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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

Max Smith

To advance the scholarly understanding of family firm management by outlining the Australian experience with “real” differences between family and non‐family firms.

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Abstract

Purpose

To advance the scholarly understanding of family firm management by outlining the Australian experience with “real” differences between family and non‐family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising data from 2,190 Australian SMEs, industry based analysis focused on whether family businesses differ significantly from non‐family businesses within the framework of multivariate regression models that control for size and age of the firm.

Findings

The level of difference with non‐family firms is industry specific, varied, and generally lower than reported in the past. Manufacturing is the industry with most differences.

Practical implications

There are fewer differences between family and non‐family firms than we have been led to believe. Methodologies that control for context are essential. Studies are needed that explain why family firms differ more with non‐family firms in some industries than they do in others. Studies that uncover the “real” differences between large family and non‐family firms are also called for as the results shown here may be specific to SMEs. Agency theory may be more appropriate to large rather than small firms.

Originality/value

The level of context and size of dataset utilised in this study is rarely seen in family business research. Its value lays in bringing “real” Australian differences to the attention of scholars, supporting the need for better methodologies, demonstrating the importance of industry and size as determinants of context and outlining the heterogeneous nature of family firms.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Mercedes Gumbau‐Albert and Joaquin Maudos

Using the EU‐KLEMS database for 12 countries and 16 industries, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the differences in technological capital intensity (R&D capital…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the EU‐KLEMS database for 12 countries and 16 industries, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the differences in technological capital intensity (R&D capital stock as a percentage of GVA) between industries and the evolution of inequalities between the EU‐11 and the USA, as well as between EU countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use shift‐share analysis and a Theil inequality index to break down these inequalities and to quantify the importance of either a country or a specialization effect.

Findings

Results from the shift‐share analysis show that there was a technological gap in favor of the USA until the mid‐1990s linked to the greater accumulation of technological capital in most of the productive sectors considered, this being the main reason for the differences in technological innovation between the USA and the EU‐11. However, since 1995 a change in productive specialization has occurred, with a significant drop in the weight of lower technology‐intensive industries in the EU‐11 economy, as well as a significant drop in the weight of some medium technology‐intensive industries in the USA, accounting for the reduction in the technological gap between the EU and the USA. Results from the Theil index show that the differences in the productive structure of European countries explain most of their differences in technological capital intensity.

Originality/value

The study discusses the issue from the standpoint of the distribution of technological innovation across industries. The variable analyzed and constructed is R&D capital stock and not R&D expenditures. It applies a methodology (shift‐share analysis and Theil index) not commonly used to analyze technological innovation inequalities.

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Chandran Govindaraju and Evelyn S. Devadason

Pakistan adopted “one-size-fits-all” policy for human capital (HC) development with the assumption that the level of HC is equal across industry and firm size. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Pakistan adopted “one-size-fits-all” policy for human capital (HC) development with the assumption that the level of HC is equal across industry and firm size. The purpose of this paper is to test this major assumption on which this policy is based, by comparing the differences in the levels of HC, overall and by dimensions of HC, by industry and firm size.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on new data set of a sample of 750 manufacturing SME firms in Pakistan, compiled through a survey. Applying the independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance, the hypotheses of differences in levels of overall and dimensions of HC were tested.

Findings

The results indicate significant differences in the levels of HC by industry and firm size. The levels of HC were found to be higher in textiles, food, metal and leather industries, and for medium-sized firms.

Practical implications

The findings provide supporting evidence on the inadequacy of the current human capital development (HCD) policy in Pakistan. The study therefore recommends customized HCD policies, accounting for differences across industry and firm size.

Originality/value

By taking the data on nine major dimensions of HC from 750 manufacturing sector SMEs, the study tests the level of overall HC and its nine dimensions by industry and size. The study also challenges the “one-size-fits-all” policy of the government of Pakistan for developing HC in SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Sabien Dobbelaere, Rodolfo Lauterbach and Jacques Mairesse

Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms’ operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in particular. The purpose of this paper is to identify and quantify industry differences in product and labor market imperfections in Chile and France.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on two extensions of Hall’s econometric framework for estimating price-cost margins by nesting three labor market settings (LMS) (perfect competition (PC) or right-to-manage bargaining, efficient bargaining (EB) and monopsony). Using an unbalanced panel of 1,737 firms over the period 1996-2003 in Chile and 14,270 firms over the period 1994-2001 in France, the authors first classify 20 comparable manufacturing industries in six distinct regimes that differ in the type of competition prevailing in product and labor markets. The authors then investigate industry differences in the estimated product and labor market imperfection parameters.

