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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Ewelina Telej and Jordan Robert Gamble

The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing strategies that India is currently applying to promote itself as a competitive yoga destination.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing strategies that India is currently applying to promote itself as a competitive yoga destination.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach consisted of a constructivist research paradigm, a qualitative methodology and an interview-based data collection method. Ten in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with yoga practitioners from various backgrounds and yoga levels who have travelled to India for yoga tourism purposes.

Findings

The findings determined that interpretation of yoga tourism is crucial in the choice of marketing approach adopted by destinations offering yoga retreats because, as the study has shown, various perceptions of yoga constitute the basis for particular promotional strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could expand on the sample size and demographics of the current study by investigating, possibly through comparative means, larger groups of more diversified yoga practitioners from different countries or backgrounds.

Practical implications

It was recommended that India’s tourism marketers re-design their approach concerning an ‘authentic’ yoga experience. Indian destination marketing organisations should target those searching for an authentic yoga experience and use imagery that is realistic.

Originality/value

The findings of this study have led to the re-positioning of yoga tourism in India, utilising a unique combinative approach in which a more inclusive concept of wellness is juxtaposed against a lack of any religious referencing. It was also revealed that the motivations of yoga tourists are only partially targeted through an undifferentiated strategic marketing approach.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

R. Harish

The purpose of this paper is to arrive at a brand architecture model for promoting India as a tourism destination brand, carrying with it a diversity of tourism products…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to arrive at a brand architecture model for promoting India as a tourism destination brand, carrying with it a diversity of tourism products and states/regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The principal methodology adopted is discursive analysis and argument. Relevant examples from other countries have been drawn upon. Brand architecture concepts are used in the analysis.

Findings

The Government of India's tourism ministry has been promoting the country as a monolithic brand with the tagline “Incredible India” over the past seven years. This approach has so far been quite successful. However, to maintain growth momentum, the paper proposes migration towards a cohesive brand architecture model with a hierarchy of well‐connected brands. At the apex would be “India” as the master brand, which would endorse sub‐brands along two principal dimensions – tourism product categories and geographic regions/states. Regional aspirations would thus be accommodated. At the same time, India and its numerous constituents can be promoted in a structured manner with greater clarity and focus.

Originality/value

The paper offers a framework for reorienting India's tourism branding strategy so as to be more cohesive and effective. The model can also be applicable to other large countries with competing geographic regions and varied tourism products.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2020

Reffat Mushtaq, Aijaz Abdullah Thoker and Aaqib Ahmad Bhat

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of institutional quality on the international tourism demand of India. To carry out the analysis, the study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of institutional quality on the international tourism demand of India. To carry out the analysis, the study first analyses the impact of composite institutional quality index and then proceeds to examine the impact of each of the individual components of institutional quality on the international tourism demand of India. The impact of income of the tourist originating countries, tourism price, trade openness and Human Development Index (HDI) on tourism demand has also been examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, with data from top 30 tourist originating countries for India for the period of 1995–2016.

Findings

The results indicated that an increase in the income of the tourist originating countries has spillover effects on the development of tourism sector of India. The impact of cost of travel proxied by relative prices between the destination and origin country is found to be negative, however, statistically insignificant. The impact of trade openness and development level of the host country (proxied by HDI) is found to have positive association with the tourism demand. Institutional quality is found to have positive association with international tourism demand of India. Among the individual components of institutional quality, rule of law, regulatory quality, control of corruption and voice and accountability are found to promote the tourism sector development in the economy. Contrarily, the impact of government effectiveness is found to be negative. In the short run, most of the variables were found to support their counterpart results in long run.

Practical implications

This study has practical implication not only in formulating tourism sector policies of the host countries but also for issuing tourist advisories in tourist originating countries. The study holds that policymakers should work for improving institutional environment of the country such as bureaucracy, legislature, regulatory quality, rule of law and for reducing corruption at all levels so as to ensure a sustained rise in tourist inflows to India.

Originality/value

This study validates the link between institutional quality of a country and international demand for its tourism. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the study is the first attempt that has comprehensively analysed the impact of institutional quality on tourism demand in Indian context which has been generally ignored in the tourism literature.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Ajitabh Dash

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors influencing the visit intention of medical tourists to India. This study also attempts to extend the theory of planned…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors influencing the visit intention of medical tourists to India. This study also attempts to extend the theory of planned behaviour through the integration of perceived risk and facilitating condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected from a sample of 326 medical tourists arriving in India through Terminal-3 of Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI-T3), New Delhi, India, during the months of October–December 2019. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling are deployed to analyze the collected data and validate the proposed research model.

