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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Danny Whatmough

Abstract

Details

Digital PR
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-622-4

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2022

Jenna Jacobson, Adriana Gomes Rinaldi and Janice Rudkowski

The paper aims to examine how employees influence their employer’s brand by applying Taylor’s (1999) six segment message strategy wheel in an employee influencer context.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine how employees influence their employer’s brand by applying Taylor’s (1999) six segment message strategy wheel in an employee influencer context.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses a content analysis of employees’ public social media posts – including captions and images – to analyze the message strategies employees use to promote their employers.

Findings

While ego and social were popular message strategies in both the images and captions, the findings evidence the varying message strategies employees use in text-based versus image-based messages. Four “imagined audiences” of employee influencers are identified: current customers, prospective customers, current employees and prospective employees.

Research limitations/implications

The research provides insight into how employees act as influencers in building their employer brand on social media.

Practical implications

A unique measurement tool is developed that can be used by companies and future researchers to decode employees’ online communications.

Originality/value

This research contributes to theory and practice in the following important ways. First, the research provides a modernization of an existing framework from an offline setting to an applied industry context in an online setting. Second, this research focuses on a subtype of social media influencer, the employee influencer, which is an underdeveloped area of research. Third, a unique measurement tool to analyze text-based and image-based social media data is developed that can be used by companies and future researchers to decode employees’ online communications.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2022

Rang Wang and Sylvia Chan-Olmsted

Since influencer marketing becomes more sophisticated, it is difficult for brands to manage the strategy and process of this marketing practice. With a practical focus…

Abstract

Purpose

Since influencer marketing becomes more sophisticated, it is difficult for brands to manage the strategy and process of this marketing practice. With a practical focus, this study aims at helping marketers cope with the challenge by developing conceptual typologies for influencers and followers and suggesting marketing implications for each type of influencer and follower.

Design/methodology/approach

This study subscribes to the perspectives of virtual community and social information processing to develop conceptual typologies for influencers and followers based on their essential characteristics.

Findings

Based on levels of expertise and interactivity, influencers can be categorized as broadcasters, leaders, friends and companions. Each type has advantages in certain branding objectives (e.g. increasing awareness, inducing judgments and feelings, building brand and user imagery, encouraging pro-brand behaviors and managing relationships) and is associated with certain marketing limitations (e.g. reach, domain breadth, informational support, brand congruence and relationship management). Based on levels of behavioral engagement and the point of attachment, followers are categorized into spectators, participants, admirers and advocators, with specific marketing communication strategies most effective for each type (e.g. strategies of content, narratives, engagement and co-branding).

Originality/value

The study translates the idea of influencer community into a practically useful framework for practitioners to best leverage influencer marketing and an innovative perspective for scholars to further investigate the phenomenon.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Augusto Bargoni, Chiara Giachino, Enrico Battisti and Lea Iaia

The purpose of this study is to investigate how influencer endorsement services stimulate funding intention in the context of crowdfunding (donation- and reward-based) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how influencer endorsement services stimulate funding intention in the context of crowdfunding (donation- and reward-based) and the moderating role played by platform trufvst and funder expertise.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the effects of influencer endorsement services (i.e. perceived congruence, social influence and motivation) on funding intention in different crowdfunding campaigns, the authors developed a conceptual model tested using structural equation modelling. The authors also investigated two potential moderators underlying this relationship: platform trust and funder expertise.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that there was a positive effect of influencer endorsement services through the dimension congruence and the funding intention, both for reward- and donation-based crowdfunding. Moreover, they suggest that while perceived congruence has a positive effect on funding intention, when the two contexts are compared, only the moderating roles of platform trust over motivation and the funder expertise over motivation are significant and relevant.

Practical implications

The study has implications for both funders and those who seek to raise money for crowdfunding campaigns. The results offer new insights for developing effective crowdfunding campaigns, e.g. leveraging communication strategies based on the context of the crowdfunding (reward- vs donation-based) and the use of influencers as endorsers.

