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Article

Pamela J. Zelbst, Gregory V. Frazier and Victor E. Sower

Location decisions are among the most costly decisions that organizations make. This research aims to examine location decisions from a macro perspective and to utilize…

Abstract

Purpose

Location decisions are among the most costly decisions that organizations make. This research aims to examine location decisions from a macro perspective and to utilize findings for the development of a typology.

Design/methodology/approach

County level source information from the US Census Bureau, the United States (US) Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), National Association of Counties (NACO), and Fedstats is used in this analysis. Discriminant analysis as a profile analysis is utilized as an objective assessment of differences between the cluster concentrations.

Findings

The resulting typology of clusters concentrations is based on four constructs identified in the literature: innovation, specialization, complementariness and transfer of knowledge. This typology can serve as an aid in making these critical location decisions for practitioners as well as identifying future research topics for academia.

Research limitations/implications

The research is an exploratory study and limited by its nature; therefore cause and effect cannot be definitively stated. Variables such as politics, environment, geography and cultural differences could have confounding effects on the study. The generalizability of the study could be affected because of the geographic location in relationship to national differences based on these and other variables.

Practical implications

This typology of cluster concentrations can be used as a tool for managers when making crucial location decisions.

Originality/value

The research is original in that it takes a more holistic approach to developing a typology of cluster concentrations. Rather than looking at specific industries and focusing on industry clusters, the research focuses on concentrations of industry clusters.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article

Reinaldo Belickas Manzini and Di Serio Carlos Luiz

This paper aims to contribute to the approaches based on traditional industry concentration statistics for identifying clusters by complementing them with the techniques…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the approaches based on traditional industry concentration statistics for identifying clusters by complementing them with the techniques of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample with 34,500 observations retrieved from the social information annual report released by Brazil Ministry of Labor and Employment, the methodology was designed to make a comparison between the application of industry concentration statistics and ESDA statistics.

Findings

As the results show, the geographic distribution measures proved to be fundamental for longitudinal studies on regional dynamics and industrial agglomerations, and the local indicator of spatial association statistic tends to overcome the limitation of the industry concentration approach.

Research limitations/implications

In the period considered, due to economic, structural and circumstantial questions, activities linked to the transformation industry have been losing ground in the value creation process in Brazil. In this sense, the study of other industries may generate other types of insights that should be considered in the process of regional development.

Originality/value

This paper offers a critical analysis of empirical approaches and methodological advances with an emphasis on the treatment of special effects: spatial dependence, spatial heterogeneity and spatial scale. However, the regional dynamic presents a temporal dimension and a spatial dimension. The role of space has increasingly attracted attention in the analysis of economic changes. This work has identified opportunities for incorporating spatial effects in regional analysis over time.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article

Karen S. Cravens, James C. Flagg and Hubert D. Glover

Seeks to compare the three auditor attributes of brand name orreputation, concentration and structure to determine how theycollectively influence the auditor selection…

Abstract

Seeks to compare the three auditor attributes of brand name or reputation, concentration and structure to determine how they collectively influence the auditor selection process. The methodology for this study involves a comparison of the financial characteristics of the client base of Big Eight and non‐Big Eight firms. Overall, this study finds that comparison of client financial characteristics reveals significant differences in auditor brand name. In addition, the analysis indicates that differences also exist, based on audit structure and auditor reputation. Concludes that the auditor selection process, as proxied by a client′s systematic risk, is influenced by a joint combination of auditor attributes. Therefore the results of the study appear to support the theory that clients and auditors seek to match on desired traits.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article

Isabel Gallego Álvarez, Isabel María García Sánchez and Luis Rodríguez Domínguez

This work aims to check the validity of the hypotheses of the agency, signalling, political costs and proprietary costs theories in the disclosure of information online…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to check the validity of the hypotheses of the agency, signalling, political costs and proprietary costs theories in the disclosure of information online. More specifically, to determine the prevalence of the purposes alleged by those theories, we analyse the effect of industry concentration and other factors on an index of items of information disclosed on corporate web sites, in its entirety as well as its breakdown into information whose elaboration and disclosure is compulsory and information whose elaboration and disclosure is voluntary.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a content analysis of the quoted non‐financial Spanish companies' web sites was carried out. To do this, three disclosure indexes were created and applied. Then three causal models were estimated by applying a linear regression, taking several factors into consideration.

Findings

The findings emphasise the relevance of the hypotheses of political costs theory as the main explanatory factor for voluntary disclosure of information on the internet by quoted Spanish firms. In particular, the hypothesis that the greater the firm's monopolistic power, the more visible the company is and the more political costs it faces. To reduce these costs, such companies have an interest in disclosing greater amounts of information.

Practical implications

The researchers have analysed only one year of data from one country, but this analysis is significant because the motives which lead a firm to disclose information can be very different depending on its geographic location, especially if the factors which determine disclosure practices are associated with the political costs that the companies face.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the effect of industrial concentration on the disclosure of information online.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article

ROBERT J. TOKLE

There are two basic theoretical views of how advertising affects competition. One school of thought suggests that advertising decreases competition. Kaldor (1950) argued…

Abstract

There are two basic theoretical views of how advertising affects competition. One school of thought suggests that advertising decreases competition. Kaldor (1950) argued that through economies of scale in advertising, advertising increases market concentration. Also, Bain (1956) suggested that advertising causes strong product differentiation and brand loyalty, which are barriers to entry and will lead to higher concentration.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article

Zejiang Zhou, Haoran Wang and Xiaoyan Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the presence of returnees serving on the audit committee affects auditor choice in emerging markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the presence of returnees serving on the audit committee affects auditor choice in emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a logistic model, this study tests the relationship between the presence of returnees in the audit committee and auditor selection and how this relationship varies with the level of agency costs. The authors also perform several other additional analyses to ensure the robustness of the results, including propensity score matching, Heckman’s two-stage model and change analysis.