Findings

Consistent with differences in institutions and in the industrial relations system in the two countries, the authors find regime differences across the two countries and cross-country differences in the levels of product and labor market imperfection parameters within regimes.

Originality/value

This study is the first to compare the type and the degree of industry-level product and labor market imperfections inferred from consistent estimation of firm-level production functions in a Latin American and a Western European country. Using firm-level output price indices, the microeconomic production function estimates for Chile are not subject to the omitted output price bias, as is often a major drawback in microeconometric studies of firm behavior.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Scott A. Dellana and John F. Kros

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences among industry classes and supply chain positions in order to gain insight into quality management program maturity…

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2470

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences among industry classes and supply chain positions in order to gain insight into quality management program maturity across industries and within supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for comparison in this study comes from an e-mail survey of professionals across the USA, employed primarily in sourcing or logistics (i.e. Institute for Supply Management (ISM) and Council for Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP)).

Findings

This study found that quality maturity varies by industry class. While prior studies have found differences by industry class, they have been limited to at most three classes, while this study examined 17 classes. This study also examines quality maturity by supply chain position, with the finding that quality maturity differed by supply chain position depending on how position is defined. Questions are raised regarding the proper characterization of supply chain position.

Research limitations/implications

The sample group represents members in only two professional groups, ISM and CSCMP. Not all industry groups or supply chain positions were well-represented due to some small sub-group sizes.

Practical implications

Quality program maturity is generally not uniform and there are potentially many opportunities for substantial improvement across various sectors by specific industry. Partnering with suppliers is a recommended approach for sectors lagging in quality maturity.

Originality/value

This research extends the examination of quality management practice in the supply chain by studying a large number of industry classes and supply chain positions and assesses differences in quality maturity across these classes and positions.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Edward E. Rigdon, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt and Siegfried P. Gudergan

Purpose – Revisiting Fornell et al.'s (1996) seminal study, this chapter looks at the evidence for observed and unobserved heterogeneity within data underlying the…

Abstract

Purpose – Revisiting Fornell et al.'s (1996) seminal study, this chapter looks at the evidence for observed and unobserved heterogeneity within data underlying the American customer satisfaction index (ACSI) model. Examining data for two specific industries (utilities and hotels) reveals only modest differences. However, we suppose that unobserved heterogeneity critically affects the results. These insights provide the basis for shaping further differentiated ACSI model analyses and more precise interpretations.

Methodology/approach – This study applies the partial least squares (PLS) path modeling method and uses empirical data to estimate and compare the ACSI model results on the aggregate and industry-specific data levels. In addition, the finite mixture PLS path modeling (FIMIX-PLS) method is employed to further examine across industry similarities and within industry differences.

Findings – This research uncovers unobserved heterogeneity that guides forming three segments of customers within each industry. The major segment in each industry represents customers that are fairly loyal (i.e., neither disloyal nor extremely loyal) while the other two smaller segments are not as similar across the two industries. Our study identifies substantial differences across these segments within each industry. An importance-performance map analysis illustrates these differences and provides the basis for managerial implications.

Originality/value of the chapter – The unobserved heterogeneity revealed within industries in a given country (i.e., the United States of America) underlines the need to be open to differences within populations, beyond the observed heterogeneity across distinct groups or cultures, and the need to reconsider reporting requirements in academic research.

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Susan M. Adams, Atul Gupta and John D. Leeth

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in compensation related to gender concentrations among industries at different organisation levels of management to…

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4308

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in compensation related to gender concentrations among industries at different organisation levels of management to identify gender‐based patterns of compensation at the macro level not investigated in previous studies that simply suggest industry or occupational differences. Findings provide guidance for selection processes, career path management for maximising compensation and policy‐making.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the Current Population Surveys and the Standard and Poor's ExecuComp database were used to examine differences in compensation of managers and top executives.

Findings

Findings suggest that men and women must seek different paths and endpoints to optimize compensation. Maximising compensation for women requires working as a minority and changing industries. Men, on the other hand, may work in male‐dominated industries at every level or may move to female‐dominated industries at the managerial and executive levels and still receive equitable pay.

Research limitations/implications

The paper was conducted on a USA sample so further research should examine data from other countries.

