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1 – 10 of over 16000
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robert Gaizauskas and Yorick Wilks

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a…

1248

Abstract

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a pre‐specified set of entities, relations or events from natural language texts and to record this information in structured representations called templates. Here we describe the nature of the IE task, review the history of the area from its origins in AI work in the 1960s and 70s till the present, discuss the techniques being used to carry out the task, describe application areas where IE systems are or are about to be at work, and conclude with a discussion of the challenges facing the area. What emerges is a picture of an exciting new text processing technology with a host of new applications, both on its own and in conjunction with other technologies, such as information retrieval, machine translation and data mining.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Wen-Feng Hsiao, Te-Min Chang and Erwin Thomas

The purpose of this paper is to propose an automatic metadata extraction and retrieval system to extract bibliographical information from digital academic documents in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an automatic metadata extraction and retrieval system to extract bibliographical information from digital academic documents in portable document formats (PDFs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use PDFBox to extract text and font size information, a rule-based method to identify titles, and an Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to extract the titles and authors. Finally, the extracted titles and authors (possibly incorrect or incomplete) are sent as query strings to digital libraries (e.g. ACM, IEEE, CiteSeerX, SDOS, and Google Scholar) to retrieve the rest of metadata.

Findings

Four experiments are conducted to examine the feasibility of the proposed system. The first experiment compares two different HMM models: multi-state model and one state model (the proposed model). The result shows that one state model can have a comparable performance with multi-state model, but is more suitable to deal with real-world unknown states. The second experiment shows that our proposed model (without the aid of online query) can achieve as good performance as other researcher's model on Cora paper header dataset. In the third experiment the paper examines the performance of our system on a small dataset of 43 real PDF research papers. The result shows that our proposed system (with online query) can perform pretty well on bibliographical data extraction and even outperform the free citation management tool Zotero 3.0. Finally, the paper conducts the fourth experiment with a larger dataset of 103 papers to compare our system with Zotero 4.0. The result shows that our system significantly outperforms Zotero 4.0. The feasibility of the proposed model is thus justified.

Research limitations/implications

For academic implication, the system is unique in two folds: first, the system only uses Cora header set for HMM training, without using other tagged datasets or gazetteers resources, which means the system is light and scalable. Second, the system is workable and can be applied to extracting metadata of real-world PDF files. The extracted bibliographical data can then be imported into citation software such as endnote or refworks to increase researchers’ productivity.

Practical implications

For practical implication, the system can outperform the existing tool, Zotero v4.0. This provides practitioners good chances to develop similar products in real applications; though it might require some knowledge about HMM implementation.

Originality/value

The HMM implementation is not novel. What is innovative is that it actually combines two HMM models. The main model is adapted from Freitag and Mccallum (1999) and the authors add word features of the Nymble HMM (Bikel et al, 1997) to it. The system is workable even without manually tagging the datasets before training the model (the authors just use cora dataset to train and test on real-world PDF papers), as this is significantly different from what other works have done so far. The experimental results have shown sufficient evidence about the feasibility of our proposed method in this aspect.

Details

Program, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Nassim Abdeldjallal Otmani, Malik Si-Mohammed, Catherine Comparot and Pierre-Jean Charrel

The purpose of this study is to propose a framework for extracting medical information from the Web using domain ontologies. Patient–Doctor conversations have become…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a framework for extracting medical information from the Web using domain ontologies. Patient–Doctor conversations have become prevalent on the Web. For instance, solutions like HealthTap or AskTheDoctors allow patients to ask doctors health-related questions. However, most online health-care consumers still struggle to express their questions efficiently due mainly to the expert/layman language and knowledge discrepancy. Extracting information from these layman descriptions, which typically lack expert terminology, is challenging. This hinders the efficiency of the underlying applications such as information retrieval. Herein, an ontology-driven approach is proposed, which aims at extracting information from such sparse descriptions using a meta-model.

Design/methodology/approach

A meta-model is designed to bridge the gap between the vocabulary of the medical experts and the consumers of the health services. The meta-model is mapped with SNOMED-CT to access the comprehensive medical vocabulary, as well as with WordNet to improve the coverage of layman terms during information extraction. To assess the potential of the approach, an information extraction prototype based on syntactical patterns is implemented.

Findings

The evaluation of the approach on the gold standard corpus defined in Task1 of ShARe CLEF 2013 showed promising results, an F-score of 0.79 for recognizing medical concepts in real-life medical documents.

