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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Sudhir K. Saha, David O’Donnell, Taran Patel and John Heneghan

The purpose of this paper, in the context of the employment equity (EE) field, is to explore the relationship between individual values/beliefs and simulated hiring…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper, in the context of the employment equity (EE) field, is to explore the relationship between individual values/beliefs and simulated hiring decisions of minority candidates in Canada, France and Ireland.

Design/methodology/approach

Individual values/beliefs were elicited using Likert type scales; subjects responded to a series of simulated hiring scenarios.

Findings

The link between individual value and belief systems and EE‐related HR decision making on recruitment of minority candidates is modestly supported by the findings presented here. The values/beliefs of students from leading business schools influenced, if in part, their simulated hiring decisions on minority candidates presented in the scenarios. National context also matters as EE institutions differ at the societal level of analysis.

Research limitations/implications

The subjects were business school students of limited work experience addressing scenario situations, not practicing managers making real hiring decisions. The use of self‐reports leads to the usual issues related to common method variance, the consistency motif, social desirability bias, and so on and we note the limits due to the reverse ecological fallacy. Research findings provide modest support to this argument but should be treated with caution.

Practical implications

Individual values and beliefs matter in HR decision making on recruitment of minority candidates.

Originality/value

Much EE research focuses on antecedents of values/beliefs; this paper is one of a handful of investigations that attempts to establish possible outcomes of values/beliefs towards EE.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Bramhani Rao and Sambashiva Rao Kunja

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) in determining psychological contract fulfillment (PCF) at individual level, thus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) in determining psychological contract fulfillment (PCF) at individual level, thus attempting to establish that cultural orientation of each individual may differentially predict the fulfillment of his/her psychological contract.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was conducted on the cross-sectional data collected from 465 IT professionals working at different multi-national software companies.

Findings

Model fit between the dimensions of IC and PCF was found to be good, indicating a significantly positive relationship between within-culture cultural orientation of an individual and his/her perception of PCF. The analyses revealed that collectivist beliefs, values and norms have a significant relationship with the perception of delivery, fairness and trust toward PCF. The relationship between collectivist values and fairness of the deal was found to be insignificant.

Research limitations/implications

A major theoretical implication of the study is its contribution to evidence that people with collectivist orientation have a relatively positive perception toward the fulfillment of a psychological contract between them and the employer. It also clarifies why employees working in the same work environment tend to develop unique psychological contracts owing to their tendency to orient toward a particular cultural state of mind in the form of beliefs, values and norms guiding their day-to-day work-life.

Originality/value

The study is a valuable addition to the current literature in two ways. First, it contributes to the area of personality by examining the individual cultural orientation as an individual difference predictor of PCF. This helps in understanding the role of differences in emotions, cognition and behavior among individuals in predicting the fulfillment of hidden expectations of employees. In the domain of psychological contract, it contributes to evidence that explains why employees in same job conditions and employment relationships experience breach or fulfillment owing to their difference in cultural orientation.

Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2006

Kerstin A. Aumann and Cheri Ostroff

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular…

Abstract

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular attention being paid to the appropriateness of various human resources management (HRM) practices because practices that may be effective within one cultural context may not be effective in other cultural contexts. This chapter argues that a multi-level perspective is needed to explain the interplay between HRM practices and employee responses across cultural contexts. Specifically, the multi-level framework developed in this chapter elucidates the importance of fit between HRM practices, individual values, organizational values, and societal values. Societal values play a key role in the adoption of HRM practices, and the effectiveness of these HRM practices will depend largely on “fit” or alignment with the values of the societal culture in which the organization is operating. HRM practices also shape the collective responses of employees through organizational climate at the organizational level and through psychological climate at the individual level. For positive employee attitudes and responses to emerge, the climate created by the HRM practices must be aligned with societal and individual values. Building on these notions, the strength of the societal culture in which the organization is operating serves as a mechanism that links relationships between climate, value fit, and attitudes across levels of analysis. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for future research and implications for practice.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Social Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-432-4

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

David F. Midgley, Sunil Venaik and Demetris Christopoulos

The aim of this chapter is to: (1) model culture as a configuration of multiple values, (2) identify different culture archetypes across the globe, and (3) empirically…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to: (1) model culture as a configuration of multiple values, (2) identify different culture archetypes across the globe, and (3) empirically demonstrate heterogeneity in culture archetypes within and across 52 countries. We use Schwartz values from the World Values Survey (WVS) and the archetypal analysis (AA) method to identify diverse culture archetypes within and across countries. We find significant heterogeneity in culture values archetypes within countries and homogeneity across countries, calling into question the assumption of uniform national culture values in economics and other fields. We show how the heterogeneity in culture values across the globe can be represented with a small number of distinctive archetypes. The study could be extended to include a larger set of countries, and/or cover a broader range of theoretically grounded values than those available in the Schwartz values model in the WVS. Research and practice often assume cultural homogeneity within nations and cultural diversity across nations. Our finding of different culture archetypes within countries and similar archetypes across countries demonstrates the important role of culture sharing and exchange as a source of reducing cultural conflicts between nations and enhancing creativity and innovation through interaction and integration in novel ways. We examine culture as a configuration of multiple values, and use a novel AA method to capture heterogeneity in culture values within and across countries.

