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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2007

Juniati Gunawan

As one of the world's leading producers of energy resources, offering a large domestic market and workforce, Indonesia is susceptible to the issue of corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

As one of the world's leading producers of energy resources, offering a large domestic market and workforce, Indonesia is susceptible to the issue of corporate social responsibility. As this research area is considered relatively new in the Indonesian context, the purpose of this paper is to provide useful information and describe early pictures of corporate social disclosure (CSD) practices in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines the extent of CSD in Indonesian listed companies. Content analysis method is applied to analyse the companies' annual reports. An exploratory study was also carried out to find the motivation of the companies in making CSD, as well as the perceived importance of CSD information by Indonesian stakeholders. Finally, some preliminary independent variables were selected to be examined in their relationships to the extent of CSD.

Findings

The results show that the most important information on CSD perceived by the stakeholders is about “products” while information about “community” is perceived as the least important. However, “community” is considered as the most influence party of CSD for the companies. Additionally, there are three main motives for the Indonesian listed companies in conducting CSD: “to create positive image”, to “act accountability” and to “comply with stakeholders' needs”. This study also indicates that the extent of CSD in Indonesian listed companies is very low. Further, the correlation examinations demonstrate that the majority of null hypotheses were accepted.

Originality/value

There is currently a level of research or invent CSD practices in developing countries. This paper helps to fill some of this gap.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Agung Nur Probohudono, Greg Tower and Rusmin Rusmin

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the communication of the five major categories of risk (business, strategy, market and credit risk…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the communication of the five major categories of risk (business, strategy, market and credit risk disclosure) over the volatile 2007-2009 global financial crisis (GFC) time period between Indonesia and Malaysia manufacturing listed companies.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 300 firm years data are collected consisting of a random sample of 100 manufacturing listed companies’ annual reports for fiscal year-ends from 2007 to 2009. The reports include 50 annual reports of manufacturing companies per country, listed in the stock exchanges of Indonesia and Malaysia for this three-year GFC time period. This research adopts a researcher-constructed risk disclosure index (RDI) to create an index measuring the extent of risk disclosure by listed firms.

Findings

Key findings from statistical analysis are that country of incorporation and size help predict risk disclosure levels. Malaysian companies have significantly higher levels of business risk in 2007 and operating risk communication in 2007, 2008 and 2009 than Indonesian companies. These two countries have similar economic scenarios as developing countries which often have higher “business” risk for companies, but Malaysian companies disclose more risk information than Indonesia. The overall low disclosure levels (27.46-32.92 per cent for Indonesian companies and 35.20-39.04 per cent for Malaysian companies) highlight the potential for far higher communication of key risk factors in these two countries.

Originality/value

This study is important as it contributes to the literature by providing comparative insights into the voluntary risk disclosure practices of manufacturing companies in the two important Asian countries (Indonesia and Malaysia) over the GFC time period. There is lack of risk disclosure studies in manufacturing companies, especially in these two sample countries.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Fitra Roman Cahaya, Stacey Porter, Greg Tower and Alistair Brown

– This paper aims to focus on corporate social responsibility and workplace well-being by examining Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX)-listed companies’ labour disclosures.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on corporate social responsibility and workplace well-being by examining Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX)-listed companies’ labour disclosures.

Design/methodology/approach

Year-ending 2007 and 2010 annual report disclosures of 31 IDX-listed companies are analysed. The widely acknowledged Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines are used as the disclosure index checklist.

Findings

The results reveal that the overall labour disclosure level increases from 21.84 per cent in 2007 to 30.52 per cent in 2010. The levels of four of the five specific labour disclosures also increase with employment being the exception. The results further show that the Indonesian Government does not influence the increase in the levels of the overall labour disclosure or the four categories showing increased disclosure but, surprisingly, does significantly affect the decrease in the level of the employment category.

Research limitations/implications

It is implied that the government is at best ambiguous given that, on one side, the government regulates all corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and reporting but appears to coercively pressure companies to hide employment-specific issues.

Practical implications

It is implied that Indonesian companies need to have “strong and influential” independent commissioners on the boards to counter any possible pressures from the government resulting in lower disclosure levels.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights into the “journey” of labour-related CSR disclosure practices in Indonesia and contributes to the literature by testing one specific variant of isomorphic institutional theory, namely, coercive isomorphism.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Peni Nugraheni and Hairul Azlan Anuar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the extent of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of Shariah- and non–Shariah-compliant companies in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the extent of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of Shariah- and non–Shariah-compliant companies in Indonesia. Further, the study examines the relationship between voluntary disclosure and company characteristics (i.e. size of company, profitability, type of auditor, type of industry and ownership structure).

Design/methodology/approach

Voluntary disclosure was measured using a disclosure index with 30 items and content analysis of the 2009 annual report. Statistical analysis included descriptive, Mann–Whitney U and regression.

