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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Marine Loisy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the adaptation strategies of inhabitants and the forms of participation they adopt in tourism activities in Paris. As public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the adaptation strategies of inhabitants and the forms of participation they adopt in tourism activities in Paris. As public policies have recently recognized the importance of taking into account inhabitants in the tourism development strategy in Paris and its suburbs, this paper proposes an analysis of the different forms of this participation and its stakes for the territories.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gathers the first results of a thesis work in anthropology that is based on an ethnographic method combining participant observation, semi-directive interviews and bibliographic work. Observations took place in Paris and in several cities of the Grand Paris with inhabitants involved in tourism activities, or who are experiencing a difficult cohabitation with tourists in their neighborhoods. Thus, some 40 semi-directive interviews were conducted with inhabitants, members of associations and entrepreneurs. There were also participatory observation works within public institutions, mainly at the Paris City Hall, as well as interviews with dozens of tourism professionals from the private, public and associative sectors.

Findings

Not all residents have the same commitment to tourism and they do not all want to meet visitors. The relationship of inhabitants to tourism is complex and heterogenous. Nevertheless, this research shows that the roles played by inhabitants are multiple: producers of tourist services, ambassadors for their city or neighborhood, the permanent resident can also be seen as a product that attracts visitors, and as a tourist himself. The permanent resident offers the possibility of going off the beaten track, and promotes the revalorization of the identity of a territory and its inhabitants.

Originality/value

The originality of this research lies in the choice to focus primarily on the point of view of the visited population in a European capital. Ethnographic work allows for the observation and analysis of practices, in order to understand the stakes of visitor/visitor cohabitation and to anticipate possible movements of anti-tourist rejections.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1980

W.N. Barnes

Action in international marketing is usually preceded by research. Most international marketing research reports are built on a skeleton of currently available…

Abstract

Action in international marketing is usually preceded by research. Most international marketing research reports are built on a skeleton of currently available international socio‐economic, demographic and social indicators. The author in this paper argues that the currently available indicators used by marketing analysts have in many cases little comparative value and are in many cases inadequate for, or irrelevant to, the requirements of marketing. He uses in illustration the needs of a specific project that had as its objective the prediction of the different levels of retail distribution in Western Europe. The limitations of available international indicators are analysed. Preferable alternatives are proposed. Some of these require original research: others the restructuring of existing data. It is also urged that it is a basic pre‐requisite that international marketing analysis be made at the level of the sub‐national region — not at national level. The formation of a specifically‐oriented Marketing Indicators Working Party is proposed.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Michaël Willem Maria Smits

The purpose of this paper is to present an extensive household survey amongst four rural communities on Mt. Elgon Kenya. The area is the chosen area for the author’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an extensive household survey amongst four rural communities on Mt. Elgon Kenya. The area is the chosen area for the author’s overall PhD research. In order to offer the inhabitants of Mt. Elgon suitable housing support, the purpose of this paper is to assess the gap between existing housing capacities and compare those to desired housing capacities.

Design/methodology/approach

The research combined a survey method with an interview setting. The survey helps the interviewer to structure and register given answers. The interview allows the inhabitant to ask questions or make suggestions.

Findings

The research finds that the two communities with financial restraints are unable to articulate improved housing (within their existing capacities) without external help. For the two communities with less financial restraints, the research finds that they struggle to maintain, extend or replicate housing solutions without external help.

Originality/value

The size (200 households), type (purpose, design and approach) and locality of the research are uncommon frameworks to understand inhabitants’ needs toward their built environment. The value, therefore, not only lies in the design of the evaluation framework, but also in the findings that indicate that this is a successful way to conduct this type of research in a vulnerable context. Hopefully providing other researchers in the built environment with an applicable framework.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Shirleyana Shirleyana, Scott Hawken and Riza Yosia Sunindijo

The purpose of this paper is to bring a new perspective on the meaning of resilience in Indonesia’s main urban settlement type, known as kampung. The paper reviews kampung

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring a new perspective on the meaning of resilience in Indonesia’s main urban settlement type, known as kampung. The paper reviews kampung in major urban centres in Indonesia, but focuses on a case study of Surabaya, Indonesia’s second largest city. Despite effectively accommodating the majority of Surabaya’s population, kampung inhabitants are stigmatised and kampung are viewed as slum-like habitats. Such a pejorative view neglects to consider the importance of kampung and ignores their inherent and potential resilience. It is important to study both the risks and resilience of kampung so that they can be developed to address social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities in Southeast Asian cities.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the risks and resilience of kampung. Key themes were mapped from the literature and used to construct a framework for understanding and enhancing resilience within this distinctive vernacular settlement type. In addition, a place-based approach constructed from remote sensing and field studies provide a deeper understanding of the structure of this urban settlement type.

