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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2021

Manjul Gupta

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of individual-level (espoused) cultural values (collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of individual-level (espoused) cultural values (collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and long-term orientation) on the individuals' acceptability of inappropriate social network behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs survey data collected from 482 social network users (261 in the United States and 221 from India).

Findings

Results show that individuals with high power distance, masculinity and long-term oriented cultural values are more accepting of inappropriate social network behaviors of others, while those with strong uncertainty avoidance cultural values have high degree of social network behavior inappropriateness, which is defined as the extent to which behaviors of social network users are considered unacceptable by others.

Research limitations/implications

The paper highlights the need for more academic research on the intersection of culture and social network behaviors. This study emphasizes the need for adopting an interdisciplinary approach to understand individuals' social network behaviors.

Practical implications

The paper offers recommendations to global organizations pertaining to the need for creating social network policies in such a way that encourages their global workforce to openly, yet respectfully, share their ideas using social networks.

Originality/value

Using an interdisciplinary approach, the present study extends our understanding of a recently proposed social network behavioral inappropriateness construct and explains how differences in cultural values may lead to differences in individuals' social network behaviors.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Maureen L. Ambrose and Marshall Schminke

Organizational justice research traditionally focuses on individuals’ reactions to how they are treated by others. However, little attention has been given to why…

Abstract

Organizational justice research traditionally focuses on individuals’ reactions to how they are treated by others. However, little attention has been given to why individuals choose to behave fairly or unfairly in the first place. Our chapter draws on the literature in ethical decision making (Rest, 1986) to identify five distinct factors that influence an individual's decision to treat others fairly. Using this model as a foundation, and drawing on extant research in justice, we explore five different types of roadblocks to fair behavior. We explore the implications of these roadblocks for organizations concerned with creating and maintaining a fair workplace. Finally, we discuss future research suggested by the five factors and some dilemmas, issues, and caveats relevant to the proposed model.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-056-8

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 1994

E. Eide

Abstract

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Economics of Crime: Deterrence and the Rational Offender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-072-3

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2007

Robert Zinko, Gerald R. Ferris, Fred R. Blass and Mary Dana Laird

In everyday life, as well as in work organizations, we engage in frequent and quite comfortable discourse about the nature of reputations, and wealso see personal…

Abstract

In everyday life, as well as in work organizations, we engage in frequent and quite comfortable discourse about the nature of reputations, and wealso see personal reputation used as a basis for important human resources decisions (e.g., promotions, terminations, etc.). Unfortunately, despite its recognized importance, there has been very little theory and research on personal reputation in organizations published in the organizational sciences. The present paper attempts to address this need by proposing a conceptualization of personal reputation in organizations. In this conceptualization, reputation is presented as an agreed upon, collective perception by others, and involves behavior calibration derived from social comparisons with referent others that results in a deviation from the behavioral norms in one's environment, as observed and evaluated by others. Implications of this conceptualization are discussed, as are directions for future research.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1432-4

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Rokhima Rostiani, Jein Sriana Toyib and Siti Khoiriyah

This study aims to investigate whether the protection motivation theory (PMT) and religiosity can explain the intention of at-home worship adaptive behavior during the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether the protection motivation theory (PMT) and religiosity can explain the intention of at-home worship adaptive behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study further explores factors that may affect this adaptive behavior, namely, the intention to adapt behavior, religiosity, social influence and trust in the government.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an online survey to purposively sample the respondents, resulting in 368 responses that were valid for structural analysis using partial least squares structual equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

This study found that PMT, and not religiosity, directly predicts an individual’s intention to adapt his/her behavior to at-home worship during the pandemic. Religiosity, however, has a role in evoking a coping appraisal that leads to the intention to enact the adaptive behavior. Further, this study found that intention, social influence and trust in the government predict an individual’s adaptive behavior for at-home worship.

Practical implications

This study may guide the government to create a policy that could enhance people’s adherence to adaptive behavior during the pandemic, particularly regarding their communication strategy by focusing on the cognitive and psychological aspects. In particular, framing based on this study’s result may serve as an insight for better prevention of virus transmission through a focused communications strategy.

