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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Theingi Theingi, Hla Theingi and Sharon Purchase

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how institutional mechanisms operate within both formal and informal channels of cross-border remittance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how institutional mechanisms operate within both formal and informal channels of cross-border remittance.

Design/methodology/approach

Face-to-face interviews were conducted with Myanmar migrants mostly working in Thailand. Thematic coding was used to analyze field notes and identify themes in channel member perceptions and institutional environmental process.

Findings

Informal money transfer channels have achieved higher levels of legitimacy when compared to formal channels. Channel legitimacy is a more important attribute than efficiency. Lack of financial infrastructure, such as bank branches and ATM machines particularly in rural or outlying areas of Myanmar, the requirements for formal documentation and language and communication are the major institutional constraints that encourage the development and use of multiple channels in Myanmar. Formal money transfer channels develop with stronger regulative institutional processes, whereas informal money transfer channels develop with stronger cultural-cognitive and normative institutional processes.

Research limitations/implications

Using convenience sample of remitters mainly from one area of Thailand and other channel members from Yangon, the financial capital of Myanmar, may limit the applicability of the findings, which calls for future research.

Practical implications

Banks and money transfer offices need to improve legitimacy perception within migrant communities by building stronger networks with local banks and international banks. They could provide Myanmar speaking front-line service personnel and include brochures in the Myanmar language to improve the communication process. The findings and recommendations from this study are also applicable to informal channels and formal financial institutions in other ASEAN countries that are preparing to make investments in Myanmar. Moreover, Myanmar banks should also consider opening branches to cater for Myanmar workers in ASEAN, especially in Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.

Originality value

This paper applies institutional theory within channels, investigates the context of a financial channel rather than a product channel, addresses the importance of institutional environmental mechanisms and constraints in influencing channel behavior and is embedded in the situational context of Myanmar, a newly opened South-East Asian economy where little prior research has been conducted.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Marco Caliendo, Ricarda Schmidl and Arne Uhlendorff

This paper aims to analyze the role of social networks on the job search choices of the unemployed. If social networks convey useful information in the job search process…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the role of social networks on the job search choices of the unemployed. If social networks convey useful information in the job search process, individuals with larger networks should experience a higher productivity of informal search channels. This in turn affects the choice of formal search intensity and the reservation wage. The paper seeks to test these search‐theoretic implications of productive social networks empirically.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the IZA Evaluation Dataset containing detailed information on job search behavior of recently unemployed individuals. Observing a rich array of personality traits and direct measures of the social network, the authors choose an identification approach based on observable characteristics using least squares and binary probit regression analysis.

Findings

The findings confirm theoretical expectations. Individuals with larger networks use informal search channels more often and shift from formal to informal search. In addition to that, evidence is found for a positive relationship between network size and reservation wages.

Research limitations/implications

The extent to which networks are used during job search most likely also depends on the quality of the network, which cannot be observed in the data. However, as the network significantly changes the observable formal job search effort of individuals, public job search monitoring policies should take these effects into account.

Originality/value

The paper complements the previous body of literature on the role of social networks in the labor market that predominantly focuses on labor market outcomes. By highlighting the interaction between networks and job search choices the paper improves the understanding of realized labor market outcomes in the presence of networks.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2017

Ahmed Shehata, David Ellis and Allen Edward Foster

The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study to investigate the changes in scholarly communication practices among a group of scholars in the UK and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study to investigate the changes in scholarly communication practices among a group of scholars in the UK and build upon the results that were published in a previous paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The study deployed a naturalistic inquiry approach using semi-structured interviews as a qualitative research tool. A sample of 40 participants from four UK universities was interviewed to explore the changes in informal scholarly communication behaviour.

Findings

The analysis of the interviews revealed that there are three ideal types of behaviour: the “orthodox” uses formal and traditional scholarly communication approaches; the “moderate” prioritises formal communication approaches, but at the same time is trying to get benefits from informal channels; and, the “Heterodox” uses all channels available in the scholarly communication.

