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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Suman Seth and Sabina Alkire

A number of multidimensional poverty measures that respect the ordinal nature of dimensions have recently been proposed within the counting approach framework. Besides…

Abstract

A number of multidimensional poverty measures that respect the ordinal nature of dimensions have recently been proposed within the counting approach framework. Besides ensuring a reduction in poverty, however, it is important to monitor distributional changes to ensure that poverty reduction has been inclusive in reaching the poorest. Distributional issues are typically captured by adjusting a poverty measure to be sensitive to inequality among the poor. This approach, however, has certain practical and conceptual limitations. It conflicts, for example, with some policy-relevant measurement features, such as the ability to decompose a measure into dimensions post-identification and does not create an appropriate framework for assessing disparity in poverty across population subgroups. In this chapter, we propose and justify the use of a separate decomposable inequality measure – a positive multiple of “variance” – to capture the distribution of deprivations among the poor and to assess disparity in poverty across population subgroups. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through two contrasting inter-temporal illustrations using Demographic Health Survey data sets for Haiti and India.

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Boniface Ngah Epo and Francis Menjo Baye

This paper investigates the effect of reducing inequality in household education, health and access to credit on pro-poor growth in Cameroon using the 2001 and 2007…

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of reducing inequality in household education, health and access to credit on pro-poor growth in Cameroon using the 2001 and 2007 Cameroon household consumption surveys. Results indicate that education and access to credit registered relative pro-poor growth driven by a fall in inequality. However, health failed to record pro-poor growth due to an increase in health-inequality at the bottom of the welfare distribution. In addition, equalizing education, health and access to credit among households, would increase average growth in household spending and pro-poor growth.

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Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-993-0

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Tarun Sengupta and Somnath Mukherjee

In the post-WTO era, the volume of international trade has grown in a good amount in India. At the same time, the continuous lowering and removing of the trade barriers of…

Abstract

In the post-WTO era, the volume of international trade has grown in a good amount in India. At the same time, the continuous lowering and removing of the trade barriers of different forms create several impacts on poverty and inequality. In this chapter, we tried to capture the issues of inequality, specially the gender inequality, which has worsened a lot in the last two decades. In one side, trade openness enhanced the growth, but at the cost of increasing inequality. Theil index and Atkinson index both show an increasing trend of inequality. The Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Inequality-adjusted Human Development or Gender Development Indices are also showing increasing inequality. The state-wise analysis of such inequality indices is varying a lot over the study period. This chapter throws some insight into these issues and concludes that in the post-WTO era income inequality has increased a lot with a very few exceptions. In some states (like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab) only export have increased the employment in the unorganized sectors. The study concludes that exports have generated additional employment and incomes in the economy, but these gains have not trickled down to the poor. The study is confined to Indian cases only and covers the time period 2000–2001 to 2018–2019.

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Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2008

Henar Díez, Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega and Ana Urrutia

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value…

Abstract

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value judgments on the measurement. In the unidimensional approach, Zheng (2007a, 2007b) suggests replacing all these properties with the unit-consistency axiom, which requires that the inequality or poverty rankings, rather than their cardinal values, are not altered when income is measured in different monetary units. The aim of this paper is to introduce a multidimensional generalization of this axiom and characterize classes of multidimensional inequality and poverty measures that are unit consistent.

Design/methodology/approach: Zheng (2007a, 2007b) characterizes families of inequality and poverty measures that fulfil the unit-consistency axiom. Tsui (1999, 2002), in turn, derives families of the multidimensional relative inequality and poverty measures. Both of these contributions are the background taken to achieve our characterization results.

Findings: This paper merges these two generalizations to identify the canonical forms of all the multidimensional subgroup- and unit-consistent inequality and poverty measures. The inequality families we derive are generalizations of both the Zheng and Tsui inequality families. The poverty indices presented are generalizations of Tsui's relative poverty families as well as the families identified by Zheng.

Originality/value: The inequality and poverty families characterized in this paper are unit and subgroup consistent, both of them being appropriate requirements in empirical applications in which inequality or poverty in a population split into groups is measured. Then, in empirical applications, it makes sense to choose measures from the families we derive.

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Inequality and Opportunity: Papers from the Second ECINEQ Society Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-135-0

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

Christopher K. Johnson and Hoseong Kim

The impacts of median income and other variables on the Sen index of poverty in the United States are investigated using panel data with fixed time period and cross…

Abstract

The impacts of median income and other variables on the Sen index of poverty in the United States are investigated using panel data with fixed time period and cross sectional effects. Estimates for the Sen index and its decomposed components – the headcount ratio, poverty gap ratio, and Gini coefficient among the poor reveal that median income among state/regions and across time systematically influences the Sen index and each of its components. However, the results reveal that labor market and demographic control variables have quite different effects on the distinct components of the Sen index.

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Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2007

Alessandro Santoro

Following Ahmad and Stern (1984) a number of papers have been devoted to the analysis and the application of revenue-neutral and welfare-enhancing marginal commodity tax…

Abstract

Following Ahmad and Stern (1984) a number of papers have been devoted to the analysis and the application of revenue-neutral and welfare-enhancing marginal commodity tax reforms. A recent stream of literature has investigated poverty-reducing commodity tax reforms using specific poverty measures. Here we derive the conditions under which a revenue-neutral marginal commodity tax reform increases the mean income of the poor and generates Lorenz-dominance of post-tax with respect to pre-tax distribution of equivalent income among the poor. These conditions are easy to interpret and not particularly difficult to apply.