Practical implications

In practice, this paper suggests that men and women must seek different paths and endpoints to optimize compensation. Human resource managers should be aware of these potential biases and try to rectify them within their organisations through the use of appropriate selection and compensation practices. At the macro‐level, policy‐makers can identify patterns of inequity to address.

Originality/value

Gender‐related difference studies of compensation offer little understanding about how to maximise compensation during one's management career as it progresses through management levels and across industries.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Francisco Diaz Hermelo, Hernan Hetiennot and Roberto S. Vassolo

The purpose of this paper is to explore location effects on firm performance in emerging economies simultaneously accounting for permanent and transitory country, industry

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore location effects on firm performance in emerging economies simultaneously accounting for permanent and transitory country, industry, country-industry and firm-specific effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilize a novel methodological approach: an autoregressive, cross-classified, mixed-effect linear regression model that allows them to simultaneously estimate a permanent (long-run) component, a transitory (short-run) component and the speed of decay of the transitory (autoregressive) component.

Findings

The authors find that the firm-specific effect is most important in explaining permanent and transitory differences. The country–industry interaction is the second most important effect, confirming that industries are not completely global and are still subject to country conditions. Broader views of the country–business context and industry conditions taken independently would be incomplete unless the country–industry interactions are considered. In other words, country matters because industry matters and vice versa. Country effects are also significant, but only transitory emphasizing the dynamic nature of emerging economies and the shortcomings that may result from considering the country business context static. Finally, the authors find that the chances of achieving sustainability of abnormal returns in emerging economies are dynamic and have significantly increased recently.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first to simultaneously estimate country, industry, country–industry and firm effects on the permanent and transitory components of abnormal returns in a sample of emerging economies. The study generates important evidence regarding the sources of sustainable differentiation for firms competing in emerging economies. Finally, the authors find that chances of achieving sustainability of abnormal returns in emerging economies are dynamic and have significantly increased recently.

Details

Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Shiaw‐Wen Tien, Yi‐Chan Chung, Chih‐Hung Tsai, Chia‐Hsiang Hsieh and Hung‐Hsi Chen

This research probes into the execution of small and medium‐sized enterprises’ value creativities by a difference analysis with different classifications, different…

Abstract

This research probes into the execution of small and medium‐sized enterprises’ value creativities by a difference analysis with different classifications, different capital, different turnover, different employees, and different established years. This study develop a questionnaire about value creativity with five dimensions and thirty‐five items according to “Valuation” by McKinsey and Company, Inc. and Copeland et al., such as: “Aspiration and target,” “Portfolio management,” “Organization design,” “Process management,” and “Business and individual performance management.” The results are as follows: (1) Most small and medium‐ sized enterprises (SMEs) have executed value creativities; (2) There is a difference in the execution of value creativities between the livelihood industry and the chemical industry; the execution of value creativities by livelihood industry is better than the chemical industry; (3) For value creativities of the execution of different capital and turnover for SMEs, bigger entities are better than smaller ones; (4) For the value creativities of the execution of different numbers of staff in SMEs, those with more staff are better than those with fewer staff; (5) For the value creativities of the execution of different established years for SMEs, those established longer are better than those established shorter.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Chin-Bun Tse and Timothy Rodgers

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not industry membership can explain the leverage of Shanghai listed firms prior to the 2007 financial crisis. In view of…

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1995

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not industry membership can explain the leverage of Shanghai listed firms prior to the 2007 financial crisis. In view of the central role that manufacturing industry played in China's rise as a global economic power, the authors are particularly interested in whether or not manufacturing is a special case.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper undertakes a comparative study of leverage differences between manufacturing and non-manufacturing industry firms on both a cross-section and time-series basis. This is supplemented by a pooled regression analysis that models the factors determining leverage on an industry-by-industry basis.

Findings

The authors find that leverage levels differ across industries because of industry-based differences in financial characteristics. It is also found that, despite playing a leading role in China's economic development, there is no evidence to suggest that manufacturing is a special case. Across all sectors borrowing-power-related variables were identified as being important determinants of leverage and, contrary to the expectations, factors relating to profitability were largely insignificant.

Research limitations/implications

The trade off and pecking order capital structure theories found to be commonly applicable to firms in the western business environment do not appear to adequately explain capital structure in China.

Originality/value

The paper identify evidence to suggest that China needs to be treated as a “special case” in the context of capital structure theory due to the unique cultural and business environment.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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