Originality/value

First, the utilization of PMT to explain adaptive behavior in the context of at-home worship during the pandemic was extended. Second, the research of religiosity in the context of a pandemic was advanced and how it influences adaptive behavior was investigated. Finally, the utilization of partial least squares-SEM techniques to investigate individual adaptive behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic was extended.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Gerald R. Ferris, John N. Harris, Zachary A. Russell, B. Parker Ellen, Arthur D. Martinez and F. Randy Blass

Scholarship on reputation in and of organizations has been going on for decades, and it always has separated along level of analysis issues, whereby the separate…

Abstract

Scholarship on reputation in and of organizations has been going on for decades, and it always has separated along level of analysis issues, whereby the separate literatures on individual, group/team/unit, and organization reputation fail to acknowledge each other. This sends the implicit message that reputation is a fundamentally different phenomenon at the three different levels of analysis. We tested the validity of this implicit assumption by conducting a multilevel review of the reputation literature, and drawing conclusions about the “level-specific” or “level-generic” nature of the reputation construct. The review results permitted the conclusion that reputation phenomena are essentially the same at all levels of analysis. Based on this, we frame a future agenda for theory and research on reputation.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-824-2

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2020

Kangan Sayal and Gurparkash Singh

The purpose of this study is to develop and empirically test the earnings management (EM) behavior model to investigate the personal psychological factors that influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and empirically test the earnings management (EM) behavior model to investigate the personal psychological factors that influence individuals’ intentions to engage in EM.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a review of literature, personal-psychological factors influencing EM intentions were identified within the scope of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and a dark triad of personality theory. The survey data from 153 MBA students were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results revealed perceived behavior control is significant in influencing individuals’ EM intentions followed by attitude toward behavior and subjective norms. The results, however, do not support the relationship between moral obligation and intentions to engage in EM and also reported a negative relationship between Machiavellianism and individuals’ EM intentions.

Practical implications

The proposed model will enable organizations to develop focused training programs for managers to reduce EM behavior. It will also help educators in training students to positively shape their ethical behavior and make them more reciprocal toward others and their work environment.

Originality/value

The study develops the EM behavior model and suggests that TPB and Machiavellianism personality traits provide a useful framework to identify the personal psychological factors influencing individuals’ EM intentions. Further, the empirical testing of the model documents and contributes toward a better understanding of the personal psychological factors significantly influencing individuals’ EM intentions.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Filipa Oliveira and Tânia M.G. Marques

This work aims to study the relationship between individuals' love of money and their propensity to engage in unethical behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to study the relationship between individuals' love of money and their propensity to engage in unethical behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a questionnaire, with the final sample consisting of 297 Portuguese individuals. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression models.

Findings

The results demonstrate that there is no significant relationship between the love of money and the propensity to engage in unethical behaviour. However, there was a significant relationship between the level of budgeting and the propensity to engage in unethical behaviours – for those individuals who have a greater ability to manage their money are less likely to engage in behaviours unethical. The existence of a significant relationship between the “evil” factor and the propensity to engage in unethical behaviour was also validated, which demonstrates that when individuals both associate negative feelings with money and consider love of money to be the “root of evil”, then they are less likely to be involved in unethical behaviour.

Originality/value

This work contributes theoretically and empirically to a better understanding of individuals' attitudes towards money and their propensity to engage in unethical behaviour. The results are of particular academic and organisational relevance due to the implications for human resource management.

Objetivo

Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar as relações entre o amor ao dinheiro dos indivíduos e a sua propensão para o envolvimento em comportamentos não éticos.

Design/metodologia/abordagem

Os dados foram recolhidos através de questionário, sendo a amostra final composta por 297 indivíduos portugueses. As hipóteses foram testadas através de regressões lineares.

Resultados

Os resultados demonstram a não existência de uma relação significativa entre o amor ao dinheiro e a propensão para o envolvimento em comportamentos não éticos. Contudo, comprovou-se a existência de uma relação significativa entre o nível de orçamentação e a propensão para o envolvimento em comportamentos não éticos, à medida que os indivíduos apresentam uma maior capacidade para gerir o seu dinheiro, apresentam um menor propensão para se envolverem em comportamentos não éticos. Também se validou a existência de relação significativa entre o fator maléfico e a propensão para o envolvimento em comportamentos não éticos, demonstrando que quando os indivíduos associam ao dinheiro sentimentos negativos e que consideram o amor ao dinheiro como a raiz da maldade apresentam menor propensão para o envolvimento em comportamentos não éticos.

Originalidade/valor

Este trabalho contribui teórica e empiricamente para melhor compreender as atitudes dos indivíduos perante o dinheiro e a sua propensão para o envolvimento em comportamentos não éticos. Os resultados são de especial relevância académica e organizacional devido às implicações na gestão de recursos humanos.

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