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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Andrea Furlan and Roberto Grandinetti

– The purpose of this paper is to integrate knowledge inheritance theory with the social capital perspective to explain the initial endowments of spinoffs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate knowledge inheritance theory with the social capital perspective to explain the initial endowments of spinoffs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors maintain that social capital plays a crucial part, both as a mechanism supporting the generation of intellectual capital prior to a spinoff’s foundation, and as an endowment that complements this capital once the spinoff is founded. Knowledge inheritance remains a fundamental mechanism for the formation of a spinoff’s intellectual capital. Its other endowment, social capital, derives from three types of relationship that future entrepreneurs develop within, through and outside their parent firm, all three of which are crucial to the formation of a spinoff’s intellectual capital.

Findings

The first result of the theoretical research is an integrative framework of a spinoff’s endowments. Moreover, the authors apply this framework to address two key research questions in the spinoff literature, i.e. whether spinoffs can differ from their parents in terms of intellectual capital; and why spinoffs tend to co-locate near their parents, in geographical clusters. The integrative approach helps to tackle these questions.

Originality/value

This conceptual paper offers a more comprehensive explanation of the emergence of spinoffs in terms of their initial endowments than the knowledge inheritance theory.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Andrea Furlan

Studies on spinoffs neglect firms founded by single individuals (i.e. proprietorships) thus overlooking a large portion of new ventures. Moreover, scholars usually do not…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies on spinoffs neglect firms founded by single individuals (i.e. proprietorships) thus overlooking a large portion of new ventures. Moreover, scholars usually do not consider the effect of the rank, and the amount, of founder’s working experience on spinoff’s survival. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a sample of 3,456 Italian manufacturing proprietorships.

Design/methodology/approach

Out of an initial population of some 6,000 firms, the authors obtained a sample of 3,456 usable records with complete information about new ventures and founders’ background. The authors relied on the class of methods known as “proportional hazard models” to perform survival analyses.

Findings

Analyses show that spinoffs from surviving parents outlive other startups. Surprisingly, spinoffs from high-ranked positions have comparable hazard rates than other startups while spinoffs from low-ranked positions have lower hazard rates than other startups. Finally, industry-specific working experience has a curvilinear inverted U-shape effect on spinoffs’ survival.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the debate on spinoffs’ survival and bears important ramifications into the relationship between knowledge inheritance and entrepreneurial dynamic capabilities. It is also helpful in informing public policies aimed at encouraging entrepreneurial activities in the form of new proprietorships.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Carol Y.Y. Lin and Leif Edvinsson

The threefold purpose of this paper is to reflect on the evolution and transformation of the Journal of Intellectual Capital (JIC) over the past 20 years, to project its…

Abstract

Purpose

The threefold purpose of this paper is to reflect on the evolution and transformation of the Journal of Intellectual Capital (JIC) over the past 20 years, to project its future research directions, and, finally, to propose an IC ecosystem.

Design/methodology/approach

We adopted a combination of a narrative and a systematic review of 700 JIC papers appearing in the journal in its entirety, from Volume 1 (2000) to Volume 20 (2019). The categorization of topics is based on the frequency of keywords in the titles of the papers.

Findings

Scholars have proposed four stages of intellectual capital (IC) research: definition/awareness, measurement/management, implementation/strategy, and ecosystem. Over the past 20 years, a total of 16 special issues were published in the journal. The five topics with the highest paper counts in descending order are country-specific studies, concept papers, reporting and disclosure, measurement and performance. Four issues require the researcher’s special attention: theoretical development, IC research methodology, national intellectual capital, and data collection. An IC ecosystem is proposed to invite discussion and refinement. For future research, ecosystem-oriented and interdisciplinary research are suggested. Research design aimed at achieving Sustainable Development Goals are encouraged.

Research limitations/implications

Intellectual capital research has implications for four major types of stakeholders, namely academia, government agencies, practitioners, and top management team of organizations. The major limitation of this research is that this review of twenty years of intellectual capital research is limited exclusively to the papers published in the JIC; IC papers published in relevant journals or conferences were not included.

Originality/value

This paper presents a comprehensive review of the articles published in the first 20 volumes of the JIC. The field of intellectual capital has evolved from the social construction of IC knowledge to IC knowledge diffusion and inheritance. Hopefully, a fully developed IC ecosystem will eventually emerge. IC researchers can position themselves in the IC research continuum and devise distinctive pathways to enhance their contributions to the transformation of IC research.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Andrea Furlan and Roberto Grandinetti

Literature on spin-offs still lacks a thorough understanding of the forces governing spin-off performance. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by taking a…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature on spin-offs still lacks a thorough understanding of the forces governing spin-off performance. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by taking a network perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper combines the literature on spin-offs with the network approach to new ventures to proposing a model showing how networking in the pre-entry phases affects a spin-off's survival and early growth.