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Azila Jaini, Farzana Quoquab, Jihad Mohammad and Nazimah Hussin

In recent years, consumers are moving toward purchasing green cosmetics instead of chemical one. Plenty of cosmetics products are banned globally due to the usage of…

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Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, consumers are moving toward purchasing green cosmetics instead of chemical one. Plenty of cosmetics products are banned globally due to the usage of poisonous substances such as triphenyl phosphate and petroleum. As such, it is needed to shift the conventional purchase behavior to green purchase behavior (GPB) to reduce the negative impact on the environment and health. This study aims to investigate the factors that affect GPB in the context of cosmetics products purchase. Additionally, this study examines the moderating role of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in influencing such green behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used value-belief-norm (VBN) theory and elaboration likelihood model as a theoretical basis. By using judgmental sampling techniques, a total of 318 usable responses were gathered through online survey. The structural equation modeling approach using partial least square (SmartPLS, version 3.7) technique was used to test the study hypotheses.

Findings

Results reveal that altruistic value and hedonic value both positively affect pro-environmental beliefs, which eventually affect consumers’ personal norms. It is found that hedonic value has a greater influence on pro-environmental belief than altruistic value. Additionally, personal norm also exerts significant influence on GPB. Data also support the mediating role of pro-environmental belief and personal norm. Moreover, the multidimensional eWOM moderates the relationship between personal norm and GPB.

Practical implications

The findings from this study provide valuable insights for marketers, academicians and practitioners about the drivers of consumers’ green cosmetics purchase behavior. It will enable marketers to develop better strategies for the green market segment.

Social implications

The study findings also contribute to the social aspects by understanding consumers’ purchase behavior toward green cosmetics products. It ultimately promotes to consider a healthier lifestyle and to be concerned about environmental well-being.

Originality/value

This study is the first to introduce the eWOM as a moderator in the VBN theory. Moreover, this study contributes to the existing body of knowledge in the field by examining few new linkages; more specifically, considering pro-environmental belief as to the mediator between “hedonic value and personal norm,” as well as the mediating effect of personal norm in the relationship between “pro-environmental belief and GPB.” Moreover, this is a pioneer study to consider eWOM as a multidimensional construct rather than unidimensional, which is new in green marketing literature.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Abstract

Details

Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 September 2022

Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi, Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah and Velan Kunjuraman

This study integrates the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and value-belief-norm (VBN) theory to investigate tourists' intention and behaviour to visit green hotels in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study integrates the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and value-belief-norm (VBN) theory to investigate tourists' intention and behaviour to visit green hotels in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 160 valid questionnaire responses were collected via an online survey. The partial least square–structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was utilised to assess the study framework and the hypothesised relationship.

Findings

The study's results confirmed that tourists' intention to stay at a green hotel is directly influenced by their subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Besides, the study confirms the insignificant relationship between green trust, personal norms and tourists' stay intention. On the other hand, perceived morals, responsibility, willingness to pay more and perceived consumer effectiveness were significant in explaining the customer's subjective norms, personal norms and perceived behaviour control.

Research limitations/implications

The hotel industry may benefit from this empirical outcome to devise effective marketing strategies for retaining their customers, particularly in rejuvenating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the industry.

Practical implications

This study provides valuable practical implications for green hotel operators to develop effective strategies to attract tourists to green hotel visits.

Originality/value

This study is the first to integrate the extended TPB and VBN theory to understand tourist intention to visit a green hotel. Notably, the extended TPB and VBN theory was practical and helpful in predicting tourist intention to visit a green hotel.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Sudhir K. Saha

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between managerial values and preference for hiring of low caste and female job candidates in the context of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between managerial values and preference for hiring of low caste and female job candidates in the context of the six decades of affirmative action in India.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of managers from India filled in a questionnaire indicating their beliefs and values concerning the Indian reservation system, social activism and minority employment. Subjects also made hiring choices in a simulated decision environment.

Findings

Findings indicate that managers were marginally in favour of hiring minority candidates and that their values and beliefs concerning minority employment of low caste and female job candidates were mixed.

Research limitations/implications

The study used self‐reported questionnaires, and the sample size was small. Future studies are recommended to overcome the limitations.

Practical implications

Managers responsible for making hiring decisions should be trained and educated in the need for equity, justice and diversity in the workplace.

Originality/value

This investigation provides empirical evidence linking managerial beliefs and values to hiring preferences of minority job candidates.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Juan Carlos Pastor and Margarita Mayo

This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between managers' beliefs and goal orientation and the self‐perception of transformational and transactional leadership…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between managers' beliefs and goal orientation and the self‐perception of transformational and transactional leadership styles and how this relationship is moderated by the level of formal education.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 76 top executive officers reported their managerial values and beliefs by completing measures of McGregor's Theory XY philosophy of management and Dweck's learning and performance goal orientations. They also reported their use of transactional versus transformational leadership styles with their direct reports and their degree of formal education.

Findings

Regression analyses revealed that ratings of transformational leadership are associated with theory Y philosophy of management and a learning goal orientation; whereas ratings of transactional leadership were found to be associated with performance goal orientation. In addition, executives with higher levels of education reported greater behavioral integrity, that is, greater alignment between their managerial beliefs and their corresponding self‐ratings of leadership behaviors.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the transformational leadership literature by adding a cognitive perspective to the well‐studied behavioral patterns of transformational leaders.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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1 – 10 of over 84000