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The field of industrial hygiene is very broad because it includes all kinds of occupational hazards in all industries. There are a lot of new things emerging every year…
The field of industrial hygiene is very broad because it includes all kinds of occupational hazards in all industries. There are a lot of new things emerging every year due to changing technology and environment. Therefore, it is necessary for industrial hygiene practitioners to be able to anticipate the trends in industrial hygiene and keep up with new changes. Five trends that might be an indication of the future of industrial hygiene are considered. Moreover, some interesting examples about new developments in industrial hygiene are raised. One thing that could be inferred from these trends and examples is that information and high technology are increasingly being integrated into many industrial hygiene products, making them automated. As a result, many governmental regulations have to be revised in order to better reflect the current technology.
A pilot project was begun in the Fall of 1988 that teamed first‐year graduate students from the School of Information and Library Science with graduate students from the…
A pilot project was begun in the Fall of 1988 that teamed first‐year graduate students from the School of Information and Library Science with graduate students from the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health. Library science students served as search intermediaries for students enrolled in an introductory environmental science course and provided online search services on research topics related to the completion of an environmental science class assignment. Environmental science students received basic information management instruction. Planning, development of instructional objectives, materials and methods, costs and evaluation of the project are described. Changes made in the program for 1989 and 1990, as well as future plans, are outlined.
Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spywares have been effective for quite sometime in the domain of digital computers. These malicious software cause millions of dollars of…
Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spywares have been effective for quite sometime in the domain of digital computers. These malicious software cause millions of dollars of loss in assets, revenue, opportunity, cleanup cost, and lost productivity. To stop virus attacks, organizations frame up different security policies. These policies work only within the limited domain of the organization’s network. However, the emergence of wireless technologies, and the seamless mobility features of the wireless devices from one network to the other have created a challenge to uphold the security policies of a particular network. Hence, in this digital society, while mobile devices roam in foreign networks, they get infected through viruses in the foreign network. Anti‐virus software is not so effective for novel viruses. There have been no reports of mobile‐phone viruses in the wild as yet. However, with the emergence of execution environments on mobile phones, it will be possible to write viruses and worms for mobile devices in cellular networks. We should be prepared to fight against viruses in the cellular networks. All the technologies available to fight against viruses are specific to virus signatures. We propose that this fight needs to be multilayered. In this paper the authors have proposed a novel philosophy in cellular network called Artificial Hygiene (AH), which is virus neutral and will work at the class level. With this process a device and the network will take the necessary steps to keep the digital environment safe.
This exhibition was primarily intended to show something of the variety of bibliographies and abstracting journals in the English language. It was not intended to be…
This exhibition was primarily intended to show something of the variety of bibliographies and abstracting journals in the English language. It was not intended to be comprehensive; and although an effort was made to include the most authorative works in each field, in some cases the works shown could claim to be little more than representative.
Algeria occupies an important place in all of the oil-producing countries. However, in recent years, industrial facilities have experienced a rapid increase in the number…
Algeria occupies an important place in all of the oil-producing countries. However, in recent years, industrial facilities have experienced a rapid increase in the number of major industrial accidents and calamities, where fires and explosions have caused impacts and severe effects on people, property and the environment. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the risks involved and assess the performance of the technical barriers at the thermo-hydraulic level of facilities at the level of the refinery of Skikda.
The most effective methods in this field of activity are the systematic analyses of deviations or failures. As working tools, hazard and operability (HAZOP) method and fault tree analysis (FTA) were used to identify the various possible risks that could lead to undesirable phenomena, with the Topping unit. Using this type of analysis, it is possible to understand what the most risky process steps are and, where appropriate, to propose appropriate corrective and preventive measures. HAZOP is dedicated to the analysis of the risks of thermo-hydraulic systems and to control drift parameters such as pressure, temperature and flow. Unfortunately, with its limitations to the detection of leaks, the authors completed the study by FTA, working with a predetermined set of process parameters associated with system operation (compression, temperature, flow, etc.). Each of these parameters are combined with a series of possible potential deviations (too much, little, inverse, etc). For each analyzed equipment, the relevant parameters are selected and combined with the relevant deviations. For each parameter of the deviant process, the causes and consequences are determined.
The combination of these two methods has allowed to highlight the various possible risks that could lead to undesirable phenomena, to respond to industrial expectations or even to manage the operation process safely. Thus, it enabled the authors to detect the weaknesses of the process. This allowed the authors to reinforce the technical safety barriers of the functional links of the process and propose appropriate, corrective and preventive measures.
