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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Nitin Arora and Preeti Lohani

Foreign firms have certain advantages which may spillover to domestic firms in the form of improvements in total factor productivity (TFP) growth. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Foreign firms have certain advantages which may spillover to domestic firms in the form of improvements in total factor productivity (TFP) growth. The purpose of this paper is to empirically observe the presence of TFP spillovers of foreign direct investment (FDI) to domestic firms through analyzing source of TFP growth in Indian drugs and pharmaceutical industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the sources of TFP spillovers of FDI in Indian drugs and pharmaceutical industry over the period 1999 to 2014. The data of 304 firms has been used for estimation of the growth rates of TFP and its sources under stochastic frontier analyses based Malmquist productivity index framework. For frontier estimation, the Wang and Ho (2010) model has been executed using translog form of production function.

Findings

The results show that there exists significant TFP spillover effect from the presence of foreign equity in drugs and pharmaceutical industry of India. The results also show that the major source of TFP fluctuations in the said industry is managerial efficiency that has been significantly affected by FDI spillover variables. In sum, the phenomenon of significant Intra-industry (horizontal) efficiency led productivity spillovers of FDI found valid in case of Indian drugs and pharmaceutical industry.

Research limitations/implications

The number of foreign firms is very less to imitate the significant impact of foreign investment on TFP growth of Indian pharmaceutical industry at aggregated level; and the Wang and Ho (2010) model is failing to capture direct impact of FDI on technological change under Malmquist framework.

Practical implications

Since, there exists dominance of domestic firms in Indian drugs and pharmaceutical industry, the planners should follow the policy which not only attract FDI but also benefit domestic firms; for example, developing modern infrastructure and institution which will further help domestic firms to absorb spillovers provided by the Multinational Corporations and also accelerate the growth and development of the economy.

Social implications

In no case, the foreign firms should dominate the market share otherwise the efficiency spillover effect will be negative and the domestic firms will be destroyed under the self-centric approach of foreign firms protected by the recent patent laws.

Originality/value

The study is a unique attempt to discuss the production structure and sources of TFP spillovers of FDI in Indian drugs and pharmaceutical industry with such a wide coverage of 304 firms over a period of 16 years under Wang and Ho (2010) model’s framework. The existing studies on TFP spillovers are using either a small sample size of firms or based upon traditional techniques of measuring spillover effects.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Varun Mahajan, D.K. Nauriyal and S P. Singh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the trade performance, revealed comparative advantage and trade specialisation indices of Indian pharmaceutical in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the trade performance, revealed comparative advantage and trade specialisation indices of Indian pharmaceutical in the post-modified Indian Patent Act.

Design/methodology/approach

The main data sources for this paper are United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, PROWESS of Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, Government of India reports and Reserve Bank of India databases. Revealed comparative advantage index (RCAI) and trade specialisation coefficient (TSC) have been calculated in the study.

Findings

India is ranked third in regard of TCS, far behind Ireland and Israel. While Ireland has moved up the value chain faster after 1995, Israel has moved up swiftly after 2000 through global production network and supply chain. The Indian pharmaceutical industry, on the other hand, has largely capitalised on its low-cost production of generic drugs and a large domestic market. The RCAI also supports the results of TSC. India is positioned at 11th place, far behind Ireland, which stands tall at the top with distantly followed by Israel, Switzerland, Belgium, the UK, etc.

Practical implications

The study shows the policy implications for future sustainable development of the industry as the new IPR regime has given opportunities as well as threats to both domestic pharmaceutical companies as well as the multinational corporations. The Indian pharmaceutical industry can be a good learning experience for other developing countries hopeful to enter the global market for generic drugs.

Originality/value

There are no major studies providing detailed analyses of India’s comparative advantage vis-à-vis other leading exporters of pharmaceutical products in the world. This study endeavours to fill this gap. It also attempts to capture recent trends in exports and imports during the global recession period.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Giuseppe Festa, Ashutosh Kolte, Maria Rosaria Carli and Matteo Rossi

This study aims to access, analyze and highlight opportunities and problems of the Indian pharmaceutical sector in the broader national health-care industry. The recent…

6870

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to access, analyze and highlight opportunities and problems of the Indian pharmaceutical sector in the broader national health-care industry. The recent changes in the field, at the institutional and corporate levels, have placed India in the spotlight of the global pharmaceutical market, but several threats and weaknesses could limit this expansion.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive and inferential analyses have been based on empirical data extracted from authenticated data sources. Subsequently, a narrative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was performed based on the results of prior investigations and on qualitative data that were retrieved from a marketing intelligence examination to generate an overall scenario analysis.

