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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Rui Pitarma, Miguel Lourenço and João Ramos

Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Some of these can be sufficiently characterized through the prediction of the airflow and pollutant

Abstract

Purpose

Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Some of these can be sufficiently characterized through the prediction of the airflow and pollutant distribution patterns. The purpose of this study was to simulate, analyze and compare different locations of known pollutant source inside a ventilated room.

Design/methodology/approach

Computational fluid dynamics modelling approach was used to analyze the prediction of the airflow and pollutant distribution patterns for different locations of known pollutant source inside a ventilated room by mixing ventilation.

Findings

Distinct areas of poor air quality, perfectly identified by concentration fields, were given. The indoor air quality obtained by the different simulated conditions was analyzed and compared.

Research limitations/implications

Pollutant concentration was not measured in the validation experiments (qualitative validation based on the velocity fields).

Practical implications

Once the contaminant concentration fields are calculated based on the source location, the model is very useful to choose the best place to install any pollutant indoor equipment to preserve breathing zones.

Originality/value

Providing an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. The results would be useful for making decisions to optimize the design procedure, such as establish the best location to install polluting equipment, occupied areas and their interdependence with ventilation systems. In addition, this tool also helps to choose the best location and correct set point adjustment for the pollutant sensors.

Details

Facilities, vol. 34 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

P.S. Hui, K.W. Mui and L.T. Wong

It is costly to sample all air pollutants of a general community for continuous indoor air quality (IAQ) assessments. To optimize the resources for IAQ baseline monitoring…

Abstract

Purpose

It is costly to sample all air pollutants of a general community for continuous indoor air quality (IAQ) assessments. To optimize the resources for IAQ baseline monitoring for general facilities management, this study aims to investigate the feasibility of using a simple IAQ index as a screening parameter of a screening test to identify an asymptomatic air‐conditioned office with probable unsatisfactory IAQ.

Design/methodology/approach

The IAQ index is determined from the fractional dose of some representative common indoor air pollutants of unsatisfactory IAQ, either by taking equal importance of the pollutants as a weighting factor or weighted by the regional failure rates with respect to the corresponding air pollutants. Specifically, a database of regional IAQ assessment results of 422 air‐conditioned offices was employed to justify the selected screening levels for the IAQ index.

Findings

The proposed IAQ index of a screening assessment was used for verifying, respectively, 58 and seven air‐conditioned offices of Hong Kong with satisfactory and unsatisfactory IAQ. The results showed that 57 satisfactory offices and two unsatisfactory offices were correctly identified by the unweighted and weighted IAQ indices respectively. Evaluation of the proposed index in further IAQ improvements of some offices showed that it would be a practical tool for preliminary IAQ screening assessment.

Research limitations/implications

The screening test itself could not identify all the IAQ problems but could identify the office groups with higher risk of unsatisfactory IAQ with reduced effort.

Practical implications

The study shows the usefulness of the proposed IAQ index to identify the unrecognized IAQ problems for air‐conditioned office environments. It could be adopted as a routine screening measure in facility management of which a wide‐ranging set of IAQ measurement is undesired.

Originality/value

This study presents a useful reference for policymakers, building owners and professionals for indoor environmental assessments.

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

K. Azuma, I. Uchiyama and K. Ikeda

In order to clarify the determining features of approaches adopted in policies for regulating indoor air pollution, this paper analyzes case studies of the approaches…

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Abstract

Purpose

In order to clarify the determining features of approaches adopted in policies for regulating indoor air pollution, this paper analyzes case studies of the approaches taken, in four countries, to risk management of indoor air pollution caused by formaldehyde in housing.

Design/methodology/approach

We pursued case studies to provide historical perspectives on early warnings and actions taken in relation to suspected health hazards from exposure to formaldehyde, in Germany, the USA, Canada and Japan. Many investigations of indoor air pollution caused by formaldehyde in housing have been conducted, and regulations established, in these countries. We reviewed the vast quantity of literature and documents relating to governmental and/or industrial actions and of research on indoor air quality produced in the past 40 years, and compared the approaches adopted.