Originality/value

The originality of the proposed approach lies in the way information is extracted. The context defined through a meta-model proved to be efficient for the task of information extraction, especially from layman descriptions.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Xintong Zhao, Jane Greenberg, Vanessa Meschke, Eric Toberer and Xiaohua Hu

The output of academic literature has increased significantly due to digital technology, presenting researchers with a challenge across every discipline, including…

Abstract

Purpose

The output of academic literature has increased significantly due to digital technology, presenting researchers with a challenge across every discipline, including materials science, as it is impossible to manually read and extract knowledge from millions of published literature. The purpose of this study is to address this challenge by exploring knowledge extraction in materials science, as applied to digital scholarship. An overriding goal is to help inform readers about the status knowledge extraction in materials science.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a two-part analysis, comparing knowledge extraction methods applied materials science scholarship, across a sample of 22 articles; followed by a comparison of HIVE-4-MAT, an ontology-based knowledge extraction and MatScholar, a named entity recognition (NER) application. This paper covers contextual background, and a review of three tiers of knowledge extraction (ontology-based, NER and relation extraction), followed by the research goals and approach.

Findings

The results indicate three key needs for researchers to consider for advancing knowledge extraction: the need for materials science focused corpora; the need for researchers to define the scope of the research being pursued, and the need to understand the tradeoffs among different knowledge extraction methods. This paper also points to future material science research potential with relation extraction and increased availability of ontologies.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are very few studies examining knowledge extraction in materials science. This work makes an important contribution to this underexplored research area.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Hao Han and Takehiro Tokuda

The purpose of this paper is to present a method to realize the flexible and lightweight integration of general web applications.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a method to realize the flexible and lightweight integration of general web applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The information extraction and functionality emulation method are proposed to realize the web information integration for the general web applications. All the processes of web information searching, submitting and extraction are run at client‐side by end‐user programming like a real web service.

Findings

The implementation shows that the required programming techniques are within the abilities of general web users, and without needing to write too many programs.

Originality/value

A Java‐based class package was developed for web information searching/submitting/extraction, which users can integrate easily with the general web applications.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2010

Andreas Vlachidis, Ceri Binding, Douglas Tudhope and Keith May

This paper sets out to discuss the use of information extraction (IE), a natural language‐processing (NLP) technique to assist “rich” semantic indexing of diverse…

844

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to discuss the use of information extraction (IE), a natural language‐processing (NLP) technique to assist “rich” semantic indexing of diverse archaeological text resources. The focus of the research is to direct a semantic‐aware “rich” indexing of diverse natural language resources with properties capable of satisfying information retrieval from online publications and datasets associated with the Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources (STAR) project.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes use of the English Heritage extension (CRM‐EH) of the standard core ontology in cultural heritage, CIDOC CRM, and exploitation of domain thesauri resources for driving and enhancing an Ontology‐Oriented Information Extraction process. The process of semantic indexing is based on a rule‐based Information Extraction technique, which is facilitated by the General Architecture of Text Engineering (GATE) toolkit and expressed by Java Annotation Pattern Engine (JAPE) rules.

Findings

Initial results suggest that the combination of information extraction with knowledge resources and standard conceptual models is capable of supporting semantic‐aware term indexing. Additional efforts are required for further exploitation of the technique and adoption of formal evaluation methods for assessing the performance of the method in measurable terms.

Originality/value

The value of the paper lies in the semantic indexing of 535 unpublished online documents often referred to as “Grey Literature”, from the Archaeological Data Service OASIS corpus (Online AccesS to the Index of archaeological investigationS), with respect to the CRM ontological concepts E49.Time Appellation and P19.Physical Object.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 62 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Yilu Zhou and Yuan Xue

Strategic alliances among organizations are some of the central drivers of innovation and economic growth. However, the discovery of alliances has relied on pure manual…

170

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic alliances among organizations are some of the central drivers of innovation and economic growth. However, the discovery of alliances has relied on pure manual search and has limited scope. This paper proposes a text-mining framework, ACRank, that automatically extracts alliances from news articles. ACRank aims to provide human analysts with a higher coverage of strategic alliances compared to existing databases, yet maintain a reasonable extraction precision. It has the potential to discover alliances involving less well-known companies, a situation often neglected by commercial databases.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed framework is a systematic process of alliance extraction and validation using natural language processing techniques and alliance domain knowledge. The process integrates news article search, entity extraction, and syntactic and semantic linguistic parsing techniques. In particular, Alliance Discovery Template (ADT) identifies a number of linguistic templates expanded from expert domain knowledge and extract potential alliances at sentence-level. Alliance Confidence Ranking (ACRank)further validates each unique alliance based on multiple features at document-level. The framework is designed to deal with extremely skewed, noisy data from news articles.

