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Article

Carina Sponholtz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reaction to earnings announcements in a small stock market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reaction to earnings announcements in a small stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the traditional event study method to examine the information content of annual earnings announcements in the small Danish stock market from 1999‐2004.

Findings

The paper finds abnormal volatility in the days surrounding the announcements, indicating that they contain relevant information for the stock market. The abnormal volatility persists several days after the announcement, suggesting that the information environment of this small stock market works to decrease the speed of adjustment. In addition to this sign of inefficiency, the paper finds significant positive abnormal returns accompanying the announcements. These results are robust across various methodologies. Surprisingly, the paper finds a positive correlation between the information content and predisclosure information. This contradicts previous studies, and it is interpreted as evidence of a low level of pre‐announcement information. Confirming the results of similar studies, the paper finds that unexpected earnings are best proxied using a model based on consensus analyst forecasts.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature by analyzing the information content of earnings announcements in a small stock market with accounting standards that are congruent with the International Accounting Standards.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article

Cheng-Yi Chien, Tzu-Hsiang Liao and Hsiu-Chuan Lee

– This paper aims to examine the impact of a reduction in tick size on the information content of the order book by using data from the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of a reduction in tick size on the information content of the order book by using data from the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE).

Design/methodology/approach

To estimate the information content of the order book, the modified information share proposed by Hasbrouck and extended by Lien and Shrestha is used in this paper.

Findings

The empirical results show that the limit order book is informative. Furthermore, the results indicate that a reduction in tick size will decrease the information content of the order book and the decrease in the information content of the order book is positively related to the thinner order book.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that, in order to enhance the information content of the order book, the TWSE should disclose the full limit order book.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Book part

Peter Huaiyu Chen, Kasing Man, Junbo Wang and Chunchi Wu

We examine the informational roles of trades and time between trades in the domestic and overseas US Treasury markets. A vector autoregressive model is employed to assess…

Abstract

We examine the informational roles of trades and time between trades in the domestic and overseas US Treasury markets. A vector autoregressive model is employed to assess the information content of trades and time duration between trades. We find significant impacts of trades and time duration between trades on price changes. Larger trade size induces greater price revision and return volatility, and higher trading intensity is associated with a greater price impact of trades, a faster price adjustment to new information and higher volatility. Higher informed trading and lower liquidity contribute to larger bid–ask spreads off the regular daytime trading period.

Details

Advances in Pacific Basin Business, Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-285-6

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Article

Zhang Zongxin and Zhang Xiao

The purpose of this paper is to explain what information is contained in mutual funds' trading behaviors and to try to further assess the impact on the stock market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain what information is contained in mutual funds' trading behaviors and to try to further assess the impact on the stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective is achieved by an empirical examination using the high‐frequency intraday data. The main methods used for the research are the autoregressive conditional duration model and the UHF‐GARCH model.

Findings

This paper gives an empirical study of mutual funds' behavior on two aspects. The first aspect is the direct impact on micro variables. The results show that mutual funds changing their positions will have different influences to the spread, adding position broadens the spread, while decreasing position makes the spread narrow; behaviors of funds change the clustering characteristic of the duration. The second aspect is the impact on the relationships among micro variables. The results indicate that trading started by liquidity buyers will make volatility larger.

Research limitations/implications

This paper supposes funds as informed traders and individual investors as liquidity traders in China's stock market. If it is not true, some interpretations of empirical results would be wrong. The authors' results may help researchers to understand the information content of funds' trading behaviors in the microstructure aspect.

Originality/value

The paper is an original work, which will be interesting to scholars in market microstructure and to practitioners in the Chinese stock market. The main contributions of the paper are: the use of high‐frequency data to study funds' behaviors and combine the trading duration and investors' trading behavior to analyze the information content of trading behaviors; second, the use of 14 stock samples in the Shanghai Stock Exchange to do the empirical study, which ensures the reliability of the results.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article

Hassanudin Mohd Thas Thaker, Azhar Mohamad, Nazrol Kamil Mustaffa Kamil and Jarita Duasa

This paper aims to investigate the value of information content and informativeness of the analyst report for Sharīʿah-compliant shares in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the value of information content and informativeness of the analyst report for Sharīʿah-compliant shares in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a sample of 657 daily published analyst reports on Sharīʿah-compliant shares from 2010 to 2015, which were downloaded from Bursa Malaysia’s repository system. The method was quantitative in nature and panel regression analysis was used. Diagnostics tests including the variance inflation factor, correlation analysis, heteroskedasticity test, serial auto-correlation and the Hausman test were performed to ensure validity and reliability of data. The significance of the variables indicated whether the analyst reports contained valuable information on Shariah compliancy.

