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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2018

Gudrun Roose, Maggie Geuens and Iris Vermeir

The purpose of this paper is to perform a preliminary examination of informational and transformational advertising appeals in contemporary advertisements for healthy and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform a preliminary examination of informational and transformational advertising appeals in contemporary advertisements for healthy and unhealthy foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Western (European) food advertisements published in Belgian food magazines were content analyzed to identify informational and transformational advertising appeals. Belgian food advertising was selected as an adequate representation of Western (European) food advertising because marketing in Belgium is permeated by international influences (cf. Belgian Federal Government). Advertisements were sampled from three magazines over a period of five years, from January 2009 to December 2013. The sample comprised 325 unique advertisements, including 159 for healthy foods and 166 for unhealthy foods.

Findings

The results of the content analysis indicated that healthy food advertisements in Belgium are mainly informational, whereas unhealthy food advertisements are mainly transformational.

Originality/value

This preliminary examination of informational and transformational advertising appeals in contemporary healthy food and unhealthy food advertisements shows that healthy food advertisements in Belgium are mainly informational, whereas the segment of consumers which is precarious – people low-involved with healthy food – are mainly attracted by transformational advertising appeals. The contrasting transformational strategy of unhealthy-food advertisements can provide inspiration for healthy food advertisers to help increase healthy food consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Zhiying Jiang, Chong Guan and Ivo L. de Haaij

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the benefits of Ad-Video and Product-Video congruity for embedded online video advertising. A conceptual model is constructed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the benefits of Ad-Video and Product-Video congruity for embedded online video advertising. A conceptual model is constructed to test how congruity between online advertisements, advertised products and online videos impact consumer post-viewing attitudes via processing fluency.

Design/methodology/approach

An online experiment with eight versions of mock video sections (with embedded online video advertisements) was conducted. The study is a 2 (type of appeal: informational vs emotional) × 2 (Ad-Video congruity: congruent vs incongruent) × 2 (Product-Video congruity: congruent vs incongruent) full-factorial between-subject design. A total of 252 valid responses were collected for data analysis.

Findings

Results show that congruity is related to the improvement of processing fluency only for informational ads/videos. The positive effect of Ad-Video congruity on processing fluency is only significant for informational appeals but not emotional appeal. Similarly, the positive effects of Product-Video congruity on processing fluency are only significant for informational appeals but not emotional appeal. Involvement has been found to be positively related to processing fluency too. Processing fluency has a positive impact on the attitudes toward the ads, advertised products and videos.

Research limitations/implications

The finding that congruity is related to the improvement of processing fluency only for informational ads/videos extends the existing literature by identifying the type of appeal as a boundary condition.

Practical implications

Both brand managers and online video platform owners should monitor and operationalize the content and appeal congruity, especially for informational ads on a large scale to improve consumers’ responses.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper to examine the effects of Ad-Video and Product-Video congruity of embedded advertisements on video sharing platforms. The findings of this study add to the literature on congruity and processing fluency.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Taejun (David) Lee, Wonjun Chung and Ronald E. Taylor

This paper aims to investigate how the US financial services organizations (FSOs) provided marketing information and the way they strategically used various appeals

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4197

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how the US financial services organizations (FSOs) provided marketing information and the way they strategically used various appeals through their advertising before and during the current financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This takes the form of a content analysis examining a total of 2,480 financial services ads (FSA) in print magazines within two periods – the two years before the crisis (2005 to 2006) and the two years during the crisis (2007 to 2008).

Findings

This study showed three significant findings: because of the economic struggle, there was a significant decline across the two periods in the total number of yearly FSA; the economic crisis led to a significant increase in the use of informational message strategies across all FSOs; and financial value and atmospherics appeals were predominant after the crisis. However, each FSO used appeals in a different way.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on only print media. A future research project aimed at other traditional media such as television and new media such as the internet or weblogs could provide additional analysis of financial advertising strategies.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that FSOs may rely much more heavily on informational than on transformational approaches during an economic crisis. The findings may provide further valuable implications for non‐profit institutions and international marketers.

