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We use insights from resource dependence, institutional theories and social movement theories to examine the indigenization of subsidiary management in the multinational…
We use insights from resource dependence, institutional theories and social movement theories to examine the indigenization of subsidiary management in the multinational company (MNC). We discuss the effects of interdependence with local organizations, access to critical resources, and MNC legitimacy in the host country on the indigenization of subsidiary management. We consider the impact of local and extra-local social movement activity as well as the local political opportunity structure in the host country. The organizational variables in the framework include international strategy and experience. We suggest implications for further international management research and practice involving the operation of foreign subsidiaries.
Reconciliation between Indigenous peoples and the Canadian plurality has stalled. While the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s (TRC) Calls to Action could be a focusing…
Reconciliation between Indigenous peoples and the Canadian plurality has stalled. While the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s (TRC) Calls to Action could be a focusing event, creating a window of opportunity for transformative social innovations; we see coalescing of interest, social capital and investment in decolonization and indigenization in the proliferation of professorships, programs, installations and statements. However, Blackfoot (Siksika) Elder Roy Bear Chief raised significant concerns that Indigenous knowledge, experiences and people are not yet seen as relevant and useful in higher education; such marginalization must be addressed at a systems level for authentic reconciliation at any colonial university. The purpose of this paper was to explore this dual goal of exploring barriers to and opportunities for Indigenous knowledges and knowledge holders to be valued as relevant and useful in the Canadian academy, using a complexity- and systems-informed lens.
Local Indigenous Elders provided guidance to reflect study purpose and target audience of academics, with an approach that respectfully weaved Westernized research methods and co-learning through indigenous knowledge mobilization strategies. This analysis extends results from a qualitative grounded theory study to explain social processes of professors and administrative leadership in a Canadian mid-sized university regarding barriers and facilitators of implementing TRC Calls to Action. This further interpretation of applied systems and panarchy heuristics broadens understanding to how such micro-social processes are positioned and influence larger scale institutional change.
This paper discusses how the social process of dominionization intentionally minimizes meaningful system disruption by othering indigenous knowledge and knowledge holders; this form of system-reinforcing boundary work contributes to rigidity and inhibits potentially transformative innovations from scaling beyond individual niches and moments in time. Elders’ consultation throughout the research process, including co-learning the meaning of findings, led to the gifting of traditional teachings and emerging systems and multi-scale framework on the relevance of indigenous knowledges and peoples in higher education.
This study was performed in one faculty of one Canadian institution; an important and potentially widely-present social process was identified. Further research is needed for greater generalizability. Conditions that led to this study are increasingly common across Canada, where at least one third of higher education organizations have explicit indigenization strategies and internationally where the rights and self-determination of indigenous peoples are growing.
Insights from this study can inform conversations about social innovation in institutional settings, and the current systems’ resistance to change, particularly when exploring place-based solutions to national/international questions. These initiatives have yet to transform institutions, and while transformation is rarely rapid (Moore et al., 2018), for these potential innovations to grow, they need to be sustainable beyond a brief window of opportunity. Scaling up or deep within the academy seems to remain stubbornly elusive despite attention to the TRC.
This study contributes to a growing literature that explores the possibilities and opportunities between Indigenous epistemologies and social innovation study and practice (McGowan, 2019; Peredo, McLean and Tremblay, 2019; Conrad, 2015), as well as scholarship around Indigenization and decolonization in Canada and internationally.
ZIMBABWE: Indigenisation rule to raise investor unease
The South African government actively intervenes in the labor market in the pursuit of redress of social injustice. These interventions are complicated by economics and…
The South African government actively intervenes in the labor market in the pursuit of redress of social injustice. These interventions are complicated by economics and have a direct effect on intentions to turnover. In addition, South Africa has a dual labor market, with a high unemployment rate among lesser skilled workers, and a skills shortage at the top of the labor market.
There are four clear eras in the labor market of post-Apartheid South Africa. The first era was after democratic elections in 1994, when the government focused on nation-building with the introduction of indigenization programs. The second era was characterized by economic prosperity and an intensification of indigenization programs. The third era was characterized by rampant state corruption and increased regulatory uncertainty. During this period, the economy stagnated and unemployment increased. Firms restructured and lower-level workers were retrenched and higher-level skilled workers left the country. In 2018, a new president undertook to grow the South African economy and attract foreign direct investment. Despite these efforts, there was a spike in South Africans emigrating, increasing the turnover of highly skilled South Africans of all races.