The work intends to reflect the real situation in which companies face risks. The originality of the work is represented by the combination of two methods: HAZOP and the FTA. This association allowed the authors to identify areas of weakness to set priorities for action by the company, through organizational, technical and human solutions, while engaging in a process of continuous improvement.
In an article published by the “Evening Standard,” COLONEL ARTHUR LYNCH expresses the opinion that the war has yielded one compensation in that it has awakened the world to the importance of science, and that it has made daring thoughts possible in directions where apathy and neglect previously reigned. We are afraid that COLONEL LYNCH is mistaken on these points. The neglect of science and the apathy in regard to all scientific matters are characteristic of this country, and the task of effectively altering these conditions if capable of accomplishment will indeed be herculean. “The Government,” says COLONEL LYNCH, “is the filter through which the ideas of progress must pass, and unfortunately we are governed by men ignorant for the most part even of elementary science, and intellectually active only in the dusty arena of party politics.” As an instance he gives the case of Sir Almroth Wright, who had need of a small sum of £10,000 to put on a good footing his laboratories at St. Mary's Hospital. Desirous of helping in this matter, COLONEL LYNCH applied to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and again and again pressed the claim, but only to be met “with a refusal couched in an air of supercilious disregard.”
Some months ago a national organisation established to keep a watchful eye on the Nation's diet expressed concern over the eating trends of people in what to them appeared to be developing inbalances of necessary nutrient factors and the inadeuacy not so much of calories and energy values but in the nature and quality of main food factors. It was recommended that the national diet should be improved, but the authorities pointed to the National Food Survey results to show that the diet was not deficient; that the average daily intake of protein, vitamins, minerals and overall energy requirements were satisfied; all of which is true for the not‐too‐generous levels set. Even the pensioner households included in the Survey sample appear well‐fed. What causes concern is the year‐by‐year decrease in staple foods consumed—milk, red meat, bread, fresh vegetables—and the heavy reliance on refined, processed foods. In its annual reports on NFS reviews, the BFJ has almost monotonously referred to this downward trend. Individual NFS Reports do not reveal any serious deficiencies, as yet, but in the trend over the years—and herein lies the real value of the Survey and its data—few if any of the changes have been for the better; movements in food groups have tended to be downwards. If these trends continue, the time must surely come when there will be real deficiencies; that substitution within a food group cannot make good essential foods severely rationed by high prices.
The body of literature in the field now commonly known as the “quality of working life” (QWL) has grown steadily over a period in which the industrialised nations have…
The body of literature in the field now commonly known as the “quality of working life” (QWL) has grown steadily over a period in which the industrialised nations have increasingly come to question the role and status of human beings in the modern technological environment. In recent years concern with the nature of work, its impact upon people, and their attitudes towards it, seem to have sharpened. Investigation of, and experimentation with, the qualitative aspects of working life—its ability to confer self‐fulfilment directly, for example, as opposed to being a means of acquiring goods—has gained momentum under the influence of a unique set of economic, social, political and technological factors. The outpouring of books, reports and articles from a wide variety of sources has, not surprisingly, grown apace.
Describes the first fully integrated software program for hygiene management for food processors; a look at the company which developed it; the reasons behind its development; and who in the workplace uses it. The software provides manufacturers with complete control over all aspects of hygiene. It is particularly applicable to short‐life/high‐care products such as sandwiches and snack foods. In this rapidly growing industry sector, major sandwich retailers are increasingly insisting that suppliers provide hygiene audits and compliance with the new European Food Safety Inspection Scheme (EFSIS) before they will accept products from a supplier.
In recent years, many businesses have focused on three priorities: quality, cost and cycle time, in order to become world‐class companies. Despite the fact that many…
In recent years, many businesses have focused on three priorities: quality, cost and cycle time, in order to become world‐class companies. Despite the fact that many companies have been continuously improving product quality, lowering costs and reducing cycle times, their safety programmes have remained steady. A safety programme is as critical to achieving world‐class business status as quality, cost and time. Workplace injuries in the USA continue to occur at a rate of 8.5 per 100 full‐time workers per year. This phenomenon has a definite impact on product quality and cycle time, and can add millions of dollars to the annual costs of workers’ compensation programmes. For businesses to create an injury‐free workplace, it is necessary to develop strategies that move them towards world‐class safety performance. Proposes a strategic model that captures a transition to world‐class safety performance. The model was developed from the authors’ personal experiences, interviews with the safety, health, and environmental affairs manager of the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, and documents obtained from Boeing and other companies.