Findings

The result revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in the quantity and quality of voluntary disclosure value of Shariah- and non–Shariah-compliant companies. For regression results, the company size significantly influences the quantity of voluntary disclosure while the quality of voluntary disclosure is affected by company size and type of industry.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study only analyses voluntary disclosure in the annual report for a single year (2009), it is hoped to provide a description of the voluntary disclosure in Shariah- and non–Shariah-compliant companies.

Practical implications

The findings might be used by regulators to set regulations that encourage the quantity and quality of disclosure practice of Shariah-compliant companies to expand the scope of disclosure related to religious activities.

Originality/value

This study measures voluntary disclosure using the disclosure index based on Indonesian regulations and the quantity and quality measurement of Shariah-compliant companies, which may differ from previous Indonesian studies.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Sita deliyana Firmialy and Yunieta Anny Nainggolan

This study aims to focus on developing the sustainability reporting index (SRI) with combined perspectives from varied social rating agencies, along with integrated…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on developing the sustainability reporting index (SRI) with combined perspectives from varied social rating agencies, along with integrated combined perspectives from academics experts and Indonesian companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The first section discusses the theoretical framework along with the sustainability challenges faced by companies in Indonesia. The second section develops the methodology of the study to measure the SRI by considering practical and theoretical perspectives, starting from the identification of initial disclosure, selecting the final disclosure and developing the hierarchical framework. Lastly, the third section confirms the validity of the study’s framework by the exploratory factor analysis method and its comparability by comparing the content analysis result of the study with the Kinder–Lydenberg–Domini (KLD) method. The content analysis was used to analyze annual reports, sustainability reports and companies’ websites based on indicators found in the resulted model.

Findings

The main finding is the SRI framework (SRIF) of the study, which is built on the basis of the stakeholder relationship theory and is focused on three main dimensions (social, economic and environmental). Specifically, the framework consists of 17 indicators and 93 sub-indicators. On the basis of factor analysis method, it can be safely said that the study’s SRIF is quite valid. The high score of correlations between the SRIF and KLD results at the composite and dimension levels, along with the statistically significant results show that the study’s SRIF results and KLD results are fairly similar.

Research limitations/implications

The present study has its limitation as it only gathers data from publicly available reports issued by the firms (secondary data). Owing to time limitation, primary data are not collected. However, this is also the strength of this research as it will allow investors to replicate the study’s methodology to measure companies’ sustainability.

Practical implications

The study is useful to organizations and statutory bodies toward finding a replicable method to measure the Indonesian companies’ social performance. In addition, the study also introduced the usefulness of the qualitative program Atlas TI to perform content analysis, the exploratory factor analysis method to ensure validity and comparability by comparing it to the KLD methodology, which is known globally as the most widely accepted methodology to measures social performance. Lastly, this study will provide implications to the Government to ascertain the level of SRI reporting among the Indonesian public-listed companies.

Originality/value

The resulted framework in this study simultaneously considers social, environmental and economic factors in the context of companies in Indonesia, while previous researchers have constructed reporting index separately (i.e. Sumiani et al., 2007; Zhao et al., 2012). Especially in the context of Indonesia, there is no such index simultaneously focused on the three main dimensions, namely, social, environmental and economics. The current study tries to fill the gap by using the constructed SRI index based on three perspectives combined, namely, social rating agencies, academic theorist and Indonesian companies.

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2013

Doddy Setiawan and Lian Kee Phua

This study aims at examining the impact of corporate governance on dividend policy among Indonesian companies. There are two theories of the effect of corporate governance…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at examining the impact of corporate governance on dividend policy among Indonesian companies. There are two theories of the effect of corporate governance on dividend policy: substitution and outcome theory. Substitution theory argue that corporate governance have negative effect on dividend policy, while outcome theory argue that corporate governance have positive effect on dividend policy. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of corporate governance on dividend policy in Indonesia. This study aims at examining the impact of corporate governance on dividend policy among Indonesian companies. There are two theories of the effect of corporate governance on dividend policy: substitution and outcome theory. Substitution theory argue that corporate governance have negative effect on dividend policy, while outcome theory argue that corporate governance have positive effect on dividend policy. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of corporate governance on dividend policy in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this research comprises 248 firms from Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2004-2006. This research using Transparency and Disclosure Index (TDI) to measure corporate governance in Indonesia

Findings

We find that TDI are low among Indonesian firms, with a score of 32 per cent out of the maximum point. This score indicates that Indonesian corporate governance is still low. The results show that there is a negative relation between corporate governance and dividend policy in Indonesia. Thus, the Indonesian companies pay more dividends when corporate governance practice is low. This result confirms applicable of substitution theory in Indonesia.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on manufacturing industry in Indonesia. Therefore, the conclusions of this research apply on the manufacturing companies in Indonesia

Practical implications

This research shows that companies with poor corporate governance pay dividend higher than companies with better corporate governance. Thus, investor can use this information to make investment decision.

