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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Ashiq Mohd Ilyas and S. Rajasekaran

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the performance of the Indian non-life (general) insurance sector in terms of efficiency, productivity and returns-to-scale…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the performance of the Indian non-life (general) insurance sector in terms of efficiency, productivity and returns-to-scale economies. In addition to this, it identifies the determinants of efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap approach to estimate the level and determinants of efficiency. In the first stage, the DEA bootstrap approach is employed to estimate bias-corrected efficiency scores. In the second stage, the truncated bootstrapped regression is used to identify the effect of firm-level characteristics on the efficiency of insurers. Moreover, the bootstrapped Malmquist index is used to examine the productivity growth over the observation period 2005–2016.

Findings

The bootstrapped DEA results show that the Indian non-life insurance sector is moderately technical, scale, cost and allocative efficient, and there is a large opportunity for improvement. Moreover, the results reveal that the public insurers are more cost efficient than the private insurers. It is also evident that all the insurers irrespective of size and ownership type are operating under increasing returns to scale. Malmquist index results divulge an improvement in productivity of insurers, which is attributable to the employment of the best available technology. Bootstrapped DEA and bootstrapped Malmquist index results also show that the global financial crisis of 2008 has not severely affected the efficiency and productivity of the Indian non-life insurance sector. The truncated regression results spell that size and reinsurance have a statistically significant negative relationship with efficiency. It also shows a statistically significant positive age–efficiency relationship.

Practical implications

The results hold practical implications for the regulators, policy makers, practitioners and decision makers of the Indian non-life insurance companies.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind that comprehensively investigates different types of robust efficiency measures, determinants of efficiency, productivity growth and returns-to-scale economies in the Indian non-life insurance market for an extended time period.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Santanu Mandal and Surajit Ghosh Dastidar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficiency analysis of the Indian general insurance sector using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and subsequently assess…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficiency analysis of the Indian general insurance sector using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and subsequently assess the impact (if any) of the global slowdown on the performance of the allied sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper aims to analyze the operating performance of 12 general insurance companies in India between 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 using DEA based on secondary data collected from Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Annual Reports.

Findings

Findings clearly indicate that the global economic slowdown has severely affected the performance of the private sector companies; while the public sector companies exhibited relatively lesser variation in performance levels.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology employed in the study estimates relative efficiencies without assuming any functional form; as a result the proper comparison of input utilized with the output produced is not possible. Several other tools like Malmquist Index and two-stage procedure have not been used.

Originality/value

The study brings into light the operating characteristics and efficiencies of the Indian general insurance sector during the global slowdown and therefore holds practical value for policy makers and practitioners as well as for the decision makers of the firms employed in the study.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Ashiq Mohd Ilyas and S. Rajasekaran

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the performance of the Indian non-life (general) insurance sector in terms of total factor productivity (TFP) over the period 2005–2016.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the performance of the Indian non-life (general) insurance sector in terms of total factor productivity (TFP) over the period 2005–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilises Färe‒Primont index (FPI) to access the change in TFP and its components: technical change, technical efficiency and mix and scale efficiency over the observation period. Moreover, it employs the Mann–Whitney U-test to scrutinise the difference between the public and the private insurers in terms of growth in productivity.

Findings

The results reveal that the insurance sector possesses a very low level of TFP. Also, the results divulge an improvement of 11.98 per cent in TFP of the insurance sector at an annual average rate of 12.41 per cent over the observation period. The growth in productivity is mainly attributable to the improvement of 10.81 per cent in the scale‒mix efficiency. The progress in scale‒mix efficiency is mainly the result of improvements in residual scale and residual mix efficiency. The results also show that the privately owned insurers have experienced a high productivity growth rate than the state-owned insurers.

Practical implications

The results hold practical implications for the regulators, policymakers and decision makers of the Indian non-life insurance companies.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to use FPI, which satisfies all economically relevant axioms and tests defined by the index number theory to comprehensively access the change in TFP of the Indian non-life insurance sector.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 69 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Amlan Ghosh

The role of financial institutions and financial intermediaries in fostering the economic growth by improving the efficiency of capital accumulation, encouraging savings…

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1035

Abstract

Purpose

The role of financial institutions and financial intermediaries in fostering the economic growth by improving the efficiency of capital accumulation, encouraging savings and ultimately improving the productivity of the economy has been well accepted by now. Recent studies show that the insurance industry can improve the economic growth through financial intermediation, risk aversion and generating employment. This study aims to find the relationship between life insurance industry and economic development in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the VAR‐VECM model to find out the long run and short run relationship (if any) between life insurance growth and economic growth along with Granger causality test to suggest any causal relationship.

Findings

This study finds that there is long term relationship between life insurance industry and economic development in India. And the Granger causality test suggests that life insurance sector improves the overall economic development in India and the reverse is not significant.

Research limitations/implications

The only limitation to study the relationship between life insurance sector development and economic development is the data set which has been used is annual data as the quarterly data were not available for insurance industry.