Findings

Kampung play an important role in housing the majority of Surabaya’s population and are an intrinsic part of the city’s urban structure. The characteristics and conditions of kampung vary throughout Indonesia. Surabaya has a variety of kampung types which demonstrates distinctive forms of both risk and resilience. This research finds that there are many positive dimensions of kampung and that this vital form of settlement is well suited to support the growth and sustainability of Southeast Asia’s emerging megacities.

Research limitations/implications

This paper evaluates the current state of knowledge on risk and resilience of kampung within Surabaya. To gain a clearer understanding of why kampung are resilient, long-term field work and deeper analysis of kampung, in particular the social and physical structures, are needed.

Practical implications

Planning for high-density urban development needs to integrate kampung as a part of existing and new urban settlements to accommodate diverse populations.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that knowledge on kampung resilience is relevant to the adaptation of existing urban settlements and the future development of new urban settlements. This paper contributes a clearer understanding of why kampung in Surabaya are not slums and establishes a framework that supports the development of kampung as a resilient and functional settlement type in current and future urban developments. Considering the large and rapidly growing populations who depend on kampung in the Southeast Asian region, this research is of considerable significance.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Michaël Willem Maria Smits

The purpose of this paper is to describe the quasi-experiment setting to test the formulated design support (developed in the author’s PhD research) within a design…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the quasi-experiment setting to test the formulated design support (developed in the author’s PhD research) within a design research methodology (DRM) framework. This support intends to help designers to consciously engage rural families within a development aid scenario and increase their self-reliance towards their built environment (housing).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper elaborates on the setting in which the design support was tested within a quasi-experiment. The literature section describes the challenges in design research and why the DRM is suitable for this type of empirical research.

Findings

Findings of the paper include a workable setting to organise and evaluate the impact of a design support within a DRM framework on a vulnerable rural community.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the research lies in the study population. Due to financial and time constraints, only four teams could participate in the experiment conducted in rural Kenya.

Social implications

Further research will need to prove that the support works in comparable situations on the African continent.

Originality/value

The quasi-experiment setting within a DRM framework could benefit researchers in comparable empirical investigations.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Štefan Bojnec and Imre Fertő

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model to measure the effect of broadband availability on economic growth in developed OECD countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model to measure the effect of broadband availability on economic growth in developed OECD countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of the broadband availability‐related variables on economic growth is analyzed by using cross‐country panel data for 34 OECD countries over the years 1998‐2009. The robustness of the results by the six econometric estimation approaches is compared. The preferable dynamic panel model with the system of Generalized Method of Moments is selected.

Findings

The access channels per inhabitant and total broadband per inhabitant have improved over time, but vary across the analysed OECD countries. The improved access channels per inhabitant and gross capital growth (investment) play a positive and significant role in the per‐capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Labour productivity growth has encouraged economic growth positively. These results are robust independently of the estimation procedure.

Research limitations/implications

The authors do not find a positive and significant role of the total broadband per inhabitant on the per‐capita GDP growth. These findings and the results for control variables pertaining to trade openness and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in the growth equation are biased to the estimation procedure.

Originality/value

The conceptual‐empirical value to the research of new connections made using the key elements of economic growth theory with focus on the effect of the broadband availability, main macroeconomic and economic openness variables on economic growth. This is one of the first studies that, in the growth equation, uses different broadband availability‐related variables, which in addition to gross capital growth, government consumption, and inflation in the adjusted augmented growth model are controlled for labour productivity growth, trade openness, and inward FDI.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Kamla Ali Al-Busaidi

Information and communications technology (ICT) is the driving force and key enabler of a knowledge economy. The purpose of this study is to identify the critical ICT…

Abstract

Purpose

Information and communications technology (ICT) is the driving force and key enabler of a knowledge economy. The purpose of this study is to identify the critical ICT indicators that foster the development of the knowledge economy and its main pillars (education, innovation and economic and institutional regimes) in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a qualitative approach and conducted four Delphi studies on four groups of experts (ICT experts, educators, innovation experts and economists) in Oman.

