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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Sajjad ur Rehman and Laila Marouf

The purpose of the study was to investigate the conduct of information operations in Kuwait. One of the top executives or managers from each of the 39 companies, which…

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate the conduct of information operations in Kuwait. One of the top executives or managers from each of the 39 companies, which volunteered to participate in the study, was interviewed. Participant input was sought on a carefully designed questionnaire, containing 19 questions, covering the scatter of information operations. It was noted that most of these companies were engaged in a number of activities for determining user needs and collecting, organising, servicing, packaging, searching and retrieving information from formal and structured information sources. Against this backdrop, the absence of any information unit or professional was quite significant. Little activity was also noted in the use of Web technology and Internet utilities. Another finding, worthy of the attention of the policy makers, was related to little activity in the organisation, control and use of the internal information sources of these companies.

Details

Program, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Zablon Pingo and Bhuva Narayan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of wearable health and fitness trackers in everyday life, and users’ motivations and their understanding and use of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of wearable health and fitness trackers in everyday life, and users’ motivations and their understanding and use of the data derived from devices, and understand the results using the lens of information behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a qualitative, constructionist approach, based on 21 interviews with users of a range of wearable activity trackers used for health and fitness.

Findings

Findings show that the lifelogging devices have become companion tools that enable users to take information from their bodily indicators and make some decisions about their health and fitness, and also track the results when they act on it, thus giving them a sense of gratification and a sense of control over their own health.

Practical implications

The findings have implications on how health professionals can talk to their lifelogging patients about how to deal with and understand the information provided by their activity-tracking devices. Some participants in the study already discuss these data regularly with their health professionals.

Originality/value

As the self-tracking practices attract wide range research interests from human–computer interaction, information systems, digital sociology, health informatics and marketing among others. This study provides important everyday information-seeking perspective that contributes to the understanding of the practices of how people make sense of the data, how the data improves their wellbeing, i.e. physical health improvement or fitness, and implications to users health behaviour. Additionally the study adds to the lifelogging literature through a constructionist, qualitative approach rather than a technological deterministic approach.

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Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

Nicholas Berente, Betty Vandenbosch and Benoit Aubert

Many business process improvement efforts emphasize better integration, yet process integration can mean many things. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the…

Abstract

Purpose

Many business process improvement efforts emphasize better integration, yet process integration can mean many things. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of information flows to modern business processes, and draw upon recent organizational and information systems literature to characterize process integration and to derive four principles of process integration: accessibility, timeliness, transparency, and granularity of information flows.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a field study, the four principles of process integration are applied to analyze ten different business processes across five organizations.

Findings

In total, 18 generalized activities are identified that describe non‐integrated behavior, and “keying in known data” was found to be the most common. Among other findings, analysis highlights the importance of documentation to modern business processes, especially for coordination roles, and the paper describes three different purposes for documentation found in the data: content, process validation, and posterity.

Research limitations/implications

The articulation of “business process integration” offers a foundation for future research in this area. Findings are limited in generalizability to various levels of processes, as well as possible instrument‐related biases.

Practical implications

The principles of process integration provide a lens through which practitioners can analyze processes. Empirical findings stress the role of documentation, forms of documentation, and types of non‐integrated work.

Originality/value

The paper characterizes process integration in relation to other commonly‐used constructs such as organizational integration, data integration, and application integration. Principles are derived from the literature that can guide future inquiry and practice associated with business process improvement.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Ola Pilerot

The purpose of this article is to investigate and critically examine conceptualisations of information sharing activities in a selection of library and information science…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to investigate and critically examine conceptualisations of information sharing activities in a selection of library and information science (LIS) literature.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to explore how LIS researchers define the concept of information sharing, and how the concept is connected with theory, empirical material and other supporting concepts, a literature review and a conceptual meta‐analysis was carried out on 35 papers and one monograph. The analysis was based on Waismann's concept of open texture, Wittgenstein's notion of language games and the concept of meaning holism.

Findings

Six theoretical frameworks were identified. These are not found to be incommensurable, but can be used as building blocks for an integrative framework. Ambiguous conceptualisations are frequent. Different conceptualisations tend to emphasize different aspects of information sharing activities: that which is shared; those who are sharing; and the location in which the sharing activities take place. The commonalities of the people involved in information sharing activities are often seen as a ground for the development of information sharing practices.