Economics and politics create both push and pull factors and many unintended consequences, and the dual labor market reacts differently to labor markets than in developed economies. The lower-skilled employees lose their jobs as the economy contracts, while highly skilled jobs remain difficult to fill. However, skilled professionals nonetheless feel increasingly uncertain about their future employability.
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of a critical subsystem development indigenously on the outcome of an Indian defence R&D project. Indigenous development…
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of a critical subsystem development indigenously on the outcome of an Indian defence R&D project. Indigenous development of the critical subsystem requires the development of a number of technologies; hence the study is taken up for indigenously development of critical subsystem.
A simulation-based approach is used in this paper for studying the effect of indigenization decisions. A defence R&D project with the critical subsystems is modeled in Graphical Evolution and Review Technique (GERT) networks, and simulated in Arena simulation software using discrete event simulation model. The simulation model is thereafter experimented with decision options for the critical subsystem. Data were collected from the project management office (PMO) of short range homing guided missile (SRHGM) for this simulation study.
It has been found in this case that timely development of technology plays a key role in the Indian defence R&D projects. While indigenization of critical components reduces cost of development, the trade-off lies in much increased project development time. It is imperative that project teams should identify critical components early and work out appropriate strategies of indigenous development to avoid time overrun of the projects.
The accuracy of results of the study could perhaps be affected on account of the extent of data forthcoming from the PMO. However, GERT framework presented in this paper is realistically derived from the practices used in the SRHGM project.
The study would help the project teams to identify critical subsystems early and work out appropriate strategies of indigenous development to avoid time overrun of the projects. This study would also make the project as well as the R&D teams aware of the causes for delays and cost overruns, and assist to deliver a product meeting end-user requirements.
The indigenous peoples of the Philippines have had to struggle against historical injustices for centuries. They fought against colonization and the subjugation of their…
The indigenous peoples of the Philippines have had to struggle against historical injustices for centuries. They fought against colonization and the subjugation of their cultures and ways of life. Over the decades, their next generations are confronted with exclusion, discrimination, and encroachments on their ancestral domains which have resulted in social and economic disadvantages. An obvious case in point is the lack of sympathetic and affirmative policy directives for the culture-based education of indigenous children and youth. This paper reflects on the policy development processes undertaken to institutionalize inclusion and social justice in indigenous peoples education policies within the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Using the method of narrative inquiry, the stories of reform are told from the point of view of those who facilitated the crafting of these policies. Three narratives demonstrate that contextualized and empowering education strategies and processes transform not only policy but also the policy makers.
India's defence sector.
His proposals, which include an amendment to economic indigenisation policies, came just a week after new President Emmerson Mnangagwa announced his first cabinet in the…
Of all the challenges facing scholars in the 3rd world today none is as serious as the need to harness their knowledge and skills for the task of nation‐building. There is…
Of all the challenges facing scholars in the 3rd world today none is as serious as the need to harness their knowledge and skills for the task of nation‐building. There is a demand on the scholars to make their teaching and research activities relevant to the problems of their societies. For the social scientists the pressure is even greater since they claim as their domain the study of man in society. In meeting this challenge, many of these scholars have come up against formidable odds created by the historical background of their discipline; the dominant intellectual orientation that informed their training; and academic colonisalism that urges them to conform to walls of the “ivory towers”. Ironically, this situation is not helped by an awareness among an increasing number that knowledge is socially determined and that in every human community men strive to make sense of their social reality. This awareness only created different camps divided on what form the contribution of the sociologists should take in the development of theories needed in understanding their society. This article attempts to discuss these issues in the context of the debate on universalism and indigenisation in social theory. The debate is on the extent to which theories developed within a particular social context might be expected to hold in all others. This debate is fundamental as it not only touches on the popular identity of sociology as a science it also bears on the role of the non‐Western sociologist in studying his own society. To give focus to the theoretical and methodological issues involved in the debate‐which is discussed in the first part of this article, the second part highlights the developments one major area of sociological interest and shows in concrete terms (1) how the dominant trend has hindered our understanding of social issues and (2) how the sociological enterprise can benefit from an approach which is flexible enough to integrate a people's thought system into an explanation of their social reality.