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Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1374-7

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Tahseen Jafry

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of gender and social inequality in the agricultural sector of South Asia with a focus on wheat as a major staple crop…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of gender and social inequality in the agricultural sector of South Asia with a focus on wheat as a major staple crop, which underpins the breadbasket of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). It provides new insights, as examined through a climate justice lens, into the status of women and socially excluded groups in the region and, based on this, calls for re-thinking both politically and practically on how to shape future initiatives to be more gender and socially inclusive, thereby supporting the rights of the neediest.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of research and evidence is conducted on how gender and social inequality is currently being addressed in the agricultural sector through an analysis of peer reviewed and grey literature. This is followed by a synthesis which is presented as directions and recommendations for future initiatives developed through a climate justice lens.

Findings

Gender and social inequality issues are rife across the IGP. This may be for many reasons including poor targeting, little capacity, lack of strategic positioning in programme and project design – all of which have enormous implications for the poorest and most marginalised communities and, especially, women. The need to conduct more gender-inclusive and socially inclusive research to enhance gender equity and equal opportunities for women and men is highlighted. The need to include a human rights-based approach to safeguarding the rights of the most vulnerable affected by climate change is indicated through the gender analysis; the finding provides some guiding principles in moving towards the new 2015 climate agreement and Post 2015 Development Goals.

Originality/value

The results provide a foundation which stimulates thinking around climate justice, and the contribution this approach can make to better inform future agricultural initiatives/policies to be more gender-inclusive and socially inclusive.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2012

Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega and Ana Urrutia

In the unidimensional poverty field, a number of axioms capture the distribution sensitivity among the poor. One of them is the monotonicity sensitivity axiom that demands…

Abstract

In the unidimensional poverty field, a number of axioms capture the distribution sensitivity among the poor. One of them is the monotonicity sensitivity axiom that demands that a poverty measure should be more sensitive to a reduction in the income of a poor person, the poorer that person is. On the other hand, the minimal transfer axiom requires poverty to decrease when a transfer of income is made from a poor person to a poorer one. These axioms turn out to be identical, but they provide different and interesting interpretations. Both of them rely deeply on the income-ranking of the poor.

Some generalizations of the minimal transfer axiom and its variations have been proposed in the multidimensional framework. In none of them the partial ordering of the poor is taken into account. No counterpart of the monotonicity sensitivity axiom exists.

This note introduces multidimensional generalizations of the two mentioned axioms, keeping the crucial assumption that only when the poor involved are unambiguously ranked are the axioms uncontroversial. We show that the two generalizations proposed are also identical in the multidimensional setting although offering different interpretations. Relationships between the new properties and those existing in the literature are analyzed.

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Inequality, Mobility and Segregation: Essays in Honor of Jacques Silber
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-171-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Athula Naranpanawa, Saroja Selvanathan and Jayatilleke Bandara

There has been growing interest in recent years in modelling various poverty‐related issues. However, there have not been many attempts at empirical estimation of best‐fit…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been growing interest in recent years in modelling various poverty‐related issues. However, there have not been many attempts at empirical estimation of best‐fit income distribution functions with an objective of subsequent use in poverty focused models. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by empirically estimating best‐fit income distribution functions for different household income groups and computing poverty and inequality indices for Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors empirically estimated a number of popular distribution functions found in the income distribution literature to find the best‐fit income distribution using household income and expenditure survey data for Sri Lanka and subsequently estimated various poverty and inequality measures.

Findings

The results show that the income distributions of all low‐income household groups follow the beta general probability distribution. The poverty measures derived using these distributions show that among the different income groups, the estate low‐income group has the highest incidence of poverty, followed by the rural low‐income group.

Originality/value

According to the best of the authors' knowledge, empirical estimation of income distribution functions for South Asia has never been attempted. The results of this study, even though based on Sri Lankan data, will be relevant to most developing countries in South Asia and will be very useful in developing poverty alleviation strategies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Johannes Tabi Atemnkeng and Daniel Mbu Tambi

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight to policy-makers into a framework for action, which is needed to effectively reduce poverty in its monetary and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight to policy-makers into a framework for action, which is needed to effectively reduce poverty in its monetary and non-monetary dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically, an exact decomposition analysis is conducted that is based on the Shapley value method, and investigated the growth and redistribution effects as well as changes due to mobility and sector-specific effects of the variation in both income/expenditure and non-income poverty dimensions.

Findings

Growth in mean consumption and household assets accounted for the bulk of the improvement in poverty reduction and the results complement the evidence obtained from the “sectoral decomposition” of poverty in Cameroon which may indeed have a strong bearing on the sectoral shares of poverty. The temptation is resisted, however, not to deny that redistribution also has an important role to play, yet there must be severe limits to what can be achieved by growth neutral redistribution. The redistribution effect had an ameliorating tendency in household asset deprivation among farming households.

Originality/value

This paper is a well-written piece using quite rigorous and interesting methodological approach. To obtain a measure of non-income dimensions of well-being, the authors constructed composite indices on household assets reflecting household access to a range of physical assets and services including human capital by polychoric principal component analysis method.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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