Findings

Indian pharmaceutical companies have faced several challenges on various fronts. In the home market, drug prices are controlled by the drug price control order; therefore, there is strong pressure on revenues and subsequently on costs. In the international market, threats derived from pharmaceutical multinational companies are emerging as tough obstacles to overcome.

Practical implications

More focus on patents for innovative drugs is required, instead of concentrating primarily on generic drugs. There is a need for policymakers to work on the sustainability and development of the industry, while the companies must redesign their orientation toward enhancing innovation capabilities. In addition, at the level of corporate strategy, firms should establish collaborations and alliances and expand their industrial marketing vision.

Originality/value

This study provides a global overview of the potential growth and development of the Indian pharmaceutical sector, comparing it with internal trends and external competition. The most relevant contribution of the research relies on the shift to innovative production that Indian companies must adopt (after years of focusing only on generic drugs), and in this vein, appropriate industrial marketing solutions are indispensable.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Varun Mahajan

This paper aims to present structural changes and trade competitiveness in Indian pharmaceutical industry in pre and post product patent regime. The study shows the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present structural changes and trade competitiveness in Indian pharmaceutical industry in pre and post product patent regime. The study shows the impact of product patent on market structure, ownership, trade, revealed comparative advantage, R&D and mergers and acquisitions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on secondary data and extensive relevant conceptual and empirical literature review.

Findings

The study finds that this oligopoly Indian dominant pharmaceutical industry has many challenges ahead such as in R&D expenditure, patent expiration of many major drugs manufactured in Ireland, growing competition in generic global market, bulk drugs dependence on China, rise in the number of M&As, rising costs of new drug discovery and tightening safety and efficacy testing requirements. The smaller firms are likely to act as the contract manufacturers for medium and bigger companies at a lower value chain. The Normalised Revealed Comparative Advantage (NRCA) index was calculated for top exporters of pharmaceutical. It was found that NRCA index of IPI has shown deterioration from 1996 to 2005 and thereafter, improvement except in the year 2009. Switzerland, Belgium and Ireland are the top three countries in NRCA index, which are followed by Germany, the UK and France.

Originality/value

It attempts to capture recent trends in market structure, comparative advantage indices, R&D, trade, M&A and ownership, especially in new IPR regime. There is a dearth of studies providing detailed analyses of India’s comparative advantage vis-a-vis other leading exporters of pharmaceutical products in the world. The paper would be of value to practitioners and scholars interested in structural changes of IPI, especially in product patent regime. The findings have significant implications for managers and government for future policymaking.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shilpi Tyagi and D.K. Nauriyal

This paper aims to analyze the firm level determinants of profitability of Indian drug and pharmaceutical industry which is known for historically weak R&D initiatives.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the firm level determinants of profitability of Indian drug and pharmaceutical industry which is known for historically weak R&D initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

The change in the economic environment brought out by the Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) compliance, this industry was found to have fast adjusted to a new working environment by substantially modifying its strategies. This study aims at using inflation-adjusted panel data for a period 2000-2013 and applies the fixed effects regression model with cluster standard errors.

Findings

The study has found that export intensity, A&M intensity, firm’s market power and stronger patent regime dummy have exercised positive influence on profitability. The negative and statistically significant influence of R&D intensity and raw material import intensity points to the need for firms to adopt suitable investment strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that firms are required to pay far more attention to optimize their operating expenditures, advertisement and marketing expenditures and improve their export orientation, as part of the long-term strategy.

Originality/value

This study uses a recent data-set to analyze the firm level profitability determinants in the Indian pharmaceutical industry and captures the effect of change in profitability pre and post-TRIPS.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Chidambaran G. Iyer

Foreign firms and domestic multinationals have certain internal advantages which may spillover to domestic firms. However, due to heterogeneity across multinationals, it

Abstract

Purpose

Foreign firms and domestic multinationals have certain internal advantages which may spillover to domestic firms. However, due to heterogeneity across multinationals, it is not necessary that the effect of the spillovers generated by the foreign firm and that generated by the domestic multinational be similar. The purpose of this paper is to empirically find out if the spillovers generated are similar or different in nature.