Originality/value

The present study is, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the first to examine the impact of influencer endorsement services on crowdfunding campaigns, shedding new light on the interdisciplinary connections between service marketing and entrepreneurial finance in terms of fundraising activities. The study opens new and previously under-investigated interdisciplinary research streams. It deepens our understanding of a particular issue relating to the marketing and crowdfunding domain by measuring the impact of the influencer’s endorsement on people’s intention to participate in two different campaigns.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2022

Dean Charles Hugh, Rebecca Dolan, Paul Harrigan and Harriet Gray

The continued evolution of influencer marketing has created a need to better understand influencer marketing effectiveness. With brands increasingly partnering with…

Abstract

Purpose

The continued evolution of influencer marketing has created a need to better understand influencer marketing effectiveness. With brands increasingly partnering with influencers, research is yet to provide an integrated perspective examining the critical role of both parties. This study aims to draw on the source credibility model and signaling theory to explain the mechanisms that matter in influencer marketing effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model of influencer marketing effectiveness is analyzed using partial least squares with data from 281 followers of social media influencers.

Findings

The authors establish influencer characteristics of popularity and attractiveness as heuristic cues that inform judgments of influencer efficacy. Further, category involvement and altruistic motives for collaboration are shown to moderate followers’ reliance on these heuristic cues. Then, a sequential mediating effect demonstrates the critical roles of the influencer and partner brand in three desired outcomes: enhanced perception of brand authenticity, enhanced brand engagement and positive attitudes toward influencer posts.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should consider other heuristic cues that could inform influencer efficacy judgments and switch the focus toward the partner brand’s impact on such judgments.

Practical implications

A step-by-step visual framework is presented to help marketers and influencers translate these findings into key responsibilities for developing more effective and collaborative partnerships.

Originality/value

Besides presenting an integrated perspective, signaling theory provides an original lens for explaining influencer marketing effectiveness, addressing the need to expand the theoretical boundaries of influencer marketing research. 

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Thilini Chathurika Gamage and Nicholas Jeremy Ashill

Despite the increasing popularity of influencer marketing, there exists a lack of understanding of how content created by social media influencers stimulates the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the increasing popularity of influencer marketing, there exists a lack of understanding of how content created by social media influencers stimulates the pre-purchase behaviour of followers. Based on the stimulus-organism-response framework, this paper aims to address this lacuna by examining how influencer-created content affects the willingness of followers to search for more information related to the posted product.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional research design uses a web-based questionnaire among Instagram users in Sri Lanka. Structural equation modelling with analysis of moment structures 27 and SPSS PROCESS macro are used for hypothesis testing.

Findings

Findings indicate that the commercial orientation of influencer-created content reduces follower trustworthiness towards them and the perceived credibility of the content. Mediation results demonstrate that the commercial orientation of influencer-created content negatively affects follower willingness to search for more information related to the posted product through trustworthiness and perceived credibility.

Practical implications

When adopting influencer marketing to stimulate information search behaviour, marketing practitioners should carefully examine the commercial orientation of the content of the messages posted by social media influencers to maintain high levels of follower trustworthiness towards the influencer and positive follower credibility perceptions of the message.

Originality/value

This paper adds to influencer marketing literature by demonstrating the underlying process through which the commercial orientation of influencer-created content impacts follower willingness to search for product-related information.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Wondwesen Tafesse and Bronwyn P. Wood

Drawing on insights from social influence theory, the MAIN model of digital media affordances and the literature on the attention economy, this study aims to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on insights from social influence theory, the MAIN model of digital media affordances and the literature on the attention economy, this study aims to investigate how social media influencers’ community and content strategy contribute to follower engagement behavior in the presence of competition.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a web-scraped data set of Instagram influencers. It measured community strategy using influencers’ number of followers, number of following and breadth of interest; content strategy using modality type and number of posts; competition using number of influencers operating in the same primary domain of interest; and follower engagement behavior using number of likes and comments. A negative binomial regression model was estimated to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The findings reveal that elements of influencers’ community and content strategies, such as number of followers, modality type and number of posts, influence follower engagement behavior. Similarly, competition significantly influences follower engagement behavior both independently and by interacting with influencers’ community and content strategy.

Practical implications

The findings offer insight for brands to identify suitable influencers for partnerships. For instance, brands can judge influencers’ suitability for partnership based on how many followers they have, how many posts they share and how many competitors they have. Further, the findings offer insight for influencers on how they can drive follower engagement behavior by managing their social media community and content.