Originality/value

The value of the current study lies in using a naturalistic inquiry approach to investigate the changes in scholarly communication practices, and to explore the different scholarly communication styles. In the context of this study, the use of a naturalistic approach and grounded theory principles in connection with coding provided a stance that allows for the gathering of rich information to enable understanding and explanation of scholarly communication activities in addition to uncovering themes that related to scholarly behaviour.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Klarita Gërxhani and Ferry Koster

The purpose of this paper is to investigate employers’ recruitment strategies to address distinct job-related agency problems before establishing an employment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate employers’ recruitment strategies to address distinct job-related agency problems before establishing an employment relationship. Insights from agency theory and the social embeddedness perspective are combined to hypothesize whether and why employers adapt their recruitment strategies to the job type (differing in level of discretion) for which they are externally hiring.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are empirically tested using data from a survey of 288 Dutch employers. Questions were asked about the two types of jobs. Multi-level logistic regression analysis is applied to investigate the effect of social context on the choice of recruitment strategy. In addition to that, separate analyses are conducted for the two job types, using logistic regression analysis.

Findings

As predicted, employers have the tendency to use informal recruitment channels more often for jobs with high degree of discretion (i.e. managerial, professional, and specialists jobs (MPS)) than for jobs with low degree of discretion (i.e. administrative and supporting jobs). In addition, the type of information transmitted through employers’ social contacts matters for their recruitment strategies. In particular, the reliable and trustworthy information from contacts with friends and family is more important for MPS jobs. This seems to be the way employers deal with the high agency costs characterizing this type of jobs.

Originality/value

This study extends prior research as follows. First, while earlier studies more closely looked at why organizations use formal or informal recruitment, this study specifically focusses on the role the job type plays in the hiring process. Second, it provides an extension of agency theory by including job type in the analyses. And, third, the study examines how the networks of employers, rather than employees, affect the hiring process.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Jun Su and Yuefan Sun

The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of informal finance and trade credit on the performance of private firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of informal finance and trade credit on the performance of private firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a survey to private firms in 19 cities, the paper empirically tests the promoting effects of informal finance and trade credit on the performance of private firms in China.

Findings

It was found that informal finance and trade credit have positive effects on private firms' performance measured by ROA. The net income reinvestment rate of private firms is positively related to whether or not the firm adopts informal financing or trade credit financing. A private firm having limited access to formal finance is more inclined to rely on self‐funds and is more limited by financing choices. Informal financing and trade credit can relieve the tension of cash flow chain but cannot solve the financing constraints. The empirical results also show that bank credit is still not the main financing choice for private firms and has not yet played a promoting role in private firms' performance and growth. Informal finance is more important to promote performance in manufacturing industry, while trade credit is more effective in wholesale and trading industry. The results show the coexistence viability of informal financing channels and formal financial institutions in China.

Practical implications

The policy implication is the Chinese Government should take careful steps to regulate informal financing sources.

Originality/value

After some theoretical literature, such as Lin and Sun, this paper explores for the first time the effect of informal financing channels on the performance of private firms.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2015

Jakhongir Kakhkharov and Alexandr Akimov

Remittances in the former Soviet Union have increased rapidly over the past decade. In some countries of the former Soviet Union, remittances have reached staggering…

Abstract

Remittances in the former Soviet Union have increased rapidly over the past decade. In some countries of the former Soviet Union, remittances have reached staggering levels. For example, in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan remittances now account for over 10% of GDP, with Tajikistan leading the pack with annual remittances of approximately 40% of GDP. Remittances in this group of economies now exceed foreign direct investment and foreign assistance. Because this rapid rise in remittances is a relatively recent trend and obtaining reliable data is difficult, this area of research has been underexplored.

The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of existing remittance measurement methodologies. Moreover, we propose practical methods to adjust the Central Bank of Russia data to derive more accurate remittances estimates in selected countries of the former Soviet Union. These selected economies are major recipients of remittances among transition economies and account for as much as 10% of remittances worldwide. There have been attempts to provide this type of estimation in individual countries; however, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, that propose a general methodology for the region.

