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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1973

Edmund Davies, L.J. Megaw and L.J. James

February 27, 1973 Factory — Statutory duty — Fume — Inhalation of low concentrations of oxides of nitrogen over prolonged period — Chronic lung illness — Employers'…

Abstract

February 27, 1973 Factory — Statutory duty — Fume — Inhalation of low concentrations of oxides of nitrogen over prolonged period — Chronic lung illness — Employers' constructive knowledge of health hazard — Medical and other publications — Whether sufficiently indicating health hazard from 1965 onwards — Factories Act, 1961 (9 & 10 Eliz. II, c. 34), s. 63 (1).

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Managerial Law, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Francisco Castro, Teresa Parra, César Quispe and Pilar Castro

The paper aims to focus on airflow and heat transfer inside the human nasal cavity. The contribution of this work is the inertial analysis of the momentum and thermal…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to focus on airflow and heat transfer inside the human nasal cavity. The contribution of this work is the inertial analysis of the momentum and thermal stress of the cavity throughout the respiratory cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of computer tomography scans, an accurate three‐dimensional anatomical representation of the human nasal cavity was obtained. A three‐dimensional numerical model is presented in order to predict the time evolution of flow patterns during a quiet breathing cycle, covering inhalation and exhalation. An inertial analysis of the momentum and a detailed study of the thermal behaviour during the breathing cycle is carried out.

Findings

Head loss, velocity and temperature values are in agreement with experimental results from previous studies. Based on these results, the influence of the inhalation and the exhalation on the flow pattern and air conditioning has been reviewed. Results suggest that the anterior and posterior turbinate regions are where the air conditioning is primarily produced.

Practical implications

The future goal is to investigate respiratory disorders to increase the effectiveness of the eventual treatment of the pathology. The model could be a useful tool to predict, for instance, the modification of the flow patterns due to septal perforations.

Originality/value

The transient resolution provides insight into the momentum and thermal inertia though the breathing which is far from being well understood.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2018

Teruhisa Komori, Mutsumi Kageyama, Yuko Tamura, Yuki Tateishi and Takashi Iwasa

In order to be able to use the aroma hand massage as a skill that can be done by a nurse who does not have a special aromatherapy technique, we examine anti-stress effects…

Abstract

In order to be able to use the aroma hand massage as a skill that can be done by a nurse who does not have a special aromatherapy technique, we examine anti-stress effects of simplified aroma hand massage for healthy subjects. We evaluated the anti-stress action of aroma hand massage and the different components of the procedure in 20 healthy women in their twenties. We used autonomic nervous function measured via electrocardiogram as an index of stress. After conducting a baseline electrocardiogram, we induced stress in the participants by asking them to spend 30 minutes completing Kraepelin's arithmetic test. We then administered various treatments and examined the anti-stress effects. Kraepelin's test significantly increased sympathetic nervous function and significantly reduced parasympathetic nervous function. Compared with massage without essential oil or aroma inhalation, aroma hand massage significantly increased parasympathetic nervous function and significantly decreased sympathetic nervous function. The effect of the aroma hand massage persisted when the procedure was simplified. The anti-stress action of the aroma hand massage indicates that it might have beneficial application as a nursing technique. There are several limitations in this study; ambiguities of low component/high component ratio of heart rate variability and bias by small subjects groups of the same women.

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Mental Illness, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Roy Bailey

Stress damages us and our performance. It is a real part of most manager's experience and can be said to occur when significant demands exceed perceived management…

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1535

Abstract

Stress damages us and our performance. It is a real part of most manager's experience and can be said to occur when significant demands exceed perceived management responsibilities and routines. Stress can be the essence of working life, and certainly need not always be damaging to us. But when it becomes excessive, it is something unwanted.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1972

J. Latey

May 5, 1972 Factory — Statutory duty — Breach — Fume — Prolonged inhalation of low concentration — Chronic lung illness — Employer's actual or constructive knowledge of…