Originality/value

This study develops an integrated model of factors that determine follower engagement behavior for social media influencers. The findings emphasize influencers’ strategy as the primary driver of follower engagement behavior. Extant studies focus on followers’ motivation and perception to explain follower engagement behavior while the role of influencers’ strategy is underplayed.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2022

Kirsten Cowan, Teea Palo, Duncan Chapple and Yiwei Zhang

The purpose of this study is to address these questions. Word-of-mouth (WOM) is increasingly important in business-to-business (B2B) decision-making. Yet, research on this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address these questions. Word-of-mouth (WOM) is increasingly important in business-to-business (B2B) decision-making. Yet, research on this topic is rather limited, and often borrows from business-to-consumer (B2C) WOM literature. The question remains as to whether these assumptions realistically occur in B2B WOM. Specifically, this study explores the following questions: What value does B2B WOM have? Why do social media influencers in B2B engage in WOM? What type(s) of social media influencers spread WOM in B2B?

Design/methodology/approach

To address these questions, this study adopts a qualitative research strategy. This study focuses on industry analysts in information technology markets who often influence the buying decisions of customers through their expertise and recommendations of technology solutions. Based on interviews with these influencers, this study explicates B2B WOM, an area the authors know much less of in comparison to B2C WOM.

Findings

This study reveals differences in who spreads WOM within B2B, their roles, key features of their content and how they spread WOM. Second, this study demonstrates the types of actors spreading WOM in B2B in relation to the type of WOM and how it actually influences B2B markets.

Originality/value

This study broadens the current definition of WOM and, specifically, showcases WOM not only as amplifying messages but as a means to co-create the market itself with vendors and clients. This research offers several contributions to the B2B WOM literature and influencer practice.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Atmadeep Mukherjee, Amaradri Mukherjee, Pramod Iyer and Ronn J. Smith

The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical approach to the understanding of the potential interplay between influencer opinions and consumer-generated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical approach to the understanding of the potential interplay between influencer opinions and consumer-generated information on consumer decision-making. Given the growth of influencer marketing and the pervasive nature of consumer star-ratings, it becomes critical to understand how and why these information sources influence consumers’ shopping decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from the literature on source credibility, this paper proposes that influencer opinion interacts with the influencer’s reach on influencer credibility, skepticism towards the product and purchase intentions. Boundary conditions of consumer-generated information are also tested.

Findings

Convergent results across three studies indicate that the effect of influencer opinion is contingent upon both valence of the opinion and reach of the influencer. Consumer-generated information (i.e. star-ratings and the volume of ratings) moderates the effect of influencer opinion on purchase intentions. These effects are mediated by the credibility of the influencer and skepticism towards the product.

Practical implications

Understanding the relative impact of influencer opinions in the presence of other consumer-generated information provides managers with a framework to effectively manage online communications.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper provides a theoretically grounded first look at the potential interplay between two extremely powerful factors, influencer opinion and consumer-generated information. This paper provides a better understanding of the psychological mechanism behind the intricate workings of consumer-generated information.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2022

Zixuan Cheng, Kirk Plangger, Feng Cai, Colin L. Campbell and Leyland Pitt

This paper aims to explore how business-to-business (B2B) salespeople use social media and emulate value creation strategies used by social media influencers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how business-to-business (B2B) salespeople use social media and emulate value creation strategies used by social media influencers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using 28 interviews with salespeople, this paper develops six propositions and a conceptual framework that outlines when and how B2B salespeople use social media in value-creating sales.

Findings

This study’s findings provide a critical analysis of when social media are most effective and beneficial in supporting salespeople’s value-creating sales in various stages in the sales process (e.g. prospecting, opening relationships, qualifying prospects and serving accounts) and when they are less effective (e.g. presenting sales messages and closing sales).

Research limitations/implications

This research yields a substantive understanding of the evolving role that social media play in B2B sales by examining B2B salespeople’s value creation strategies through the lens of social media influencers’ practice and outlines ideas for future research on B2B salespeople’s social media strategies.

Practical implications

The findings of this research can be used by B2B organizations to structure the training of B2B salespeople to use social media to the fullest extent by aligning specific strategies with different parts of the sales process.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by summarizing the B2B sales literature on social media and integrating recent insights from the social media influencer literature; empirically identifying how B2B salespeople use social media to create value, thus validating previous findings and extending understanding by offering a set of six theoretical propositions; and delineating B2B salespeople’s social media practice into 11 value creation strategies that are critically explored for their place in the sales process.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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