Originality/value

This study contributes in several ways to understanding of the strategic communicative reactions of FSOs during the crisis.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Mónika Anetta Alt, Zsuzsa Săplăcan and József Berács

The purpose of this paper is to create a managerial framework for selecting the most effective bank advertisement appeal for different financial services. Financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create a managerial framework for selecting the most effective bank advertisement appeal for different financial services. Financial services were classified based on the FCB grid: high/low involvement and think/feel decision.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 62 banks with content analysis based on 1,514 unique print advertisements, published between 2006 and 2014 in national newspapers in Romania and Hungary. The ads were coded, based on Pollay’s appeals, and then a cluster analysis was performed to identify appeal and financial service clusters.

Findings

The results revealed ten bank-specific appeals which can be used for advertising four different banking services categories. All type of savings and loans for B2B are advertised with quality appeals (safety, productivity); current account and card, personal/home loans are advertised with financial value appeals (convenient, cheap); corporate branding with emotional appeals (affiliation, distinctive, enjoyment); and services with mixed appeals.

Research limitations/implications

The study could be extended for different target market, creative strategy, other media and more countries.

Practical implications

The paper provides guidelines on how the FCB grid could be extended for bank services to recommend specific appeals for each category.

Originality/value

The financial service literature proposes guidelines regarding bank advertisements. However, the recommended advertisement appeals were not linked to different bank services. This paper creates a comprehensive managerial framework in order to match the bank’s specific appeals with different bank services.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Kalpak K. Kulkarni, Arti D. Kalro and Dinesh Sharma

This study aims to investigate the influence of Big Five Personality traits (i.e. openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism…

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1207

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of Big Five Personality traits (i.e. openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism) on young consumers’ intentions to share branded viral video advertisements. Further, this study also demonstrates that the advertising appeal (informational versus emotional) used in the viral advertisement moderates the effects of specific personality traits on the sharing of viral ads.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is proposed based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality (McCrae and John, 1992) and advertising effectiveness literature. Using experiments, responses from young consumers were collected and hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression and ANOVA.

Findings

Results reveal that the two personality traits, extraversion and openness to experiences, are positively associated with consumers’ viral ad sharing intentions, whereas conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism are not. Moreover, individuals scoring high on openness and extraversion prefer sharing branded viral ads containing informational appeal vis-ã-vis those containing emotional appeals.

Originality/value

Studies decoding the factors behind the success of viral advertisements have more often focussed on the ad content rather than on personality dimensions of the ad sharers. This study bridges this gap by investigating the influence of Big Five Personality traits on young consumers’ intention to forward viral ads, in interaction with ad appeal. Young consumers represent key audience segments consuming and sharing viral content online, and hence, it is important to have a deeper understanding of this market segment.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Sony Kusumasondjaja

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of brand communication activities on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram among major Indonesian brands by assessing…

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3728

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of brand communication activities on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram among major Indonesian brands by assessing the message appeals, orientation, and consumer responses.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of 10,752 social media posts was conducted from the official Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts of 43 leading brands in Indonesia during a six-month period between July and December 2016. The data collected from each individual social media post generated by those brands were coded and analysed in terms of their message appeal, orientation, and responses.

Findings

Interactive brand posts were responded more frequently than informative message content. Twitter was more effective for informative appeal, Facebook worked better for interactive entertainment posts, and Instagram was more suitable for interactive content combining informative–entertainment appeals. Interactive brand post with mixed appeals received the most responses in Facebook and Instagram, while self-oriented message with informative appeal obtained the least.

Research limitations/implications

The findings expand the marketing literature about new media for marketing communication and suggest marketing practitioners the importance of different creative brand communication strategies to enhance social media marketing effectiveness when using multiple platforms.

Originality/value

This is among the first studies to compare the effectiveness of creative message strategy on multiple social media platforms as well as to present insightful findings on social media marketing practices in Indonesia.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Beatriz Casais and Aline Costa Pereira

This paper aims to analyse the prevalence of emotional and rational appeals in social advertising campaigns. There are studies about the effectiveness of these tones of…

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1412

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the prevalence of emotional and rational appeals in social advertising campaigns. There are studies about the effectiveness of these tones of appeals in social marketing, but there is no evidence about their prevalent use in social advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a content analysis of forty social advertisements promoting attitudes and behaviours regarding social causes. The selected ads were in video format and were extracted from the YouTube channels of Portuguese governmental and non-governmental organisations. The ads were coded according to the characteristics of each tone of appeals and classified as emotional, rational or a mix of both.