Abstract

May 5, 1972 Factory — Statutory duty — Breach — Fume — Prolonged inhalation of low concentration — Chronic lung illness — Employer's actual or constructive knowledge of health hazard — Whether to be determined up to time when action brought — Limits of statutory duty — Whether need to act on expert speculation unaccompanied by hazard warning — Factories Act, 1961 (9 & 10 Eliz. II, c.34), ss. 4(1), 63(1).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2018

Wantanee Phanprasit, Kanchanok Songpek, Vorakamol Boonyayothin and Dusit Sujirarat

The purpose of this paper is to explore inhalation levels and dermal exposure to toluene among printing workers who wore no personal protective equipment; it is conducted…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore inhalation levels and dermal exposure to toluene among printing workers who wore no personal protective equipment; it is conducted in a plastic bag factory. Using a charcoal cloth pad (CCP) as a dermal sampler to assess skin permeation of liquid toluene is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 27 stationary air samples as well as urine and dermal samples were collected over 9 days from 11 printing workers. Six pieces of CCP were wrapped on each of the workers’ fingers for the dermal sample collection. Air samples were collected and analyzed according to NIOSH No. 1501, and 65 post-shift urine samples were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with headspace sampler (GC-HS/FID). Multiple linear regression was employed to analyze the association between the studied variables.

Findings

The mean (SD) urinary toluene (UTol) level was 13.42 (9.72) ug/L. Toluene on the CCP (TolCCP) was a meaningful predictor for UTol (p-value=0.027) with r and r2 values of 0.441 and 0.195, respectively. The r and r2 of the model using the toluene time-weighted average concentrations in air were 0.739 and 0.546, respectively. The absorbed dose of toluene determined from the TolCCP ranged from 1.05 to 91.94 mg, accounting for 12.3 percent of the threshold limit value (TLV).

Originality/value

Dermal exposure was insignificant when workers wore respirators, but when not, dermal absorption could contribute to the overall uptake and exposure above the TLV. Appropriate gloves should be assigned to the workers to reduce dermal exposure to toluene.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Clara Maria Schutte, Sunayna Sasikumar, Keorapetse Nchoe, Mandisa Kakaza, Veronica Ueckermann and Cornelius H. Van der Meyden

In South Africa, many illicit drugs have only recently been introduced and drug-related complications are often new to treating physicians. Heroin-induced…

Abstract

Purpose

In South Africa, many illicit drugs have only recently been introduced and drug-related complications are often new to treating physicians. Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy has been reported elsewhere in patients who inhale heated heroin vapors, a method known as “chasing the dragon.” The purpose of this paper is to present two patients, known to have inhaled heroin a few weeks prior to presenting with progressive neurological deficits.

Design/methodology/approach

Case presentations: two young males presented independently within eight weeks of one another with progressive slurring of speech, incoordination and weakness of the limbs over a period of two to three weeks. Both were known heroin addicts, and were known to one another, and both had inhaled heroin prior to the onset of symptoms.

Findings

The patients presented with a pancerebellar syndrome with marked bilateral upper motor neuron signs. CT scans showed diffuse symmetrical hypodense lesions involving the cerebral and cerebellar white matter with normal CSF. Both patients deteriorated neurologically, became cardiovascularly unstable and demised. Postmortem in one of the patients showed a prominent spongiform leukoencephalopathy consistent with reports of heroin-inhalation injury to the brain.

Research limitations/implications

Toxic leukoencephalopathy due to heroin vapor inhalation was first described in the Netherlands in 1982. It has not been reported to occur with other modes of heroin use; an unknown toxin contained in heroin pyrolysate which forms when heroin is heated, may be causative. Brain MRI typically shows diffuse, symmetrical white matter hyperintensities on T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences in the cerebellum, posterior cerebrum and posterior limbs of the internal capsule with a posterior-anterior gradient. Pathologically, spongiform degeneration with relative sparing of subcortical U-fibers is seen. No treatment has been proven effective, but antioxidants and Vitamin E may be beneficial. Mortality is high at 23-48 percent.

Practical implications

This report emphasizes that spongiform leukoencephalopathy as a rare consequence of inhaling heroin vapors does occur in South Africa and clinicians should consider this disorder in their differential diagnosis of acutely developing leukoencephalopathy.

