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This qualitative case study provides a detailed description of the ways a Kindergarten/Grade 1 teacher in a Gulf Islands school, located on Canada’s west coast, integrated…
This qualitative case study provides a detailed description of the ways a Kindergarten/Grade 1 teacher in a Gulf Islands school, located on Canada’s west coast, integrated place-based education in her practice with young learners. The teacher’s integration of place-based knowledge over a school year, and her incorporation of traditional knowledge linked to local Coast Salish ways of knowing, was in response to the British Columbia Ministry of Education’s mandate to include local Indigenous ways of knowing in all classrooms. This study also reveals the ways an Indigenous educator affiliated with the school district and local community members provided the teacher and students with deeper understandings of Salt Spring Island from a historical, place-based, and Indigenous knowledge perspective. Specifically, the Indigenous educator and community members shared their knowledge on the vegetation on the island and shared information about the animals that lived on or near the island. Throughout the study, the teacher drew on a “critical pedagogy of place,” which focuses on the ecological aspects of place and the tenets of critical pedagogy. This study documented the ways the teacher included local Indigenous knowledge in her practice in culturally relevant and appropriate ways – primarily through outdoor learning experiences. The children also shared their perspectives on these learning experiences. In this study, the place-based learning opportunities provided to the children enabled them to acquire rich insight on the history and ecology of their community and island.
The purpose of this paper is to explore Indigenous Works’ efforts to facilitate Indigenous-led research that is responsive to the socio-economic needs, values and…
The purpose of this paper is to explore Indigenous Works’ efforts to facilitate Indigenous-led research that is responsive to the socio-economic needs, values and traditions of Indigenous communities.
This paper is grounded in an Indigenous research paradigm that is facilitated by Indigenous-led community-based participatory action research (PAR) methodology informed by the Two Row Wampum and Two-Eyed Seeing framework to bridge Indigenous science and knowledge systems with western ones.
The findings point to the need for greater focus on how Indigenous and western knowledge may be aligned within the methodological content domain while tackling a wide array of Indigenous research goals that involve non-Indigenous allies.
This paper addresses the need to develop insights and understandings into how to develop a safe, ethical space for Indigenous-led trans-disciplinary and multi-community collaborative research partnerships that contribute to community self-governance and well-being.
The situating of pimatisiwin as a framework for spatial justice and self-determination aids educators in strengthening their understandings of Indigenous knowledges to…
The situating of pimatisiwin as a framework for spatial justice and self-determination aids educators in strengthening their understandings of Indigenous knowledges to support an authentic inclusion of Indigenous students with disabilities. Through the sharing of Canada’s colonial history, and by critically examining the principles of care within special education, the author exposes its relationship with ableism, normalcy, eugenics, and white privilege to show how Indigenous peoples continue to be marginalized in the twenty-first century. This justice work asks educators to shift their perspectives of inclusion and wellness through the insertion of an Indigenous lens, one to help them see and hear the faces and voices of disabled Aboriginal children and their kinships. The chapter discusses the social model of disability, the psychology of Gentle Teaching, Indigenous ethics, and principles of natural laws through the voices of Nehiyawak and other knowledge keepers, in order to suggest an agenda for educators to come to an understanding of an emancipatory and gentle education. Spatial justice and Indigenous epistemologies merge as synergistic, inclusive, and holistic entities, to support Aboriginal children and youth as both they and those who teach learn to celebrate disabled ontologies. The chapter concludes by presenting how Gentle Teaching and Indigenous ways of knowing should be honored in this quest of creating an equitable, caring, and inclusive society for all disabled Indigenous children and youth.
Australian Universities have struggled to achieve higher education outcomes for Indigenous students. Rates of retention, attrition and withdrawal characterize the…
Australian Universities have struggled to achieve higher education outcomes for Indigenous students. Rates of retention, attrition and withdrawal characterize the Indigenous higher education participation profile. An emerging Indigenous leadership within the academy provides universities with access to Indigenous standpoints. This chapter promotes the necessity of Indigenous standpoints if universities are to achieve transformation in Indigenous higher education outcomes.
Social and practical implications
The opportunities available to Indigenous Australians to enjoy a quality of life commensurate to non-Indigenous Australians are hampered by disproportionate rates of poor health, education and employment. A higher education qualification positions Indigenous people to access sustainable employment. Improving rates of Indigenous retention, decreasing attrition and increasing the number of graduates can transform current Indigenous experiences of disadvantage. Accessing Indigenous standpoints is integral to universities achieving these results.