Practical implications

The findings provide a guide for future research which intends to explore activities of information sharing.

Originality/value

The article offers a systematic review of recent LIS literature on information sharing, and extends the theoretical base for information sharing research.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Anna Lundh and Mikael Alexandersson

The aim of this study is to further understanding of the situated activity of seeking pictures. It relates to an ongoing discussion on how multimodal information

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to further understanding of the situated activity of seeking pictures. It relates to an ongoing discussion on how multimodal information literacies are enacted in different social practices.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to understand the characteristics of the communication and interactions in the activity of seeking pictures, video recordings from an ethnographic study of primary school children working with problem‐centred assignments have been analysed.

Findings

The analysis reveals how the activity of seeking pictures is shaped by the assumption that pictures are different from facts and information; pictures are seen primarily as having decorative functions. The activity is also characterised by playful, yet efficient cooperation between the children; they make the activity meaningful by transforming it into a play and game activity where pictures become important as physical objects, but not as a semiotic means of learning.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to the activity of seeking pictures in a specific primary school; however, it shows how modes other than textual modes can be included in the study of information activities.

Practical implications

The study reveals the need for developing methods for enhancing children's possibilities to critically examine and learn from visual material, such as pictures.

Originality/value

Research on information seeking and information literacies rarely focus on multimodal aspects of information activities or the seeking of pictures outside special collections, despite the increased significance of visual material in the contemporary media landscape. This paper shows how studies of multimodal information activities can be designed.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Sofia Börjesson

Activity‐based approaches, often referred to as activity‐based costingor activity‐based management, have recently gained attention as beinguseful tools for a better…

Abstract

Activity‐based approaches, often referred to as activity‐based costing or activity‐based management, have recently gained attention as being useful tools for a better understanding of cost behaviour and cost control. Such approaches aim at providing accurate cost information in order to keep track of costs and to yield continuous improvement. Presents two case studies where activity‐based projects were run. The two firms studied represent two different objectives with the activity analysis, namely product costing and activity control. The characteristics of the activity information affect its usefulness, and in this article, activity information is subdivided into quantitative and qualitative information. Argues that it is important to have a clear objective with an activity‐based approach in order to gather the appropriate type of activity information and thereby exploit the potential improvement opportunities. Only quantitative activity information suffices for approaches aiming at costing, whereas approaches aiming at activity control require also qualitative activity information. The two case studies illustrate the significance of using the type of activity information that fits the purpose.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 14 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Jack Andersen

To provide some theoretical considerations concerning information literacy so as to contribute to a theoretically informed point of departure for understanding information

Abstract

Purpose

To provide some theoretical considerations concerning information literacy so as to contribute to a theoretically informed point of departure for understanding information literacy and to argue that to be an information literate person is to have knowledge about information sources and that searching and using them is determined by an insight into how knowledge is socially organized in society.

Design/methodology/approach

Using concepts from composition studies that deal with the question of what a writer needs to know in order to produce a text, the paper outlines some ideas and key concepts in order to show how these ideas and concepts are useful to our understanding of information literacy. To demonstrate how information‐literacy is to have knowledge about information sources and that searching and using them is determined by an insight into how knowledge is socially organized in society, the paper takes a point of departure in Habermas' theory of the public sphere.

Findings

Concludes that information seeking competence is a sociopolitical skill, like reading and writing skills, connected to human activity. Searching for documents in information systems is a complex and sociopolitical activity. As an expression of human activity we might say that searching for documents and reading and writing constitutes each other. The genre knowledge necessary in reading and writing does also apply when seeking information in systems of organized knowledge as the forms of information determine what can be expected and found in these systems. Information literacy covers, then, the ability to read society and its textually and genre‐mediated structures. Information literacy represents an understanding of society and its textual mediation.