Social implications

An awareness program regarding this grave condition is planned.

Originality/value

The cardiovascular complications of patients inhaling heroin vapor has not been highlighted previously. These are the first patients from Africa described with this condition. A toxic component appears likely.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Ehtesham Kabir, Aminul Islam and Md. Taufikuzzaman

Occupational exposure to dust is a major health and safety concern for workers in developing countries. Such laborers are often exposed to dust without being aware of its…

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Abstract

Purpose

Occupational exposure to dust is a major health and safety concern for workers in developing countries. Such laborers are often exposed to dust without being aware of its threat to their health. In the process of crushing stone, mineralogical materials are released into the environment. The material includes dust, fumes, ashes or other industrial waste which may constitute toxic elements. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the respiratory health problems of stone crushing industry workers in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional descriptive research study was conducted by adopting a multi-method approach. Data were collected by use of a questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, in-depth interview and spirometric examinations. Focus group discussions and questionnaire surveys were conducted among 240 workers. The respondents were divided in six groups for the spirometric examination. The questionnaire was formulated by following standards set by the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease questionnaire and European Coal and Steel Community. Data on respondent’s height, weight and smoking habits were collected by using a structured checklist. Meanwhile, lung functions were assessed by spirometry. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The results show that there was a significant relation between respiratory problems and inhalation of dust and particulate matter and cigarette smoking. It also shows that coughing was the most common problem among the respondents. The majority of respondents suffered from obstructive types of respiratory problems.

Originality/value

Findings of the study reveals that chronic exposure to dust at stone crushing plants increases the risk of respiratory problems and the impaired lung function of workers. It also reveals that there is a significant relation between respiratory problems and inhalation of dusts and cigarette smoking. Raising awareness about health risks amongst workers could reduce these health hazards. The government should make a national policy for the prevention, control and elimination of silica exposure and silicosis. The results would help to raise awareness of the issue. Finally, it would raise awareness on respiratory health problems of workers at stone crushing industries in Bangladesh and help the government to make a policy for the prevention, control and elimination of silica exposure and silicosis, and thus enhancing public health policy and practices in the country.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1973

J. Bagnall

January 15, 1973 Ironfoundry — Statutory duty — Breach — Noxious dust — Prolonged inhalation of noxious dust — Chronic lung illness — Employers' actual or constructive…

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Abstract

January 15, 1973 Ironfoundry — Statutory duty — Breach — Noxious dust — Prolonged inhalation of noxious dust — Chronic lung illness — Employers' actual or constructive knowledge of health hazard — Test to apply when determining constructive knowledge — Whether employer should be aware of recent medical or scientific knowledge — Factories Act, 1961 (9 & 10 Eliz.II, c.34), ss.4(l), 63(1).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1986

Edgar S. Lower

The preparation of tin naphthenate has been described in a U.S. patent specification, the product being applicable to the increasing of adhesion between…

Abstract

The preparation of tin naphthenate has been described in a U.S. patent specification, the product being applicable to the increasing of adhesion between polyorganosiloxanes coatings hardenable at 25°C, and as a hardener for polyorganosiloxane elastomers, and in the manufacture of polysiloxane resin. It can also be used to colour stabilize aluminium salts of ethyl hexanoic acid when used as a paint drier, and as a catalyst for the polymerising of vinyl chloride. Copolymers of vinyl monomers and butadiene have been stabilized against ageing and discolouration by the use of stannous naphthenate along with di‐tert‐butyl‐p‐cresol, and the same product has stabilized rubbers against colour deterioration. The use of stannous naphthenate as a catalyst for silicone water‐repellants can lead to a decrease in the amount of siloxane needed to obtain a high degree of water repellancy by textiles. The naphthenate has been utilized in transformer oils to prevent sludge deposition. Tributyltin naphthenate is useable as a fungicide in silicone sealing compounds, plastics, and paints. Inhalation tests with vapours of tributyltin naphthenate have shown no acute inhalation risks.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 15 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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