Findings

The intensity and variety of interactions between the future entrepreneur (FE) and other individual actors has a positive impact on spin-off performance in both the incubation and the emergence phases. The degree of overlap between the network of the incubation phase and the network of the emergence phase also reinforces the effects of the intensity and variety of these interactions on performance during the emergence phase. Finally, entrepreneurial innovativeness is an antecedent of spin-off performance in that it requires different degrees of overlap between the network of the incubation phase and the network of the emergence phase.

Research limitations/implications

Being a conceptual paper, the study needs the support of empirical research. For example, samples of spin-offs achieving a high and low performance could be compared in relation to their FE's networking activity.

Originality/value

The paper creates a bridge between the inherited knowledge approach to spin-offs and the network approach to new ventures to provide a framework for explaining spin-off performance.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Joseph Mpeera Ntayi, Henry Mutebi, Kenneth Byangwa and Susan Georgina Kamanyi

– The purpose of this paper is to provide policy and managerial implications required in solving the daunting problem of the existing low-entrepreneurial capital in Uganda.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide policy and managerial implications required in solving the daunting problem of the existing low-entrepreneurial capital in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

A large-scale comprehensive survey using a sample of 11,105 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from 40 high-growth towns was selected and undertaken from five regions of Uganda. The response rate was 40.5 per cent, translating into 4,498 usable questionnaires.

Findings

Results reveal that institutional framing, entrepreneurship human capital and entrepreneurial moral values predict entrepreneurship capital in Uganda. These results are presented and discussed in detail in this paper.

Research limitations/implications

The study applied a cross-sectional approach to study behaviour, yet studying behaviour requires time. Therefore, there is need for scholars to undertake a follow up study to test the hypotheses using longitudinal data.

Practical implications

The paper provides implications for the review and development of supporting institutional frames for entrepreneurship, promoting generalized forms of human capital and entrepreneurial ethics moral values.

Originality/value

The motivation for the study is derived from the observation that the legal and regulatory framework in Uganda is biased against SMEs. This is manifested in the high-regulatory burden of registering and running enterprises in Uganda. For example, the cost of registering a business in Uganda is high. Legal proceedings in Uganda are inefficient, complex and costly only favouring firms with resources and connections. This may restrict enterprise development and increase the costs of running businesses, distort human capital and entrepreneurial moral values thereby affecting entrepreneurship capital.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Declan Curran, Colm O’Gorman and Chris van Egeraat

The purpose of this paper is to explore the inter-organisational dynamics, in terms of the triggers to spin-off formation and the genealogical inheritance of spin-offs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the inter-organisational dynamics, in terms of the triggers to spin-off formation and the genealogical inheritance of spin-offs, between a parent characterised by an adverse event and the spin-offs that emerge. The study focusses on the nature of the triggering event, exploring the heterogeneous nature of the processes by which some spin-offs are formed to exploit new opportunities created unexpectedly by an adverse event, and on the genealogical inheritance that forms the pre-entry experience of the founder.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study based on interview data with founders of spin-offs, supplemented with interviews with managers and industry experts, and with secondary data sources. The case study is of the spin-offs from a successful firm, Élan Corporation, reported to be the world’s 20th largest drug firm in 2002, that experienced an adverse event in 2002. The Élan case offers the opportunity to focus exclusively on what Buenstorf (2009) refers to as necessity spin-offs. Prior to collecting data it was necessary to identify the population of spin-offs from Élan.

Findings

This study extends existing research by identifying “opportunistic spin-offs”: spin-offs that occur in the wake of an adverse event where the entrepreneur exploits an unexpected opportunity to engage in entrepreneurship but does not feel compelled to establish the spin-off. These spin-offs are characterised by “unexpected opportunities”, “opportunistic acquisition of assets” and, perhaps reflecting the seniority and experience of those involved, “alternative employment opportunities”.

Originality/value

Understanding the process of spin-off formation is important because it provides insight into how and why individuals initiate new ventures. Spin-offs are an important source of new firms and an important mechanism in the process of industry evolution. The study contributes to the literature on spin-offs by providing evidence of the heterogeneous nature of spin-offs that occur in the aftermath of an adverse event, leading to the classification of some spin-offs as “opportunistic spin-offs”. The study contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by demonstrating that an important trigger for venture creation is unexpected changes in an individual’s employment circumstances.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Sidney C.H. Cheung