Research limitations/implications

Locating an understanding of information literacy in a broader discursive framework requires us to rethink our hitherto concepts and understandings of information literacy as socio‐political skills and not mere technical search skills

Originality/value

Rarely is information literacy discussed and understood from social‐theoretical perspectives. This article illuminates how an analysis of information literacy from the perspective of the theory of the public sphere can open up for an understanding of information literacy socio‐political skills. Thus, the article has contributed with a new interpretation of information literacy.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 62 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Yuxiang Chris Zhao, Yan Zhang, Jian Tang and Shijie Song

In the domain of information science, affordance is a relatively new concept that deserves further exploration. It may serve as a bridge to narrow the research-practice…

Abstract

Purpose

In the domain of information science, affordance is a relatively new concept that deserves further exploration. It may serve as a bridge to narrow the research-practice gap that has persisted in information studies. Building upon previous research, we call for a broader concept of affordance that would help researchers understand information practices from an ecological perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focuses on conceptualizing affordances for information practices in order to theorize engagement among people, technology, and sociocultural environments. We develop a hierarchical model and a component model to illustrate how key tenets of affordances can be linked with the decomposition of activities and its mechanism. Following this, we describe an illustrative case of a popular Chinese cloud-based music platform to demonstrate the utility of our conceptual frameworks in guiding studies of information practices.

Findings

The study proposes to shift the focus of technology affordances, which highlights the features and functions of particular technologies, to the affordances for practices that are enacted through technology and social construction within a sociocultural environment. The illustrative case of the cloud-based music platform shows that the proposed models can provide a structured view of operations, actions and motives for music information practices. The processes of internalization and externalization offer insight into the decomposition of information practice as a chain of activity-action-operation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on theorizing engagement among people, technology and sociocultural environments through the theoretical lens of affordances and sheds new light on the challenges of information practice.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Bo‐Christer Björk

A model of the information and material activities that comprise the overall construction process is presented, using the structured analysis and design technique (SADT…

Abstract

A model of the information and material activities that comprise the overall construction process is presented, using the structured analysis and design technique (SADT) activity modelling methodology. The basic model is refined into a number of generic information handling activities such as the creation of new information, information search and retrieval, information distribution and person‐to‐person communication. The viewpoint could be described as that of information logistics. The model is then combined with a more traditional building process model, consisting of key phases such as design and construction. The resulting two‐dimensional matrix can be used for positioning different types of generic IT‐tools or construction‐specific applications. The model can thus provide a starting point for a discussion of the application of information and communication technology in construction and for measuring its impact on the overall process and its related cost.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

William J. Montford, John Peloza and Ronald Earl Goldsmith

The current research contributes to the marketing literature by examining, and more importantly, better understanding a presentation format (i.e. PACE) in which caloric…

Abstract

Purpose

The current research contributes to the marketing literature by examining, and more importantly, better understanding a presentation format (i.e. PACE) in which caloric information is complemented with physical activity time required to offset consumption. The purpose of this paper is to systematically evaluate the impact of this approach in both actual and simulated consumption settings while providing evidence of its contribution to healthier decision-making. This research uncovered several important insights into how consumers are influenced by, and respond to, the presence of physical activity time.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used experiential designs in five studies to examine how the presence of physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) information affects consumption. The studies measured both intended and actual consumption behavior. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance as well as bootstrapping methods.

Findings

The paper establishes that PACE information reduces consumption compared to NLEA-mandated information. We show that the effectiveness of PACE information differs based on consumers’ level of health consciousness as well as food type. Our research also uncovers a moderating effect based on perceived difficulty of the featured activity. Finally, we show the psychological process underlying the effectiveness of PACE information.

Research limitations/implications

Future research can address the generalizability of current findings across different consumption domains and contexts. Our work focuses on the efficacy of information delivery at the point of consumption. The results of the current study may differ when the decision is being made at the point of purchase for future consumption.

Practical implications

The paper’s findings represent a win-win scenario for consumers and manufacturers alike. Manufactures stand to benefit from PACE information as many consumers are seeking healthier food options and are willing to pay a premium for items that help them make more healthful choices. Consumers will benefit as well, given the struggle with obesity and other diet-related ills, by being provided with a more effective means of making healthier choices.

Social implications

Obesity and diet-related chronic diseases are global pandemics affecting consumers throughout the world. This paper contributes to this issue by presenting manufacturers and researchers with a better understanding of how consumers can be encouraged to make healthier choices and overcome the barriers to healthier lifestyles.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a gap in the literature as well as an important social concern by better understanding how healthier nutrition choices can be encouraged.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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