Practical implications

The study documented the long run relationship between life insurance industry and economic development in India and finds that the life insurance sector improves the overall economic development in India. This would help us to understand the implications of the life insurance market development in the post reform era.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of literature on the Indian economy in relation to the insurance sector, specifically the life insurance sector. This is the first attempt to study the impact of life insurance development on Indian economy after the reforms initiated in the insurance sector.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Ashiq Mohd Ilyas and S. Rajasekaran

This paper aims to measure the change and the sources of change in total factor productivity (TFP) of the Indian non-life insurance sector over the period 2005–2016.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure the change and the sources of change in total factor productivity (TFP) of the Indian non-life insurance sector over the period 2005–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the bootstrapped Malmquist index (MI) to assess the changes in the TFP and adopts a decomposition approach proposed by Balk and Zofío (2018). Moreover, it utilises truncated regression to identify the determinants of the TFP. In addition, it employs Wilcoxon-W test and t-test to scrutinise the difference between the state-owned and the private insurers in terms of variations in TFP and its various components.

Findings

The results divulge a miniature improvement in TFP of the insurance sector, which is primarily attributable to the improvement in scale efficiency (economies of scale). The results also reveal that there are no significant TFP differences across the ownership. However, private insurers have better scale efficiency and lower input-mix efficiency than state-owned insurers. In addition, the results unveil that size, diversification and reinsurance have a negative impact on the TFP, while age has a positive impact on it.

Practical implications

The results may help the policymakers to frame new consolidation policies. Moreover, the findings may guide the decision-makers of the Indian non-life insurance companies to abate inefficiency and improve TFP.

Originality/value

This study estimates bias-corrected changes in TFP and efficiency in the non-life insurance sector. Moreover, it adopts an elaborated decomposition of the MI to identify the true sources of change in the TFP.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Case study
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Krishnaveni Muthiah

Reaching the bottom of the pyramid: micro life insurance in India.

Abstract

Title

Reaching the bottom of the pyramid: micro life insurance in India.

Subject area

International business/International marketing.

Study level/applicability

Courses: the case is directly related to courses on “International Business” and “International Marketing” in the Master of Business Administration programme.Training programmes: management development programmes for working executives, on the topics “Business across borders”, “Business stabilization in foreign markets”.

Case overview

In 1999, the liberalization of the insurance sector as per the recommendations of the Malhotra committee gave way for privatization and foreign firms entered this sector through joint ventures. The business growth, which was enjoyed by these firms from 1999 to 2008, was tremendous. The growth percentage started declining following the global economic downturn in the capital markets. This situation compelled the insurance firms to re‐look into their business strategy. On one hand whatever growth they had, 80 percent of it was through unit linked insurance plans depending on the capital market. On the other, it was identified that in a country like India the untapped market potential was among the rural millions. Reaching those people who are at the bottom of the pyramid necessitated a completely new business model to be developed as the need of the hour. The take stock of the position at this vnjuncture is the crux of the present case study, which envisages finding out alternative delivery models to suit the Indian rural market taking into account the intrinsic nature of life insurance and the basic living styles and mentality of the rural folk.

Expected learning outcomes

After discussion and analysis of this case, students will be able to: understand how market culture in a target country differs from that in the home country; appreciate how challenges in a developing country market have their own unique features to be understood; identify various courses of action and evaluate them on the basis of the host country factors; understand the “international planning process”; and appreciate how important it is for a country manager of a multinational firm to plan and execute the marketing mix suited to the inherent qualities of the target market.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Samir K. Srivastava and Avishek Ray

The purpose of this paper is to benchmark the solvency status of Indian general insurance firms.

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1145

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to benchmark the solvency status of Indian general insurance firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper collects, compiles and analyses the key financial, operational and business data of eight Indian insurance firms. The authors first decide on initial firm‐specific economic variables and use data of last five years from IRDA Reports and Company Annual Reports. The NAIC IRIS ratios method was used to obtain an initial risk classification. This was used as a proxy of insolvency risk. Linear regression and logit techniques were thereafter applied to estimate the significant factors (direction‐wise and magnitude‐wise) which influence insurer solvency.

Findings

The results suggest that the factors that most significantly influence Indian non‐life insurers are lines of business, the firm's market share, the premium growth rate, the underwriting performance and the claims incurred. Further, the factors which have the strongest effect are market share, change in inflation rate, firm size, lines of business and claims incurred.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of Indian general insurers used is limited with regard to the time span. No holdout sample was used and the entire data set was subjected to statistical analysis. These somewhat limit the findings and implications.

Practical implications

The paper provides insurers with easy‐to‐use operational and marketing indicators to benchmark their solvency risk. It will lead to competitive goal setting for continuous improvement. Estimation of appropriate market/economic parameters can be a useful input for regulators. A few suggested indicators are new.