Oyster cultivation has a long history in Pearl River Delta area and is one of the traditional aquaculture depending strongly on the natural coastal resource because of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Oyster cultivation has a long history in Pearl River Delta area and is one of the traditional aquaculture depending strongly on the natural coastal resource because of the expected variation of salinity, temperature and diversity of infaunal organisms for the cultivation practice. Apart from being the traditional knowledge inherited through the coastal communities over the centuries, oyster aquaculture is also embedded in the long-term socio-economic relationships among communities that have a rich experience regarding the quality and quantity controls for the long-term sustainable coastal resource management, together with a strong sense of responsibility for safeguarding and promoting the local food heritage for various reasons. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper seeks to examine oyster cultivation in Lau Fau Shan (literally means floating mountain) in Hong Kong, not only from the cultural–historical perspectives but also from the social resilience perspectives, such as how and why local communities are willing to inherit the traditions, what kinds of roles NGOs and government play in oyster cultivation, why local people should be engaged, and how the oyster aquaculture/industry underwent the transformations, given all the difficulties and challenges.

Findings

The value of oyster cultivation is not only for food production but also for the global exchange of experiences on social resilience for both school and public educations.

Originality/value

It is an original research making use of a local case study for the understanding of post-disaster reconstruction of coastal communities in the global context.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Milena Grbić and Ana Nikezić

Solving settlement and likewise housing problems of socially vulnerable Romani in Belgrade and Serbia still has not found the right design approach. In contemporary plural…

Abstract

Solving settlement and likewise housing problems of socially vulnerable Romani in Belgrade and Serbia still has not found the right design approach. In contemporary plural society, it is a process of interaction of theoretical and practical tryouts set beyond the disciplinary limits. Insufficient awareness on Romani lifestyle elaborated in Romanypen, i.e. the Romani cultural system causes a lack of methods, techniques and tools to choose from and develop for this untangled complex problem. The intent of this article is to show that a collective lifestyle represents the essence needed for developing adequate design decisions of Romani settlements, thus fulfilling the potential for improving adequate housing solutions.

The study starts on the assumption that in Romani settlements there is a strongly rooted relation between spatial and social level that enables an understanding of what this cultural group produces as its own place. The urban pattern of Romani settlements do not have an institutionally imposed organization; they are formed by the Romani themselves, by reflex rooted in needs of everyday life activities and consequently organized and built through inherited knowledge and skills. The subject of this study is aimed at recognizing and thus establishing spatial expressions of the Romani collective lifestyle in three types of Belgrade Romani settlements that, according to the differences in their inner habitational pattern, display a representative model. It is based on the field analysis of five already created and developed unplanned settlements in Belgrade through observing and residing within them and by talking and questioning to their residents.

This study shows that the key to understanding existing urban and architectural patterns, as well as the potential for future design actions lies in reading out the processes of everyday life. Then, it demonstrates a tool that has a potential to divert previous housing politics towards a revitalization of design in relation to social profiles specificities. At the end, the study opens a path to creating adequate architectural and urban parameters for housing care in accordance to the lifestyle acceptable for each and every socially perceptible group.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Lucia Garcia‐Lorenzo, Sevasti‐Melissa Nolas and Gerard de Zeeuw

Stories and the telling of stories constitute a major part of our daily life, yet how this happens is not clearly understood. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Stories and the telling of stories constitute a major part of our daily life, yet how this happens is not clearly understood. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the ways in which stories challenge the notions of knowledge that are common in the “classical” scientific tradition. It also aims to focus on the function of stories in the collaborative, interpersonal and inter‐organisational dynamics of the way knowledge is built up in daily life.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores changes in the notion of knowledge (and what is considered scientific method). Firstly, it identifies various genealogies in which previous limitations on the experiences to be included as knowledge have been extended. Secondly, the paper will look at experiences that link to the telling of stories, and explore the way they challenge as well as link to previous notions and extensions of knowledge in collaborative contexts.

Findings

A core characteristic of stories and their telling is an increase in people's awareness both of others as sources of intentional variation as well as of their cultural and human heritage.

Originality/value

The paper initiates a much‐needed discussion of the nature of knowledge as it relates to story telling. It links the experiences elicited by story telling to a genealogy of knowledge that identifies the difficulties of including experiences other than observations (e.g. uncertainty, intentionality). To study stories one needs to search for constraints on how individuals link to other individuals. The paper proposes how one might study stories by considering how they contribute to an extension of existing concepts of knowledge.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

S.J. Cosgrove and J.M. Weimann

This article describes how the n‐Cube expert system development tool can assist in item classification using the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) standard. The…

Abstract

This article describes how the n‐Cube expert system development tool can assist in item classification using the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) standard. The n‐Cube makes use of a tree classification structure with associated rules and default inheritance features. Any information known about a particular classification is a combination of the defaults known about that class, as well as the defaults associated with any of its parent classes. As a result, many of the problems associated with simple rule‐based systems are overcome.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 10 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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