Originality/value of chapter
While the concept of Indigenous standpoints has been proposed by other Indigenous scholars, these discussions have not contextualized the operations of this standpoint specifically within the milieu of university administration, management and governance. The intrinsic value of Indigenous standpoints has not gained traction within university executive management and is not readily understood in strategic planning or academic corporate cultures.
The primary purpose of this chapter is to portray the transformative, educational journey of an Indigenous educator. Using an Indigenous way of learning in connection with…
The primary purpose of this chapter is to portray the transformative, educational journey of an Indigenous educator. Using an Indigenous way of learning in connection with the Yup’ik teachings of kenka/love and ellangeq/awareness the author describes the clashes and challenges that Western education brings about as it conflicts with Indigenous epistemologies. She shares how she transformed her way of learning and teaching in higher education through continuous reflection and transformation by using her own Indigenous ways of knowing. She goes on to show how these ways of knowing can transform higher education classrooms into culturally sustaining and revitalizing spaces.
Western schooling has contributed significantly to the colonization of Indigenous peoples in Alaska. Non-Native approaches continue to dominate in many schools that serve…
Western schooling has contributed significantly to the colonization of Indigenous peoples in Alaska. Non-Native approaches continue to dominate in many schools that serve Indigenous P-12 students. This disconnect can lead to students and families who are disengaged from school (Castagno & Brayboy, 2008). In rural schools serving Indigenous students in Alaska, most school staff are hired from out of state, leaving youth vulnerable to practices that may not include their knowledge systems, languages and values. Unexamined practices by Western teachers can unknowingly perpetuate, “… ongoing legacies of colonization, ethnocide and linguicide” (McCarty & Lee, 2014). As one way to address this ongoing issue, faculty at the University of Alaska Anchorage College of Education developed a course called the Induction Seminar. The Seminar is a yearlong, online course for non-Native educators serving in rural Indigenous communities which combines an Alaska Department of Education teacher requirement for a multicultural course and an Alaska Studies course. The class content and processes familiarize Western educators with Indigenous ways of knowing and encourage them to examine their role in bringing about positive school reform. The course is increasingly requested by new-to-Alaska educators teaching in Indigenous communities and is making a small and hopeful impact in preparing educators to become more confident and competent in implementing culturally sustaining and revitalizing practices (Paris, 2014). This chapter describes how Western university instructors and P-12 educators used an “inward gaze” (Paris & Alim, 2014) to examine current practices and seek out pedagogies that support Indigenous education in rural Alaska.
The aim of the research was to gather information about Indigenous and non-Indigenous students’ classroom experiences. This chapter examines what made the classroom…
The aim of the research was to gather information about Indigenous and non-Indigenous students’ classroom experiences. This chapter examines what made the classroom environment in this course, Balancing Worldviews, different to other classroom experiences. It was also undertaken for students to provide their standpoints on how safe classroom environments are created for students and lecturers to share their views and perspectives.
The study employed a Collaborative Community Participatory Action Research (CCPAR) model. The praxis and sequencing of action requires practical, reflective engagement focused upon solution development, as identified by the collaborative community (Indigenous and non-Indigenous students). Qualitative data was collated via focus groups and individual in-depth interviews with students.
We learnt through the research Classroom experiences of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students: Building safe engagement by sharing stories that demonstrated a particular theme and situations of the week; the stories were about family, political issues, working experiences. These stories supported student learning and transformed the learning space into a place that was safe for students to share their experiences. This way of learning was acknowledged as personal, non-hierarchical and relational, establishing connections between the learner and sharer of the story.
This research focused on how students’ experience of safety shaped the nature and level of their engagement and their ability to provide peer support. The stories shared by students are indicative of the necessity of growing safer classrooms. The emphasis was on story-telling and knowledge sharing, which is circular and takes time to develop within a group. The focus group discussions established a number of themes that were taken up and explored further in the in-depth interviews.
We believe this research interaction is vital in cultivating an effective progressive evaluation process incorporating students' input (knowledge, experiences and voices), rather than through the systemic university model of student survey that demands a limited response. With the findings of the research we hope to share these experiences with our peers.
For many Indigenous nations globally, ethics is a conversation. The purpose of this paper is to share and mobilize knowledge to build relationships and capacities…
For many Indigenous nations globally, ethics is a conversation. The purpose of this paper is to share and mobilize knowledge to build relationships and capacities regarding the ethics review and approval of research with Indigenous peoples throughout Atlantic Canada. The authors share key principles that emerged for shifting practices that recognize Indigenous rights holders through ethical research review practice.