Details

Neo-Transitional Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-681-2

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Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2005

William Ocasio and John Joseph

Macro- and microorganizational perspectives on strategy processes are typically treated as distinct lines of inquiry. This paper proposes an attention-based theory (March

Abstract

Macro- and microorganizational perspectives on strategy processes are typically treated as distinct lines of inquiry. This paper proposes an attention-based theory (March & Olsen, 1976; Ocasio, 1997) of strategy formulation processes to bridge both perspectives. In particular, it links evolutionary perspectives on strategy (Burgelman, 1991, 2002) and strategic choice (Child, 1972) perspectives on organizational and strategic decision making (Bower, 1970; Carter, 1971; Cyert & March, 1963; Frederickson, 1986). Our treatment of the strategy process extends theory by viewing strategy processes as assemblages of tightly and loosely coupled networks of operational and governance channels (Allison & Zelikow, 1999; Ocasio, 1997), strategy formulation as a fluid and distributed process, and environmental, organizational level and individual level forces as consequential. Like Lovas and Ghoshal (2000), we view strategy formulation as a process of guided evolution. Unlike Lovas and Ghoshal who view strategic intent as the objective function that guides evolution, we view strategy formulation processes as more fragmented and contested, with multiple foci of attention, rather than an explicit objective function, and both top-down and bottoms-up processes capable of generating changes in the strategic direction of the firm.

Details

Strategy Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-340-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Colin C. Williams

The view that alternative retail channels (i.e. informal and/or second‐hand modes of goods acquisition) are used out of economic necessity by disadvantaged consumers has…

Abstract

The view that alternative retail channels (i.e. informal and/or second‐hand modes of goods acquisition) are used out of economic necessity by disadvantaged consumers has been recently opposed by cultural theorists who instead read such channels in agency‐oriented terms as places of fun, sociality, distinction, discernment, the spectacular and so forth. To evaluate these contrasting perspectives, this paper reports data from 350 interviews conducted in rural England. Finding that the agency‐oriented view of alternative retail channels is valid amongst higher‐income populations but economic necessity remains the principal motive amongst lower‐income populations, this paper concludes that, for a fuller understanding to be achieved, the dualistic “either/or” debates between those promulgating economic necessity and those emphasising choice need to be replaced by a “both/and” approach sensitive to the variations in the meanings of such channels.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2007

Owen Hargie and David Dickson

This paper aims to present the results of a study into the effectiveness of the communication of anti‐sectarian legislation in four of the largest public and private…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the results of a study into the effectiveness of the communication of anti‐sectarian legislation in four of the largest public and private sector organizations in Northern Ireland (NI). The study had two related central objectives. Firstly, to ascertain the level of employee understanding of anti‐sectarian rules and regulations in NI workplaces, and, secondly, to evaluate the relevance of an Episodic Communication Channels in Organization (ECCO) approach to the investigation of this key aspect of organizational practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An ECCO questionnaire was used to evaluate and track employee understanding of existing legislation, and chart the sources, channels, location and timing of information dissemination.

Findings

A clear finding was that there was a paucity of employee understanding of existing policies and procedures with regard to sectarianism.

Practical implications

The results are discussed in relation to the importance of effective information flow on key organizational issues.

Originality/value

The efficacy of ECCO as a communication audit tool for charting information dissemination is evaluated.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Trine Fjordback Søndergaard, Jack Andersen and Birger Hjørland

In 1971 UNISIST proposed a model for scientific and technical communication. This model has been widely cited and additional models have been added to the literature…

Abstract

In 1971 UNISIST proposed a model for scientific and technical communication. This model has been widely cited and additional models have been added to the literature. There is a need to bring this model to the focus of information science (IS) research as well as to update and revise it. There are both empirical and theoretical reasons for this need. On the empirical side much has happened in the developments of electronic communication that needs to be considered. From a theoretical point of view the domain‐analytic view has proposed that differences between different disciplines and domains should be emphasised. The original model only considered scientific and technical communication as a whole. There is a need both to compare with the humanities and social sciences and to regard internal differences in the sciences. There are also other reasons to reconsider and modify this model today. Offers not only a descriptive model, but also a theoretical perspective from which information systems may be understood and evaluated. In addition to this provides empirical exemplification and proposals for research initiatives.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 59 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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