Findings

The results indicated that the most commonly top-listed ICT indicators of a boost in the country’s knowledge economy are related to the national level (total research and development expenditure on ICT, ICT patents as a percentage of national total and ICT as an overall priority for the government), firm level (the proportion of businesses using the internet, the proportion of businesses using computers and the proportion of businesses with a Web presence), and inhabitant level (mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants and personal computers per 100 inhabitants).

Originality/value

ICT is the driving pillar of a knowledge economy. The literature indicated that most of the ICTs for development studies are conducted in developed countries; hence, there is a great need for investigations in the context of less developed economies such as Oman. This study can provide insights for the country on how to develop and exploit ICT to boost the development of the overall knowledge economy and its pillars and to provide guidance for exploiting ICT to gain economic value. Oman’s vision for 2020 and 2040 aims at economic diversification; the knowledge economy is a critical aspect of the country’s economic diversification. In addition, the literature indicated that the relationship between ICT and development is still not clear; hence, this study provided some insights into the context of knowledge economy development.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

A. Pina, F.J. Seron, E. Cerezo and D. Gutierrez

Seeks to present here a system that enables the user to design artificial worlds and inhabitants within these worlds.

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to present here a system that enables the user to design artificial worlds and inhabitants within these worlds.

Design/methodology/approach

An alife (artificial life) approach is used in order to obtain complex behaviour as the emergence of a set of basic behaviours which interact within the environment and between them. Through the paper, the reader will find the necessary details to understand the architecture and the computational model of the system, as well as the way to use it in a specific application: modelling behaviour for synthetic cockroaches within his own environment.

Findings

A detailed example is given of how this application can be used in simulating ecological environments, where the user can design an inhabited ecosystem and observe (tuning it if necessary) the evolution of the artificial ecosystem. Also outlined is another example of how this research system can be coupled with a commercial 3D computer animation software; the goal in this case is to produce automatically a script for a computer animation, reflecting what is happening in the artificial world.

Research limitations/implications

The paper describes a technical research system that allows the user to design reactive behaviour modelling for cockroaches. The next natural step is to make a cognitive behaviour modelling and to extend it to other animals.

Practical implications

Fusion between research systems and commercial packages (in this case, for example, behaviour modelling and 3D computer animation systems) can be an important issue.

Originality/value

The main interests of the presented system face compared with the existing ones are the coordinated use of several alife techniques, the integral approach (design of both the environment and the inhabitants), a computationally reasonable implementation of the system as an artificial ecosystem, and the possibility of using the results of such a research system as an input for a commercial 3D software in order to obtain 3D realistic computer animations.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Jozefina Simova, Colin M. Clarke‐Hill and Terry Robinson

The changes in the Czech Republic brought by the transition process had a significant impact on all sectors of the economy and none more so than on retailing. Presents the…

Abstract

The changes in the Czech Republic brought by the transition process had a significant impact on all sectors of the economy and none more so than on retailing. Presents the initial findings of a long‐term longitudinal study of clothing retailing in the Czech Republic examining the retail format and merchandise assortment structure of clothing retailing in the period of 1994‐1999. The research focused on Czech towns and specifically excluded the capital city of Prague. From the analysis of the retail format development two broad conclusions emerge. First, the smaller towns appear to be more conservative in terms of structural change. Second, there appears to be more extensive changes in retail format patterns occurring in the larger towns. .

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2009

Pelin Dursun and Gulsun Saglamer

The relationship between people and their home environment has always been an important research theme. Cooperative works of different disciplines and research areas, such…

Abstract

The relationship between people and their home environment has always been an important research theme. Cooperative works of different disciplines and research areas, such as environmental psychology, social psychology, community psychology, home environment studies, urban planning and architecture have developed an understanding of relationships between quality and residential spaces. In this study an attempt has been made to analyze quality issues in housing environments by providing a general review related to quality housing research and by establishing a model that can be used to evaluate the concept of quality in housing. Focusing on a specific housing settlement as a case study, the goal here is to open a debate based on design concepts and their social and spatial consequences in architecture and to provide important data for future housing projects in Turkey. In the scope of the work, the Belerko Housing Settlement in the City of Trabzon has been selected as a research area. Aim of the study is to develop an understanding of the social, psychological and the physical characteristics that contribute to spatial quality in this specific housing environment.

Details

Open House International, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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