The NunatuKavut Inuit hosted and led a two-day gathering on March 2019 in Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, to promote a regional dialogue on Indigenous Research Governance. It brought together Indigenous Nations within the Atlantic Region and invited guests from institutional ethics review boards and researchers in the region to address the principles-to-policy-to-practice gap as it relates to the research ethics review process. Called “Naalak”, an Inuktitut word that means “to listen and to pay close attention”, the gathering created a dynamic moment of respect and understanding of how to work better together and support one another in research with Indigenous peoples on Indigenous lands.
Through this process of dialogue and reflection, emergent principles and practices for “good” research ethics were collectively identified. Open dialogue between institutional ethics boards and Indigenous research review committees acknowledged past and current research practices from Indigenous peoples’ perspectives; supported and encouraged community-led research; articulated and exemplified Indigenous ownership and control of data; promoted and practiced ethical and responsible research with Indigenous peoples; and supported and emphasized rights based approaches within the current research regulatory system. Key principles emerged for shifting paradigms to honour Indigenous rights holders through ethical research practice, including: recognizing Indigenous peoples as rights holders with sovereignty over research; accepting collective responsibility for research in a “good” way; enlarging the sphere of ethical consideration to include the land; acknowledging that “The stories are ours” through Indigenous-led (or co-led) research; articulating relationships between Indigenous and Research Ethics Board (REB) approvals; addressing justice and proportionate review of Indigenous research; and, means of identifying the Indigenous governing authority for approving research.
Future steps (including further research) include pursuing collective responsibilities towards empowering Indigenous communities to build their own consensus around research with/in their people and their lands. This entails pursuing further understanding of how to move forward in recognition and respect for Indigenous peoples as rights holders, and disrupting mainstream dialogue around Indigenous peoples as “stakeholders” in research.
The first step in moving forward in a way that embraces Indigenous principles is to deeply embed the respect of Indigenous peoples as rights holders across and within REBs. This shift in perspective changes our collective responsibilities in equitable ways, reflecting and respecting differing impetus and resources between the two parties: “equity” does imply “equality”. Several examples of practical changes to REB procedures and considerations are detailed.
What the authors have discovered is that it is not just about academic or institutional REB decolonization: there are broad systematic issues at play. However, pursuing the collective responsibilities outlined in our paper should work towards empowering communities to build their own consensus around research with/in their people and their lands. Indigenous peoples are rights holders, and have governance over research, including the autonomy to make decisions about themselves, their future, and their past.
The value is in its guidance around how authentic partnerships can develop that promote equity with regard to community and researcher and community/researcher voice and power throughout the research lifecycle, including through research ethics reviews that respect Indigenous rights, world views and ways of knowing. It helps to show how both Indigenous and non-Indigenous institutions can collectively honour Indigenous rights holders through ethical research practice.
Our individual and collective humanness is integral to the pursuit of learning and, thus, has the potential to bring much richness to discussions in teacher education…
Our individual and collective humanness is integral to the pursuit of learning and, thus, has the potential to bring much richness to discussions in teacher education. Unfortunately, education continues to prioritize cognitive ways of knowing, often at the expense of affective and spiritual knowledge. Drawing on the work of Parker Palmer (1993, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 2004, 2017) who advocates for integrated ways of knowing and being and Manulani Meyer (2013) who draws on Indigenous knowledges to suggest holographic epistemology as meaning-making, I embrace a photo-poetic method to challenge the tendency in education to distance our minds from our emotional and ethereal selves. Situated within a/r/tography, this inquiry explores the capacity of artful ways of being to overcome the culture of disconnectedness in education.
One’s standpoint and consequent research paradigm impacts how we conduct research, including study design, analyses interpretation and dissemination of results. In 2017…
One’s standpoint and consequent research paradigm impacts how we conduct research, including study design, analyses interpretation and dissemination of results. In 2017, the authors began PhD, studying the potential barriers to aftercare treatment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 who had sustained a burn injury in one of five major hospitals in Australia. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
As Aboriginal PhD students, the authors are conducting research using Aboriginal ontology as a framework, which is based on a holistic framework with interconnectedness, person-centred care and Aboriginal ways of knowing as the foundation. The framework has been shaped by the first author’s knowing, being and doing, and the authors’ worldview has informed and shaped the standpoint and the way the research has been developed and conducted.
It was important for the authors to have a connectedness to each aspect of the research and to each individual person that shared their story: this was paramount to the ways of being.
This connectedness stems from growing up on the authors’ country and learning from elders, from the connection to all entities living around, within and with the authors. The Indigenous research methodology was used throughout the study, including yarning and Dadirri, a way of deep listening and learning, as the basis for interviewing.