Findings

The authors classified 25 social ads as rational appeals, 8 as emotional and 7 as a mix of both appeals. The results of the research show that social marketers have preference for the use of rational tone in social advertising campaigns.

Originality/value

This study shows that there is a disruption between theory and practice in social marketing, considering the higher prevalence of rational appeals in contexts where theory recommends emotional appeals for higher effectiveness. This evidence is surprising, considering a previous study that evidenced a higher use of emotional appeals in advertising connected to social causes than in commercial advertisements. This paper focus on how practice may disrupt theory and explores possible reasons for the phenomenon.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Jiyoung Kim, Rebecca Melton, Jihye Ellie Min and Bu Yong Kim

The purpose of this research is to conduct an exploratory study to discover if presenting consumers with a certain content type (i.e. product-focused content with…

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1014

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to conduct an exploratory study to discover if presenting consumers with a certain content type (i.e. product-focused content with informational appeal, institution-focused content with emotional appeal, experience-focused content with emotional appeal,) and blog type (i.e. a corporate, sponsored or a personal blog) persuade consumers to form perceptions of credibility and similarity toward the fashion brand, which leads them to further engage with the brand through Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM).

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a 3(content type: product-focused, institution-focused, experience-focused) x 3(blog type: corporate, sponsored and personal) between-subjects design. Mock fashion blogs and content were developed in order to provide a realistic blogging experience for the participants. With 511 usable data collected, ANOVA was employed to test the relationships.

Findings

Findings reveal that content type, specifically product-focused content and experiential content, is an important consideration for illustrating similarities between the brand and consumers compared to institutional content. Product-focused content is found to be effective in encouraging consumer eWOM for the brand as well. Further, the interaction effect of blog type and content type was significant in establishing brand credibility. However, blog type did not influence any of the dependent variable.

Originality/value

This study brings meaningful suggestions to fashion brands on effective blog campaign, which eventually provide insights on how brands can influence female consumers to shape positive evaluation toward the brand.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Constantinos K. Coursaris, Wietske van Osch and Brigitte A. Balogh

The purpose of this paper is to offer a theory-driven, evidence-based approach to developing a brand’s messaging strategies on social media encompassing three messaging…

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8767

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a theory-driven, evidence-based approach to developing a brand’s messaging strategies on social media encompassing three messaging dimensions, namely, appeal, content, and richness.

Design/methodology/approach

Using longitudinal data from three Fortune 200 companies – Delta Airlines, Wal-Mart, and McDonald’s – the authors empirically investigate comprehensive strategic messaging framework. Using ANOVAs and regression analyses, the authors test a set of hypotheses regarding the relations between a brand ' s purchase involvement, its message appeal, message content, and message richness, and engagement.

Findings

Findings reveal significant relations between purchase involvement and appeal. Furthermore, the authors find that abstract content categories are best combined with richer media. Finally, both transformation appeal and richer media have a highly significant and positive effect on engagement.

Research limitations/implications

The authors offer a theoretical ground and empirical validation of both a comprehensive typology of content categories and a holistic strategic messaging framework that can fill a significant void in the social media marketing literature that lacks integrative models for assessing, classifying, analyzing, and in turn, informing future social media marketing strategies.

Practical implications

The validated framework can help managers better understand the diversity of messaging components as well as offer an analytical tool for assessing the nature of engagement associated with each appeal and category.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this paper offers the first comprehensive typology of content categories and validates it in the context of a strategic messages framework using real-world data finding strong support for all hypotheses.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

H.C. Susan Tai

Differences in cultural values may result in perceptual differences and thus necessitate the use of different advertising message strategies in different cultures. This…

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7195

Abstract

Differences in cultural values may result in perceptual differences and thus necessitate the use of different advertising message strategies in different cultures. This paper tests the relationship between cultural values and advertising message strategies employed in service advertising using the affective response approach, rather than content analysis. The results show that Hong Kong advertisers use significantly more transformational messages than in US services advertising. Advertising message strategies and cultural values often relate in a non‐random way. Informational message strategy and realistic culture are found to be strongly associated. When societies are more materialistic, advertisers are more likely to use transformational messages due to the high correlation between materialism and brand image. The result also shows that masculine culture, and cultures with long‐term orientation, idealism or low individualism are more likely to adopt transformational message strategy.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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