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The main causes of wear through corrosion in the cylinder liners of large and medium‐sized diesel engines through the use of residual oil rich in sulphur and ashes have…
The main causes of wear through corrosion in the cylinder liners of large and medium‐sized diesel engines through the use of residual oil rich in sulphur and ashes have been examined by the author, who is associated with Fiat Stabilimento Grandi Motori. Some remedies are given mainly with regard to special anti‐corrosive lubricating oils for the cylinders.
This article compares people from different countries according to their job related attitudes and ethical values based on empirical data from 15 countries. The results…
This article compares people from different countries according to their job related attitudes and ethical values based on empirical data from 15 countries. The results indicate that countries with a socialist past have to deal with the satisfaction of needs at a lower level than traditional capitalist countries and this consequently influences attitudes and expectations toward society, organisations and work. Attitudes toward society and facets of job satisfaction predict ethical values differently in countries with a different history as well. In traditional capitalist countries ethical values were influenced by attitudes toward society and almost not connected with facets of job satisfaction. In former socialist countries facets of job satisfaction better predicted ethical values of employees than in traditional capitalist countries.
Companies in general have not lived up to their ethical responsibility in assisting workers in decreasing workrelated accidents and illnesses. This paper presents a…
Companies in general have not lived up to their ethical responsibility in assisting workers in decreasing workrelated accidents and illnesses. This paper presents a systematic four‐stage employee involvement model that was successful in transforming a company’s culture to become a model for preserving workers’ rights to safe working conditions. By changing the prevailing management ideology on safety, the model offers a positive solution to improving workplace safety and morale, while preserving the workers’ rights to be involved in decisions that affect the quality of their lives.
The relationship between strategic positioning and the appropriate mechanism for its implementation is important to most top managers. The determination of an appropriate…
The relationship between strategic positioning and the appropriate mechanism for its implementation is important to most top managers. The determination of an appropriate organisational relationship will largely reflect the complexity of the trading environment. Intrapreneurship within traditional organisational structural formats is one mechanism to combat turbulent trading conditions. A “menu” of organisational relationships is presented which are used within a looser model of organisational relationships. Changes of this nature imply a re‐examination of managerial “grooming”. Educators must design school curricula around criteria of increasing self‐reliance and risk taking. Management developers should encourage the same characteristics. A change in political and social attitudes is also indicated.
In the real world, the variance of portfolio returns provides only a limited quantification of incurred risks, as the distributions of returns have “fat tails” and the…
In the real world, the variance of portfolio returns provides only a limited quantification of incurred risks, as the distributions of returns have “fat tails” and the dependence between assets are only imperfectly accounted for by the correlation matrix. Value‐at‐risk and other measures of risks have been developed to account for the larger moves allowed by non‐Gaussian distributions. In this article, the authors distinguish “small” risks from “large” risks, in order to suggest an alternative approach to portfolio optimization that simultaneously increases portfolio returns while minimizing the risk of low frequency, high severity events. This approach treats the variance or second‐order cumulant as a measure of “small” risks. In contrast, higher even‐order cumulants, starting with the fourth‐order cumulant, quantify the “large” risks. The authors employ these estimates of portfolio cumulants based on fat‐tailed distributions to rebalance portfolio exposures to mitigate large risks.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical conceptualisation of guilt and the depoliticization of downsizing practices. The authors begin with a critical review…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical conceptualisation of guilt and the depoliticization of downsizing practices. The authors begin with a critical review of the relevant management literature aiming to establish the discursive normalization and individualization of (un)employment. The authors then use secondary sources to reflect on the downsizing process. A process that, as the authors argue, is distinguished into three separate but interconnected phases: corporate memos (phase 1), termination scripts (phase 2) and the role of outplacement services (phase 3). By examining this process, the aim is to point to the mechanisms through which downsizing practices are neutralized and depoliticized.
This is a conceptual work that provides a systematic overview of the existing management literature on downsizing and guilt. Use of other secondary sources (corporate memos and termination scripts) is also employed to draw links between the discursive normalization of downsizing as identified in the relevant literature and the specific organizational processes and practices implemented by corporations during downsizing. The authors identify common ideas and themes that cut across the relevant literature and the secondary sources and aim to offer a theoretical conceptualisation of guilt and the depoliticization of downsizing practices.
This paper argues that downsizing discourses and practices contribute to the feelings of personal responsibility and self-blame, reinforcing an individualistic understanding of work and unemployment that excludes more structural ones, and that it helps in reproducing the existing structures of power.
The study recognizes that employees’ reactions are not only unpredictable but also constantly evolving, depending on personal and social circumstances. The authors also recognize that the work is based on secondary sources much of which talk about practices in US companies, and thus the authors are and should be cautious of generalizations. The authors hope, however, that the authors will encourage further empirical research, particularly among organization studies and critical management scholars, on downsizing practices and guilt. For the authors’ part, the authors have tried to offer a critical reflection on how guilt is produced through corporate discourses and practices, and the authors believe that further empirical investigation on the three phases of the downsizing process (as identified in our work) and the lived experience of (un)employment is needed. As corporate downsizing discourses and practices frame (un)employment in strictly individualist and behavioral terms, the authors wish to emphasize the need for further theoretical investigation and political contestation. The authors, therefore, hope that the work will contribute to the relevant literature on downsizing practices and open up the discussions around layoff policies and the structural conditions of (un)employment.
The paper shows that downsizing practices and feelings of guilt are strongly linked to and exemplify the “individualization” of social and political issues such as work and unemployment. The authors suggest that individualization signifies, in some sense, a retreat from organized collective resistance and mobilization based upon class and that the prevalence of the ideology of individualism (and its correlative, meritocracy), over alternative explanations and solutions to such public issues, helps in reproducing existing structures of power and inequity.
Although the number of women working in management accounting has increased, the percentage of female executives in this area remains low. Previous studies examining the…
Although the number of women working in management accounting has increased, the percentage of female executives in this area remains low. Previous studies examining the underrepresentation of women in accounting leadership positions have analyzed factors that hinder women from reaching these positions. The purpose of this paper, by contrast, is to identify factors that support the advancement of those female executives who have reached a leadership position. Further, this paper highlights the self-reported obstacles and difficulties faced by respondents in reaching their current positions.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with ten female executives in the management accounting departments of Austrian firms. The interview transcripts were analyzed by using the general inductive approach.
The results of the study show that most women classified their social skills and professional expertise as the key factors leading to their successful advancement; however, they also highlighted that ambition and luck played important roles. The authors found that support from both life partners and superiors was essential for these women in reaching their current positions and in handling difficulties when in a leadership position. Further difficulties include working time, work-life balance and motherhood.
As the findings are based on interviews conducted with female Austrian executives in large (more than 250 employees) manufacturing- or service-sector firms, they are not readily generalizable.
This study identifies factors that may help prospective female management accounting executives reach leadership positions. Furthermore, less senior female management accountants may learn from this paper that women who have already reached leadership positions in management accounting may have had to cope with problems similar to those that younger and less senior female management accountants currently experience.
This paper is among the first to address gender in the field of management accounting.