Originality/value

Previous studies of insurance companies have focused on developed economies (USA, Europe) or the Asian Markets (China and Japan). This paper determines a set of marketing, financial and operational variables to predict benchmark financial strength of general insurance firms in India. It incorporates qualitative inputs from practising managers and industry experts before carrying out quantitative modeling and analysis.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2019

Rejikumar G., Raja Sreedharan V. and Raiswa Saha

Consumer behavior, in the context of general insurance, is worth exploring to formulate growth strategies for insurance sector in India in light of the proposed structural…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer behavior, in the context of general insurance, is worth exploring to formulate growth strategies for insurance sector in India in light of the proposed structural changes. Indian consumers attract global players due to untapped potential and favorable policy measures initiated for higher foreign direct investments. The purpose of this paper is to understand the prevailing level of service quality as perceived by insurance customers in India in the presence of certain contextual antecedents and moderators.

Design/methodology/approach

Perceptions about constructs like customer risk dispositions, awareness, past experiences, customer involvement, choice overload, service quality and satisfaction of 256 customers were collected using a questionnaire survey. A variance-based structural equation modeling helped to identify significant linkages among the constructs.

Findings

In order to assess service quality levels, a 15-item scale having the infrastructure, employees, agents and product dimensions was found valid and reliable. Choice overload and customer involvement were found to moderate the influence of antecedents and service quality, respectively. The influence of choice overload on quality perceptions is insignificant. The study concludes that the existing risk beliefs are insufficient, and experiences have less predictive contribution to quality perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretically, this study examined the process of satisfaction development from service quality perceptions. This study offers insights for developing theories to portray future consumer behavior where more dependence of self-service technologies is expected to dominate service delivery mechanisms in insurance. The study informs that general insurance customers in India prefer more diversified products, more customer-centric employees/agents and better technical quality.

Practical implications

The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the prevailing insurance consumer behavior in the general insurance sector of India and help insurance service providers in streamlining their strategies for better insurance penetration and reduced lapse rate.

Originality/value

This study helps in understanding the emerging trends in general insurance buying behavior in India.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Shrutikeerti Kaushal and Amlan Ghosh

Understanding the role of financial intermediaries towards financial development and thereby the growth of an economy, this study aims to examine the long-run relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the role of financial intermediaries towards financial development and thereby the growth of an economy, this study aims to examine the long-run relationship between the development of banking and insurance sector and economic growth in India by covering different regimes including the regulated and the liberalized period.

Design/methodology/approach

For examining the long-run relationship between these sectors, the study uses VAR-VECM technique. Further, Granger causality test is used to check if there is the presence of any causal link among these sectors.

Findings

The findings clearly indicate long-run relationship between economic growth and the development of banking and insurance sector, while the causality results show demand following relationship in the complete period where there is bi-directional causality in the post-liberalized period from insurance to economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

As banking development is not found to support economic growth, this raises serious concerns towards the complex role of banks as against theory and demands further analysis to understand their role in an economy.

Practical implications

As causality pattern has changed from demand following to bi-directional causality, it is vital to understand the importance of liberalization towards the economic growth of the country as well as the contribution of insurance sector towards economic growth in the liberalized environment.

Originality/value

This is the first effort to empirically explore the relationship between economic growth and the development of banking and insurance sector in India by covering the complete period (regulated and liberalized).

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Subhankar Das, Anand Nayyar and Inderpal Singh

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the relationship between the precursors and consequences of customer loyalty (CL) in the Indian financial sector

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the relationship between the precursors and consequences of customer loyalty (CL) in the Indian financial sector, specially banking and insurance context, taking a sample of individual customers as respondents from the Indian State of Punjab.

Design/methodology/approach

The collected data have been analyzed using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques. Specifically, descriptive statistics have been assessed to examine the basic characteristics of the sample data. Confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood criteria has been adopted for the measurement and validation of various constructs. Independent samples t-test has been used to compare the CL of public and private firms, banks and insurance firms, and for some of the demographic variables like gender, marital status, etc. One-way ANOVA has been used to compare the CL for variables having more than two groups. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to measure the impact of CL on the BP of financial services firms.

Findings

The result shows that BP is a higher-order construct measured in terms of word-of-mouth, repurchase intention, price premium and share of wallet. Though each of the four measures of CL is special and unique in nature, yet a high level of positive correlation has been seen among these dimensions. The study reveals that CL is not significantly different for the banking firms and insurance firms in Punjab.

Research limitations/implications

The authors consider this work as one of the foundational elements that will enable further advances toward the governance of multi-layer business impact modeling systems. Extensive usability tests would enable to further confirm the findings of the paper. This study contributes to the customer relationship management and services marketing literature by providing empirical support for CL and BP relationship in the Indian context.

Practical implications

The approach described here should improve the maintainability, reuse and clarity of business process models and in extension improve data for CL in large banking and insurance organizations. The approaches described here should improve the maintainability, reuse and clarity of loyalty and relationship of the customer with that of organizations. This can improve data for customer relationship and loyalty in banking and insurance sector.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified gap to enabling SEM enabled models for data regarding customer relationship and loyalty. Loyalty revolves around the concept of relationship. CL is not a new concept, but recent years have demonstrated a developing interest to fabricate CL because of customer-oriented techniques or strategies. Over the previous era, CL has been broadly inspected inside marketing, trades and transactions. It can be concluded that the CL significantly influences BP.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

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