Originality/value

This research provides evidence on the negative effect of corporate governance on dividend policy in Indonesia (substitution theory).

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 14 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Suhadak Suhadak, Kurniaty Kurniaty, Siti Ragil Handayani and Sri Mangesti Rahayu

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how much influence good corporate governance (GCG) has on corporate value, as well as moderating effect of stock return and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how much influence good corporate governance (GCG) has on corporate value, as well as moderating effect of stock return and financial performance on the influence of GCG on corporate value.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was an explanatory study. The unit of analysis was the companies listed in LQ45 in Indonesian Stock Exchange and the sources of data were ICMD, annual report and financial reports of the companies. Indonesian Stock Exchange was selected as the setting of the study since Indonesian Stock Exchange is one of trading places for various types of companies in Indonesia, and it provides complete information on company’s financial data and stock price. The population was 84 companies listed in LQ45 in Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2010 and 2016.

Findings

The higher GCG, independent commissioners proportion, institutional managerial and public ownerships resulted in higher corporate value. MBE and PER stock return is a moderating variable in the influence of GCG on corporate value. Financial performance is moderating variable in the influence of GCG on corporate value.

Originality/value

Based on the previous studies, it may be concluded that there is a gap between the influence of GCG on corporate value and the influence of stock return on financial performance, and moderating variable is needed to evaluate the influence of GCG on company performance, more particularly stock return and financial performance. This discrepancy creates opportunity for conducting an in-depth study on those variables. Its novelty is correlation between stock return and financial performance as moderation. Previous studies used these as mediating variables. This study is going to generate different finding as it is conducted in different setting (country where this study is conducted), type of industry, research period and using different method of analysis.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Helen Perks and Michael Sanderson

Investigates the planning, negotiation and setting up of a joint venture company (JVC) in Indonesia between a British multinational corporation, an Indonesian state‐owned…

Abstract

Investigates the planning, negotiation and setting up of a joint venture company (JVC) in Indonesia between a British multinational corporation, an Indonesian state‐owned company and an Indonesian private company. It explores the influence of cultural diversity on this process, the role of stakeholders and the management of their interest and power. The paper is organised around an analytical framework for such considerations and proposes a phased approach to the critical preparatory stage of joint‐venture based collaboration in SE Asia.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2020

Harianto Lim and Rofikoh Rokhim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting profitability of pharmaceutical company in Indonesia. While research and development has been the main…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting profitability of pharmaceutical company in Indonesia. While research and development has been the main discussed issues in pharmaceutical sector development, scant attention has been paid to profitability factors determined by financial ratio specifically. The industry itself faces significant disruption with the implementation of universal health coverage in Indonesia. This study investigates the factors affecting profitability in an Indonesian pharmaceutical company after the national health insurance policy implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on five independent variables (IVs) with six measurements that were empirically examined for their relationship with profitability. These variables are firm size (as measured by total sales), company efficiency (assets turnover), liquidity (current ratio), market power (the Lerner index) and a firm's growth (as measured by sales growth and sustainable growth rate). Data of ten pharmaceutical companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange covering the period of 2014–2018 were extracted from companies' annual reports. Pooled ordinary least squares regression and fixed effects were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings show strong and positive relationships between liquidity and sustainable growth rate with profitability as measured by return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA) and earning per share (EPS), except EPS for liquidity. Further, both firm size and market power show positive significant relationships with ROA but negative significant relationships with EPS. Sales growth and company efficiency (as measured by assets turnover ratio) have no significant relationship with profitability.

Research limitations/implications

Due to data availability, the data include only listed pharmaceutical companies in the Indonesia Stock Exchange.

Practical implications

These results benefit internal users (such as managers, shareholders and employees). They can realize the determinants of enhancing the profitability of their company after the implementation of universal health coverage from the Indonesian government (JKN – Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional) since 2014. On the other side, other external users (such as investors, creditors, newly established pharmaceutical companies and tax authorities) also may get advantages of these results. It is clear that a significant impact happened upon this new policy implementation, and how an Indonesian pharmaceutical company will be profitable in the future. The relevance of company's business strategy (product and customer portfolio, competitor intelligence, etc.) with the profitability factors from this study can be further scrutinized as further consideration for both internal and external users.

Originality/value

This study differs from previous studies in many ways; first, it focuses on pharmaceutical companies in Indonesia. Previous studies have concentrated on different countries and companies in other sectors, such as services, banking and financial institutions or on industrial organizations. Second, this study analyzes the data from pharmaceutical companies' annual reports since 2014. There was a significant event of universal health coverage (national health insurance) implementation from the Indonesian government. Third, the study used ROE, ROA and EPS as indicators of profitability. Last but not least, the results of the study provide empirical evidence that firms with significant market power, good liquidity and well-managed sustainable growth rate improve operating income and ultimately enhance profitability.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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