Findings

Results obtained from the FEM-Robust model revealed that the R2 value was equivalent to 0.79 per cent, suggesting that the power of return explained by the information content and informativeness was less for Sharīʿah-compliant shares. The F-statistics were statistically significant for all models, postulating that the data used were reliable and fit for the purpose of analysis. The findings showed that the information content of target price and earnings forecasts significantly influenced the returns of Sharīʿah-compliant shares. In terms of informativeness, return on equity, sales to price ratio and cash flow to price were associated with the returns of the shares.

Practical implications

The outcome from this finding confirmed that the analyst report retained its position as a good source of reference when making investment decisions. However, the disclosure of information in the form of qualitative information together with fundamental information should be enhanced for Sharīʿah-compliant share so that investors would have adequate information when making an investment decision.

Originality/value

This study will supply more insights into the matter of information content and informativeness of the analyst report in Malaysia by focussing on Sharīʿah-compliant shares, which is practically an underexplored research area in Malaysia.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article

Ningning Pan and Hongquan Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how block trading and asymmetric information contribute to the firm-specific information measured by the stock return…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how block trading and asymmetric information contribute to the firm-specific information measured by the stock return synchronicity. Based on China stock market which is dominated by individual investors, this study focus on whether traders of block trading, which are usually institutional investors, are “information trader.”

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the high frequency data, the paper constructs two measures of information asymmetry, intraday measure and inter-day measure. Then the paper constructs a multiple regression model and examine how block trading and information asymmetry contribute to the firm-specific information measured by the stock return synchronicity.

Findings

The results show that: on the one hand, block trading transmits more firm-specific information, and can reduce the synchronicity; on the other hand, when the degree of information asymmetry is higher, block trading contains more firm-specific information and has a stronger effect on synchronicity. The effect of information asymmetry specifically displays as: block trading during the first half-hour of the trading day has a stronger effect on synchronicity; and block trading occurred in the days with publicly announced trading information has greater impact on synchronicity.

Practical implications

The conclusions have important practical implications: for market regulators, monitoring for block trading can improve the recognition and prevention of insider trading; for individual investors, especially the risk aversion investors, recognition of intraday and inter-day information asymmetry is beneficial for them to avoid the risk of asymmetric information.

Originality/value

First, the domestic and foreign research mostly concentrated impact of block trading on stock prices. However, reasons of stock price changes include the information effect and non-information effect, this paper selects stock return synchronicity as firm-specific information measure, and mainly focus on the information effect of block trading. Second, based on the high frequency data, the paper constructs two measures of information asymmetry, intraday measure and inter-day measure. Compared with general measure of information asymmetry, such as firm size, earnings quality, the two measures based on high frequency data are more precisely.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article

Abhinava Tripathi, Vipul and Alok Dixit

This study aims to provide a systematic literature review of the research study in the area of limit order book (LOB) mechanism of trading and its implications for market…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a systematic literature review of the research study in the area of limit order book (LOB) mechanism of trading and its implications for market efficiency. The study attempts to document the recent theoretical developments and empirical findings from the literature exhaustively and identifies the research gaps for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses seven reputable databases to select 2,514 research studies spanning over 1981-2018 (finally compressed to a pool of 103 articles, based on relevance and impact). The study uses bibliometric network visualization and text analytics to categorize and examine the literature. The chosen articles are compiled and analyzed to provide a comprehensive account of the current research on LOBs.

Findings

The recent LOB literature is summarized on various criteria as follows: sub-areas, the types of economies and markets, methodologies and the LOB measures. The review identifies a dearth of studies on the LOBs in emerging markets. It suggests the potential research areas as intraday studies in emerging LOB markets; application of market indicators based on deeper levels of LOB, beyond the best prices; market fragmentation, order routing decision and its impact on order execution quality; optimal display of LOB levels; liquidity dynamics in quote-driven markets vis-à-vis LOB markets; effect of high-frequency trading on market microstructure; application of advanced techniques (e.g. machine learning models, zero-intelligent models); relationship between the trading speed, order aggressiveness, shape and resilience of the order book and informed trading; and information content of the auxiliary order submission strategies, including cancellation, amendments and hidden orders.