Design/methodology/approach

The study's results are based on a panel regression analysis of 578 firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry from 1995‐2006. Fixed effects as well as the Levinsohn Petrin methodology are used to analyze the research question.

Findings

The paper finds that there are differences in the characteristics of foreign firms and Indian multinationals. It also finds differences in the research and development (R&D) spillover effects from foreign firms and those from Indian multinationals. The knowledge or R&D spillover effect of foreign firms on domestic firms is found to be negative, which is interpreted as movement of labor to foreign firms. Indian multinationals seem to have no spillover effect on domestic firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The study also finds that the presence of foreign firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry has not had a productivity hampering effect on domestic firms. Finally, the study finds some evidence to believe that spillovers in the Indian pharmaceutical industry may vary with size of the domestic firm.

Originality/value

There are very few papers in literature that empirically try to find similarity or differences between spillover effects due to foreign firms and those due to domestic multinationals. The study also tries to discern if these spillovers vary with respect to the size of the domestic firm.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Giuseppe Festa, Matteo Rossi, Ashutosh Kolte and Luca Marinelli

This research investigates the top five pharmaceutical companies in India to determine whether their financial structures are sound and if they face the risk of…

3201

Abstract

Purpose

This research investigates the top five pharmaceutical companies in India to determine whether their financial structures are sound and if they face the risk of bankruptcy, highlighting the potential contribution of intellectual capital (IC) to financial stability.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis outlines operating ratios, profitability ratios, possibility of bankruptcy (through Z-scores) and attractiveness of the financial structure (through the F-score), with consequent focus on (IC).

Findings

The financial structure of the selected companies seems stable. Changes in the Indian pharmaceutical scenario, above all, regarding the patent system, will force the companies to consider the impact of IC carefully.

Practical implications

Indian pharmaceutical companies need sustainability and development, with increasing focus on patent issues. To enhance innovation capabilities and overcome international competition, they should redesign their business orientation towards IC, mainly when impacting patents.

Originality/value

Using established approaches for predicting potential bankruptcy, this study focuses on the financial performance of top Indian pharmaceutical companies. IC can support financial stability, and this study provides further perspectives for managing their financial structure, both statically and dynamically.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Dinesh Jaisinghani

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the nature of profit persistence and to estimate the dynamic relationship between research and development (R&D) intensity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the nature of profit persistence and to estimate the dynamic relationship between research and development (R&D) intensity and firm profitability in the Indian pharmaceutical industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic panel data model with generalized methods of moments (GMMs) technique has been deployed to estimate the relationship between R&D intensity and performance. Arellano and Bond (1991) estimation methodology has been used to generate the estimates. A sample of 55 publicly listed firms operating in the Indian pharmaceutical industry for the period 2005-2014 has been considered.

Findings

The study finds moderate to heavy profit persistence in the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The study also finds that there exists a positive relationship between R&D intensity and performance for the Indian pharmaceutical Industry. The results hold even after considering two separate measures of profitability – return on assets and return on sales. The results also hint at a possible non-linear relationship between R&D intensity and profitability.

Research limitations/implications

The results highlight positive profit persistence among pharmaceutical firms. The results also highlight the need for a sustained investment in R&D, as its benefits are driven in the long run. Thus, managers should devise proper policies R&D investments. Also, prospective entrants should properly study the existing entry barriers before deciding upon the mode and timing of entry.

Originality/value

The degree of profit persistence and the dynamic nature of relationship between R&D intensity and firm performance in the Indian pharmaceutical sector has not been studied. Thus, this paper fills this gap and also highlights the impact of certain firm- and industry-specific variables on profitability.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2020

Varun Mahajan

The purpose of this paper is to empirically study the impact of product patent regime on the productivity of different categories such as ownership, R&D, size and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically study the impact of product patent regime on the productivity of different categories such as ownership, R&D, size and product-wise of Indian pharmaceutical firms using non-parametric data envelopment analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study has applied Ray and Desli’s Malmquist productivity index and its decomposition to measure total factor productivity (TFP) change, pure technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change and technical change under variable returns to scale (VRS) technology assumption for 141 Indian pharmaceutical firms during 2000-2001 to 2014-2015.