Findings

The study identified the differing character of the approaches adopted in policies for the regulation of indoor air pollution, in order to clarify the range of actions that may be taken in response to reported risk from indoor air pollutants and describe possible risk management models for indoor air pollution.

Practical implications

Understanding of the nature of approaches already adopted will help to preserve good indoor air quality and minimize health hazards due to indoor air pollution.

Originality/value

This paper identifies a range of actions that have been taken in response to suspected risk from indoor air pollutants, through the analysis of its case studies.

Details

Facilities, vol. 24 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Abstract

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Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12024-618-2

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Ulrika Uotila, Arto Saari, Juha-Matti Kalevi Junnonen and Lari Eskola

Poor indoor air quality in schools is a worldwide challenge that poses health risks to pupils and teachers. A possible response to this problem is to modify ventilation…

Abstract

Purpose

Poor indoor air quality in schools is a worldwide challenge that poses health risks to pupils and teachers. A possible response to this problem is to modify ventilation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to pilot a process of generating alternatives for ventilation redesign, in an early project phase, for a school to be refurbished. Here, severe problems in indoor air quality have been found in the school.

Design/methodology/approach

Ventilation redesign is investigated in a case study of a school, in which four alternative ventilation strategies are generated and evaluated. The analysis is mainly based on the data gathered from project meetings, site visits and the documents provided by ventilation and condition assessment consultants.

Findings

Four potential strategies to redesign ventilation in the case school are provided for decision-making in refurbishment in the early project phase. Moreover, the research presents several features to be considered when planning the ventilation strategy of an existing school, including the risk of alterations in air pressure through structures; the target number of pupils in classrooms; implementing and operating costs; and the size of the space that ventilation equipment requires.

Research limitations/implications

As this study focusses on the early project phase, it provides viewpoints to assist decision-making, but the final decision requires still more accurate calculations and simulations.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the decision-making process of ventilation redesign of a school with indoor air problems and provides a set of features to be considered. Hence, it may be beneficial for building owners and municipal authorities who are engaged in planning a refurbishment of an existing building.

Details

Facilities , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

R.A. Pitarma, J.E. Ramos, M.E. Ferreira and M.G. Carvalho

The improvement in the quality of life together with thermal comfort, air quality, health, workplace security and energy conservation measures justify the integral…

Abstract

The improvement in the quality of life together with thermal comfort, air quality, health, workplace security and energy conservation measures justify the integral education of environmental (outdoor and/or indoor) phenomena. Environmental education, through the appropriate tool, can play an important and vital role in this domain. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena such as distribution of pollutants by means of computer‐based simulation. This technique, allowing the simulation and the visualization of environmental problems, represents a powerful tool to motivate, guide and educate on the environment. The main objective of this paper is to introduce this new advanced active tool in environmental education, directed to indoor‐environment quality, that permits the prediction and visualization of air movement, air temperature and air contaminant (such as tobacco smoke) distribution in rooms. With suitable mathematical models and boundary conditions, a computational code has been developed to predict and visualize these phenomena. In order to demonstrate its applicability, the simulation of air contamination distribution in an office room with a smoker was performed.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Jasem M. Alhumoud, Fawzia M. Al‐Ruwaih, Sami H. Ali and Mohammad H. Redhaee

This study aims to evaluate the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the indoor and outdoor air quality in Kuwait due to vehicular traffic.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the indoor and outdoor air quality in Kuwait due to vehicular traffic.

Design/methodology/approach

About 700 VOCs samples were collected from randomly selected residences within Kuwait. For simplicity, the study was divided into three areas: area A between the first and third ring roads, area B between the third and fifth ring roads and area C between the fifth and sixth ring roads. Hazardous Air Pollutants on Site (HAPSITE), a portable Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS), was used to gather air samples inside and outside of the residences selected in the study area for a period of three months during 2008.