Originality/value

For the past 15 years, to the best of the knowledge, a comprehensive review of the literature on LOBs has not been published. The financial markets have transformed significantly over this period, driven by the adoption of LOBs, low latency trading and technological advancements in information dissemination. This article provides an extensive collection and classification of the literature on LOBs. This would be useful for the practitioners, future researchers and academics in the area of financial markets.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article

Adam Y.C. Lei and Huihua Li

The purpose of this paper is to examine the order strategies of investors, in particular their use of intermarket sweep orders (ISOs), in response to a short‐lived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the order strategies of investors, in particular their use of intermarket sweep orders (ISOs), in response to a short‐lived information event.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a natural experiment on September 8, 2008, in which a 2002 bankruptcy story of United Airlines erroneously reappears through Bloomberg terminals and cause significant price changes on the stock. The authors first provide the background information of this natural experiment and use bootstrapping methods and regression analyses to examine investors' use of intermarket sweep orders.

Findings

The results show that investors use intermarket sweep orders, a unique type of liquidity‐demanding limit orders, in attempts to exploit their short‐lived information. In particular, those investors show aggressiveness not only in trade speed but also in trade size. These findings support the hypothesis that investors with short‐lived information demand immediacy to conserve the value of their information.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that investors on the demand side of liquidity dynamically trade off the potential adverse impact of trade‐throughs with the speed their trades are executed. How limit order traders on the supply side or liquidity suppliers in general adjust to the demand‐side dynamics remains a future research direction.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the fragility of information transmission in financial markets and suggests that the use of intermarket sweep orders could possibly magnify the impacts of erroneous information.

Originality/value

Using a natural experiment, this paper provides the first piece of empirical evidence on the use of intermarket sweep orders when investors possess short‐lived information.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Joshua C. Hall, Serkan Karadas and Minh Tam Tammy Schlosky

Congress passed the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge (STOCK) Act of 2012, vesting the Securities and Exchange Commission with the clear legal authority to prosecute…

Abstract

Purpose

Congress passed the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge (STOCK) Act of 2012, vesting the Securities and Exchange Commission with the clear legal authority to prosecute members of Congress (politicians) if they engage in insider trading. This paper aims to investigate whether members of Congress are informed traders even before they get elected to Congress, and thus helps assess whether the STOCK Act was a necessary piece of legislation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study compares the performance of politicians’ portfolios before and after they are elected to Congress using data from the 2004-2010 period. The authors use an event-study method to construct transactions-based calendar-time portfolios and use standard asset pricing models including capital asset pricing model (CAPM) to determine whether these portfolios earn abnormal returns (i.e. outperform the market).

Findings

The authors find weak and inconsistent evidence of abnormal returns in politicians’ portfolios that precede their election. They also find that it takes two consecutive terms in Congress for members to start making informed trades that earn themselves abnormal returns. However, these abnormal returns only accrue to those who serve on powerful committees.

Research limitations/implications

The results in this paper provide support for the STOCK Act of 2012 by showing that members of Congress become informed traders while they serve in Congress. However, these results do not imply any wrongdoing for members of Congress, because the paper uses the pre-STOCK Act data (2004-2010 period).

Originality/value

This study is the first academic work that compares politicians’ portfolios before and after they get elected.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

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Article

Thu Phuong Pham

The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes in the price impact of trades in the major Korean stock market following the introduction of disclosure to all traders…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes in the price impact of trades in the major Korean stock market following the introduction of disclosure to all traders of the top five brokers on the buy-side and the top five brokers on the sell-side of trades in real time for each stock in the KOSDAQ market.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses several alternative metrics for the price impact of trades. The study applies estimation methodology that accounts for the potential endogeneity of other market quality proxies, which are used as control variables in price impact regressions, by utilizing two-stage-least-square methods with fixed effect specification.

Findings

This study finds that the permanent price impact (information effect) of both buyer- and seller-initiated trades increases, which indicates that information is disseminated quicker in a transparent market. Uninformed trades have a larger permanent price impact than informed trades on both the buy and sell sides. The liquidity price effects are found to be mixed for buys and sells.

Research limitations/implications

The study supports the current policy of the Korean Exchange to publicly display the five most active broker IDs on both the buy and sell sides, as it attracts both informed and liquidity traders, leading to faster price discovery in a more transparent market. However, a future study which analyzes the change in the market quality in both local markets would provide a complete picture of the effects of the policy.

Originality/value

Earlier studies documenting the effect of broker ID disclosure on market quality used effective spreads, market depth or order book imbalance as market quality measures. This study contributes to the existing literature by examining the changes in direct measures of the private information effect and liquidity effect of trades in a stock market – the Korean Stock Exchange – when the other part of the exchange (the KOSDAQ stock market) shifts to public broker ID transparency at the same transparency level.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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