Findings

The study found the negligible impact of product patent regime on productivity. The technological change has played a positive role in the growth of productivity, whereas technical efficiency change depicts the judicious utilization of resources for improving performance. From the results, it is found that R&D intensive firms depict better stability in the TFP than the non-R&D firms. However, Granger causality between R&D and productivity found no relationship. Productivity is more directly affected by investment in fixed assets rather than in R&D, which focusses on incremental value additions in a largely branded/plain generic product market. In case of ownership, private foreign firms found to have registered progress in TFP while others have recorded marginal regress, which probably could be attributed to the superior marketing and management skills of the foreign firms, besides possessing proprietary technology. Both small and large firms have shown positive growth in the new regime as compared to the pre-patent regime. These small firms are able to compete with large firms because of their up-gradation of the technological base by improving access to better foreign technology. TFP growth for all the firms can be attributed to improvement in technology, and innovation in terms of high capital-output ratio. Further, the paper tried to identify the determinants of productivity from panel random effect regression, and it is found that export intensity, age and the new patent regime have negative and significant relationship with productivity, whereas other variables such as R&D, ownership, size and capital imports are insignificant. In the end, the results of sensitivity analysis have confirmed the validity of the selected variables.

Practical implications

The results suggest that Indian pharmaceutical firms need substantive improvement in TFP by improving managerial and scale efficiency. Indian pharmaceutical industry (IPI) needs to improve productivity across the network and drive cost excellence initiatives across the spend base through operational excellence and digital initiatives. The results of this paper can be applied in framing policies for future growth and improvement in the productivity of IPI.

Originality/value

The paper aims to make several new contributions to the existing literature. Most of the research papers only analysed TFP of the industry as a whole and detailed firm-wise analysis is needed to capture the true impact at a unit level. This study has analysed the impact of different categories such as ownership, R&D, size and product-wise, and determinants of productivity. The study has used a broader time period and larger panel data to predict the better picture.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

G. Bharathi Kamath

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship, if any, between the intellectual capital (IC) components, namely human, structural, and physical capitals with the…

5688

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship, if any, between the intellectual capital (IC) components, namely human, structural, and physical capitals with the traditional measures of performance of the company, namely profitability, productivity and market valuation.

Design/methodology/approach

Value added by IC (VAIC™) for top 25 firms in the drug and pharmaceutical industry in India, for a ten‐year period from 1996 to 2006 is estimated. The evaluation is done on the basis of the ranking obtained by each firm in the VAIC index estimated. The analysis of correlation and simple linear multiple regression is done for the set of variables representing the performance of the firm and IC.

Findings

The domestic firms seem to be performing well and efficiently utilizing their IC as seen by the VAIC rankings. The empirical analysis found that the human capital was the one which was seen to have the major impact on the profitability and productivity of the firms over the period of study. Though there is a growing importance and efficiency in the utilization of the intellectual resources in the Indian pharmaceutical industry, the reflection of the same in creating an impact on the financial performance of the industry is seen to be missing in the empirical analysis.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that in Indian scenario, the market is under developed and yet to reflect the performance of the firms especially in terms of the efficiency parameters and more so in terms of IC efficiency. The stakeholders still perceive the performance of the firm in terms of tangible assets and less in terms of intangible assets. This opens up vistas for further exploration of the findings to prove/disprove the same in other industries.

Practical implications

The paper has strong theoretical foundations, which have a proven record and applications. The methodology adopted has been research tested. There is an urgent and immediate need that the policy makers and corporate decision makers wake up to the need and start taking up the voluntary disclosures of IC, so that the perception among the stakeholders regarding value creation in the firm may get even more transparent.

Originality/value

This is one of the pioneering and seminal attempts to evaluate the IC and its relationship with the traditional measures of corporate performance in Indian pharmaceutical industry. This paper adds to the existing literature, provides a new dimension of performance measurement for knowledge industries in emerging economies and would evoke further research interests to explore different aspects of IC management and measurement in these economies.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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