Findings

Median indoor air quality levels in the study area were similar to the outdoor levels. Indoor/outdoor ratios varied from 0.5 to 8 for most compounds, suggesting that the indoor air quality was less than the outdoor air quality. It was found that none of the indoor VOC concentrations measured exceeded the upper limits of the indoor air quality set by the Kuwait Environmental Protection Agency (KEPA), with the exception of only one residence where the benzene concentration was observed to be in excess of 17 per cent of the KEPA limit. Moreover, the indoor air quality for the study areas was found to be in accordance with level 1 set by KEPA, indicative of very good air quality.

Originality/value

This is the first study conducted in Kuwait to collect VOCs samples and to explore the air quality inside and outside of residential buildings.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-780-1

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

L.T. Wong, K.W. Mui, P.S. Hui and W‐y. Chan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a screening test for indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment by auditing only a few “dominant” contributors for preliminary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a screening test for indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment by auditing only a few “dominant” contributors for preliminary measurements in air‐conditioned offices.

Design/methodology/approach

In Hong Kong, up to ten common indoor air pollutants have to be audited in determining the IAQ acceptance for typical air‐conditioned offices. Indeed, parameters could not be uniformly contributed to the assessed “IAQ satisfaction”. The study reviews the past ten‐year assessment experiences in Hong Kong and investigates the “dominant” contributors of unsatisfactory IAQ for screening tests.

Findings

When compared with the “full” assessment of all ten listed parameters, a screening test with assessment parameters reduced by half would correctly identify 96 per cent unsatisfactory and 95 per cent satisfactory cases.

Research limitations/implications

The screening test was developed with the reported patterns of the ten common air pollutants from on‐site measurements and survey studies in typical air‐conditioned offices in Hong Kong. Therefore, the test application may require adaptation for use in other countries.

Practical implications

The study shows the usefulness of a regional database in developing a screening strategy for IAQ and so it would be a useful reference for policymakers in evaluating a cost‐justified IAQ assessment protocol.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a simple screening test which can identify the probable unsatisfactory IAQ in offices by assessing only a few “dominant” contributors, with selection of representative assessment parameters based on experiences.

Details

Facilities, vol. 27 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Monica Puri Sikka and Mandira Mondal

Cleanrooms are highly controlled enclosed rooms where air quality is monitored and ensured to have less contamination according to standard cleanliness level. Air filters…

Abstract

Purpose

Cleanrooms are highly controlled enclosed rooms where air quality is monitored and ensured to have less contamination according to standard cleanliness level. Air filters are used to optimize indoor air quality and remove air pollutants. Filter media and filtering system are decided as per requirement. Depth filter media are mostly used in cleanroom filtrations. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of the evolution of cleanroom filter media. It evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of air filter media. It is also studied which air filters have additional properties such as anti-microbial properties, anti-odour properties and chemical absorbent. Development and innovation of air filters and filtration techniques are necessary to improve the performance via the synergistic effect and it can be a possible avenue of future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper aims to drive the future of air filter research and development in achieving high-performance filtration with high filtration efficiency, low operational cost and high durability. Air pollutants are classified into three types: suspended particles, volatile organic pollutants and microorganisms. Technologies involved in purification are filtration, water washing purification, electrostatic precipitation and anion technology. They purify the air by running it through a filter medium that traps dust, hair, pet fur and debris. As air passes through the filter media, they function as a sieve, capturing particles. The fibres in the filter medium provide a winding path for airflow. There are different types of air filters such as the high-efficiency particulate air filter, fibreglass air filter and ultra-low particulate air filter.

Findings

Emerging filtration technologies and filters such as nanofibres, filters with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane are likely to become prevalent over the coming years globally. The introduction of indoor air filtration with thermal comfort can be a possible avenue of future research along with expanding indoor environment monitoring and improving air quality predictions. New air filters and filtration technologies having better performance with low cost and high durability must be developed which can restrict multiple types of pollutants at the same time.

Originality/value

The systematic literature review approach used in this paper highlights the emerging trends and issues in cleanroom filtration in a structured and thematic manner, enabling future work to progress as it will continue to develop and evolve.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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