Findings

In evaluating the performance of ACRank on a gold standard data set of IBM alliances (2006–2008) showed that: Sentence-level ADT-based extraction achieved 78.1% recall and 44.7% precision and eliminated over 99% of the noise in news articles. ACRank further improved precision to 97% with the top20% of extracted alliance instances. Further comparison with Thomson Reuters SDC database showed that SDC covered less than 20% of total alliances, while ACRank covered 67%. When applying ACRank to Dow 30 company news articles, ACRank is estimated to achieve a recall between 0.48 and 0.95, and only 15% of the alliances appeared in SDC.

Originality/value

The research framework proposed in this paper indicates a promising direction of building a comprehensive alliance database using automatic approaches. It adds value to academic studies and business analyses that require in-depth knowledge of strategic alliances. It also encourages other innovative studies that use text mining and data analytics to study business relations.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Chuanming Yu, Haodong Xue, Manyi Wang and Lu An

Owing to the uneven distribution of annotated corpus among different languages, it is necessary to bridge the gap between low resource languages and high resource…

Abstract

Purpose

Owing to the uneven distribution of annotated corpus among different languages, it is necessary to bridge the gap between low resource languages and high resource languages. From the perspective of entity relation extraction, this paper aims to extend the knowledge acquisition task from a single language context to a cross-lingual context, and to improve the relation extraction performance for low resource languages.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a cross-lingual adversarial relation extraction (CLARE) framework, which decomposes cross-lingual relation extraction into parallel corpus acquisition and adversarial adaptation relation extraction. Based on the proposed framework, this paper conducts extensive experiments in two tasks, i.e. the English-to-Chinese and the English-to-Arabic cross-lingual entity relation extraction.

Findings

The Macro-F1 values of the optimal models in the two tasks are 0.880 1 and 0.789 9, respectively, indicating that the proposed CLARE framework for CLARE can significantly improve the effect of low resource language entity relation extraction. The experimental results suggest that the proposed framework can effectively transfer the corpus as well as the annotated tags from English to Chinese and Arabic. This study reveals that the proposed approach is less human labour intensive and more effective in the cross-lingual entity relation extraction than the manual method. It shows that this approach has high generalizability among different languages.

Originality/value

The research results are of great significance for improving the performance of the cross-lingual knowledge acquisition. The cross-lingual transfer may greatly reduce the time and cost of the manual construction of the multi-lingual corpus. It sheds light on the knowledge acquisition and organization from the unstructured text in the era of big data.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

A.C.M. Fong, S.C. Hui and H.L. Vu

Research organisations and individual researchers increasingly choose to share their research findings by providing lists of their published works on the World Wide Web…

Abstract

Research organisations and individual researchers increasingly choose to share their research findings by providing lists of their published works on the World Wide Web. To facilitate the exchange of ideas, the lists often include links to published papers in portable document format (PDF) or Postscript (PS) format. Generally, these publication Web sites are updated regularly to include new works. While manual monitoring of relevant Web sites is tedious, commercial search engines and information monitoring systems are ineffective in finding and tracking scholarly publications. Analyses the characteristics of publication index pages and describes effective automatic extraction techniques that the authors have developed. The authors’ techniques combine lexical and syntactic analyses with heuristics. The proposed techniques have been implemented and tested for more than 14,000 Web pages and achieved consistently high success rates of around 90 percent.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Minxue Huang, Xiu Hu and Shiyong Zheng

There is always a matching effect in advertising persuasion – the information that matches product characteristics or target consumer characteristics is considered to be…

52

Abstract

Purpose

There is always a matching effect in advertising persuasion – the information that matches product characteristics or target consumer characteristics is considered to be relatively more persuasive. Based on the accessibility-diagnosability theory, this paper discusses the influence of the matching degree between the information presentation (vague description and precise description) and product attribute (vertical attribute and horizontal attribute) on people's attitudes toward advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 aims to explore the impact of the matching effect of different information presentation methods (precise presentation vs vague presentation) and product attribute (horizontal attribute vs vertical attribute) on consumers' attitudes toward advertising; secondary data was used to support this research. Study 2 mainly used the situational simulated experiment to examine the results of study 1, and further explored the mediating mechanism of its matching effect.

Findings

The authors found that the matching degree between the information presentation method and product attribute will positively affect the fluency of advertising information processing, that is, the use of vague description of product vertical attribute can positively affect consumers' extraction fluency; while the use of precise description of product horizontal attribute can positively affect consumers' processing fluency, and both extraction fluency and processing fluency will positively affect consumers' attitude toward the advertisement.

Originality/value

An essential enlightenment of the research is that it sheds light on the interaction between product attribute (vertical attribute vs horizontal attribute) with the information presentation method (vague description vs precise description) from the perspective of accessibility-diagnosability theory, which explains consumers' information processing mechanisms in dealing with different advertising information.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 16000