Findings

Using A-share listed companies in China from 2008 to 2016, the authors find a positive association between the presence of audit committee returnees and a demand for high-quality auditors and such association is strengthened in firms with a higher level of agency costs. The authors further find that discretionary accruals and the incidence of financial restatements are lower in firms with audit committee returnees.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study focuses on audit committee members with foreign study or foreign work experience, it remains to be seen if similar effects could be achieved through foreign ownership or work experience with foreign customers or suppliers.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence on a new channel of international knowledge spillover through which the emigration of talent increases board monitoring by demanding high-quality auditors in an emerging economy.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

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Book part

Marty Laubach and Michael Wallace

Purpose – This study tests three theories of determinants of workers' subjective response to work situations – structural factors (measured by individual, organization…

Abstract

Purpose – This study tests three theories of determinants of workers' subjective response to work situations – structural factors (measured by individual, organization, and job characteristics), general disposition, or informal work arrangements as constructed by Laubach's (2005) “consent deal.”Design/methodology/approach – Data were obtained from the Indiana Quality of Employment Survey, a survey of workers covering general working conditions. We constructed 10 models regressing worker perceptions and attitudes (e.g., satisfaction, relations with supervisors, meaningfulness) on structural determinants. We then used structural equation modeling to identify an underlying factor representing a general worker response from elements of the attitudes and perceptions. Finally, we regressed a scalar version of the general response factor on the structural determinants using the previous models.Findings – We identified a single second-order latent factor underlying the 10 attitudes and perceptions which represented the “general subjective response” of workers. This supported the concept of a dispositional effect. We then found that structural factors had a minimal effect on the subjective response, but that informal arrangements had a very strong effect. This undermined the first two theories and supported the third.Implications – Worker attitudes and perceptions are very resilient to different formal work arrangements but are highly influenced by the informal arrangements negotiated between workers and frontline management. Organizations can have the strongest effect on developing worker support by empowering frontline managers to make informal deals on workplace rules.Originality/value – This study offers a means to probe the relationship between formal and structural and the informal and subjective worlds of the workplace.

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Article

Bharat Arora and Zillur Rahman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of superior IT capability on financial performance of firms in the chemicals and chemical products industry in India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of superior IT capability on financial performance of firms in the chemicals and chemical products industry in India.

Design/methodology/approach

Financial performance of 28 firms with superior IT capability has been compared with benchmark over a period of six years.

Findings

This research has five important findings for the chemicals and chemical products industry in India: there is positive association between superior IT capability and return on sales (ROS); firms with superior IT capability are able to earn higher margins on their products; asset turn of firms with superior IT capability is less than benchmark; capital markets give higher valuation to firms with superior IT capability; and this superior performance in terms of better ROS and higher capital market valuation is sustainable over a period of time.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study that has analysed the influence of IT capability on financial performance of firms in a specific industry in the context of India.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Christopher T. Marsden

The paper aims to analyze the key structural changes required for an effective competitive new media market via digital transmission. It also aims to explain the

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyze the key structural changes required for an effective competitive new media market via digital transmission. It also aims to explain the institutional obstacles to achievement of broadband deployment in Western nations by reference to East Asia's success.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identifies major trends and demonstrates evolving competition principles in the European Union media sector by discussing cases and literature in the deployment of broadband content and carriage.

Findings

The paper finds primarily that institutional barriers to reform of competition in both broadband and copyright fields create bottlenecks in any policy reform process. It goes on to consider models that have succeeded, in peer‐to‐peer content, cable and satellite television content, mobile telecommunications and East Asia, concluding that reform in fixed broadband is unlikely in the near‐term.

Originality/value

Policy discussion in copyright and telecommunications needs to be broadened to consider structural flaws in the institutions that govern these regimes. The paper takes a broad Northian view of institutions to encompass governance via markets, state and society in order to provide this view.

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Article

Sumithira Thavapalan, Robyn Moroney and Roger Simnett

This paper investigates the impact of the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) merger in Australia on existing and potential clients of the new merged firm. From prior theory it…

Abstract

This paper investigates the impact of the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) merger in Australia on existing and potential clients of the new merged firm. From prior theory it is expected that some existing clients may have an incentive to switch away from a newly merged firm as the same larger firm now audits close competitors once audited by separate firms. Prior theory also suggests that another group of potential clients should be attracted to the newly merged firm where the merger enhances or creates industry specializations. The expectation is that in both of these instances there will be increased switching activity associated with the newly merged audit firm. Contrary to expectations, a significantly lower level of switching behaviour was observed for the newly merged firm compared with that of the other Big 5 firms, suggesting that an advantage of enhanced specialization may not be the attraction of new clients but the retention of existing clients. When comparing the nature of the switches, some support was found for the view that the switches to the new firm were likely to be in enhanced areas of specialization, but no evidence was found to suggest that close competitors would switch away from this firm. The greater rate of retention of clients compared with other Big 5 firms was not associated with a more competitive audit pricing policy.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

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