMEs in Vietnam.

Findings

Results indicated that climate for innovation mediated the relationship between empowering leadership and innovation and also initiating structure and innovation. Whereas empowering leadership was found to have a negative direct influence on innovation, directive leadership was unrelated to innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study contribute to the literature by expanding the existing research on SME innovation, assessing the effect of diverse leadership styles and a climate for innovation on the innovation performance of SMEs. The findings enrich the literature by indicating the contribution of empowering leadership, directive leadership and initiating structure on encouraging innovation in SMEs.

Practical implications

When leading subordinates in the SME context, leaders who have a clear understanding of the effect of empowerment, direction and initiating structure can optimally seek to stimulate innovation. These leadership approaches influence employees’ task, interpersonal and role-related processes that shape a climate for innovation.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper is that it examines the differential influences of empowering leadership, directive leadership and initiating structure on innovation and the mediating role of climate for innovation on these relationships.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Scott David Williams

Divergent thinking is an integral process in creativity. This study presents and tests an interactionist, divergent‐thinking based model of individual creativity in…

Abstract

Divergent thinking is an integral process in creativity. This study presents and tests an interactionist, divergent‐thinking based model of individual creativity in organizations. Openness to experience is a personality trait that relates to divergent thinking and, therefore, is hypothesized to be related to creative performance in organizations. The effects of openness to experience are likely to be partially mediated by an individual's attitude toward divergent thinking (ATDT). Some individuals do not care to engage in divergent thinking, and researchers have asserted that negative ATDT is an impediment to individual creativity in organizations. However, the empirical link between one's ATDT and one's creative performance has yet to be demonstrated. Contextual factors also influence creative attitudes and behavior. ATDT is also likely to be influenced by one's supervisor's attitude. The amount of structure that supervisors initiate for their subordinates is likely to have a direct, negative effect on subordinates' divergent thinking, and may also affect divergent thinking indirectly by influencing subordinates’ ATDT. Results generally support the model. Openness to experience and ATDT are positively associated with employees' creative performance. In addition, some support is provided for a negative relationship between initiating structure and subordinates’ ATDT.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

WAYNE K. HOY, C.J. TARTER and PATRICK FORSYTH

The theoretical and practical significance of the concept of subordinate loyalty to immediate superior is developed, and then, an empirical exploration of administration…

Abstract

The theoretical and practical significance of the concept of subordinate loyalty to immediate superior is developed, and then, an empirical exploration of administration behavior that best predicts subordinate loyalty to elementary and secondary principals is undertaken. Data were collected from the principals and faculties in eighty public schools. Those characteristics of principal behavior accounting for the greatest explanation of loyalty are Thrust, Consideration, Initiating Structure, and Nonauthoritarianism; however, somewhat contrasting profiles emerge in predicting teacher loyalty in elementary and secondary schools. While Initiating Structure of the principal has high value in the secondary schools, it is Consideration, not Initiating Structure, which is most salient in elementary schools.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1970

K.E. TRONC

In a recent investigation undertaken in Western Canada, it was found that school personnel, particularly those at the administrative level, who strongly desired promotion…

Abstract

In a recent investigation undertaken in Western Canada, it was found that school personnel, particularly those at the administrative level, who strongly desired promotion placed a significantly higher emphasis in their role perceptions on Initiating Structure (the organization‐oriented dimension of leader behaviour), and a significantly lower emphasis upon Consideration (the person‐oriented aspect of leader behaviour), than those who possessed low levels of promotional aspiration. Tills impersonal, procedural, and task‐oriented emphasis was evident not only in the administrators' perceptions of the leader behaviour deemed most appropriate for their own present role, but also in their perceptions of the actual leader behaviour exhibited by their immediate superiors. If such highly ambitious individuals gain advancement, it appears likely that the type of administrative climate which they would induce, with such a pronounced emphasis on Initiating Structure allied with a de‐emphasis of Consideration, would lead to future conflict and dysfunctional effects for the educational organization, as teachers become more professional, and newer approaches such as team teaching, collegial organization, and consensual decision‐making—all of which demand rapport and consideration for people—become more widespread.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Amira Galin

A great deal of time and effort is invested by personnel managersand researchers in minimising performance appraisal errors. Untilrecently, these efforts concentrated on…

Abstract

A great deal of time and effort is invested by personnel managers and researchers in minimising performance appraisal errors. Until recently, these efforts concentrated on improving the design, implementation and the monitoring of appraisal instruments, producing only minimal improvement in the accuracy of performance appraisal. The amount and type of impact that leadership style and other rater characteristics have on appraisal errors are investigated.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Craig L. Pearce, Henry P. Sims, Jonathan F. Cox, Gail Ball, Eugene Schnell, Ken A. Smith and Linda Trevino

Extends the transactional‐transformational model of leadership by deductively developing four theoretical behavioral types of leadership based on a historical analysis of…

Abstract

Extends the transactional‐transformational model of leadership by deductively developing four theoretical behavioral types of leadership based on a historical analysis of leadership literature. Then, in an exploratory empirical phase, uses two data sets to inductively develop alternative models of leadership types. Finally, with a third data set, tests several theoretically plausible typologies using second‐order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the CFA generally support the existence of four leadership types: directive leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and empowering leadership.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

NATHIR G. SARA

Findings of research on behavior of school principals in four developing countries are summarized to shed light on the question of university of certain patterns of leader…

Abstract

Findings of research on behavior of school principals in four developing countries are summarized to shed light on the question of university of certain patterns of leader behavior. Certain similarities in the way leaders behave in different cultures lead, at least in a tentative way, to the conclusion that extra‐organizational (i.e. cultural) variables seem to be of little importance in the study of leadership. Implications of the findings are discussed, especially in regard to development of theory in administration.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

David Ng, Dong Thanh Nguyen, Benjamin Koon Siak Wong and William Kim Weng Choy

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals’ leadership qualities, styles, and roles.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a systematic review of empirical studies, using a “bounded” approach with a focus on the main findings of the reviewed studies. In all, 36 studies were selected for the interview. The findings of these studies were open coded, synthesized, and clustered into different themes.

Findings

The review revealed several qualities, characteristics, styles, and enacted roles of Singapore principals. While there are similarities between Singapore principals and principals elsewhere in the world, the review brought out some features unique to Singapore principals.

Originality/value

This review contributes to the growing literature in comparative research on principals’ leadership and their enacted roles, and concurrently functions as a guide for further research on school leadership in Singapore.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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