Findings

The outputs of this study revealed that perceived financial risk, physical risk, psychological risk and facilitating conditions available in a country are significantly linked to the attitude of a medical tourist. Similarly, facilitating conditions available in a country are significantly related to perceived behavioural control of a medical tourist. Furthermore, it is also revealed that attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control are significantly related to visit intention of medical tourists to India; however, the perceived time risk and performance risk are insignificantly associated with the visit intention.

Research limitations/implications

This study is restricted to the opinion of 326 sample respondents consisting of medical tourists who arrived in India through IGI-T3, New Delhi, during October–December 2019. In the future, a similar type of study may be conducted in different parts of the country with a relatively larger sample size

Originality/value

This study addresses the need for advancing the knowledge on the factors in determining visit intention of medical tourists towards India. This knowledge will become very crucial for India's medical tourism industry, which is aiming to attain a competitive edge in the global market.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Manu Sharma, Geetilaxmi Mohapatra and Arun Kumar Giri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between tourism sector development and poverty reduction in India using annual data from 1970 to 2018. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between tourism sector development and poverty reduction in India using annual data from 1970 to 2018. The paper attempts to answer the critical question: Is tourism pro-poor in India?

Design/methodology/approach

Stationarity properties of the series are checked by using the ADF unit root test. The paper uses the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach to cointegration to examine the existence of long-run relationships; error-correction mechanism for the short-run dynamics, and Granger non-causality test to test the direction of causality.

Findings

The cointegration test confirms a long-run relationship between tourism development and poverty reduction for India. The ARDL test results suggest that tourism development and economic growth reduces poverty in both the long run and the short run. Furthermore, inflation had a negative and significant short-run impact on the poverty reduction variable. The causality test confirms that there is a positive and unidirectional causality running from tourism development to poverty reduction confirming that tourism development is pro-poor in India.

Research limitations/implications

This study implies that poverty in India can be reduced by tourism sector growth and price stability. For a fast-growing economy with respect to economic growth and tourism sector growth, this may have far-reaching implications toward inclusive growth in India.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind to empirically examine the causal relationship between tourism sector development and poverty reduction in India using modern econometric techniques.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Tanmay Sharma

Two major obstacles to tourism development in India have been identified as shortage of skilled manpower and dearth of rural tourism projects. Through the provisions under…

Abstract

Two major obstacles to tourism development in India have been identified as shortage of skilled manpower and dearth of rural tourism projects. Through the provisions under Section 135 of the new Companies Act 2013, the Indian government has initiated a reform process on how private companies, including leading hospitality businesses, should conduct their corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. Recognizing this opportunity for action, this paper looks at the opportunity for tourism growth under the new CSR regime by reviewing the barriers for hospitality companies falling under the ambit of Section 135 to make CSR investments toward tourism development. Upon establishing these barriers, the argument reviews the current CSR trends and the absence of diversification in spending CSR funds. Finally, the paper discusses the need for enhancing the capacity of tourism NGOs in India and for developing strategic partnerships between these institutions and hospitality companies.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-303-6

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Bikash Ranjan Debata, Kumar Sree, Bhaswati Patnaik and Siba Sankar Mahapatra

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework to identify and classify key medical tourism enablers (MTEs) and to study the direct and indirect effects…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework to identify and classify key medical tourism enablers (MTEs) and to study the direct and indirect effects of each enabler on the growth of medical tourism in India.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an integrated approach using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and Fuzzy Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée á un Classement (FMICMAC) analysis has been developed to identify and classify the key MTEs, typically identified by a comprehensive review of literature and expert opinion. The key enablers are also modeled to find their role and mutual influence.

Findings

The key finding of this modeling helps to identify and classify the enablers which may be useful for medical tourism decision makers to employ this model for formulating strategies in order to overcome challenges and to become a preferred medical tourism destination. Integrated model reveals enablers such as medicine insurance coverage, international healthcare collaboration, and efficient information system as dependent enablers. No enabler is found to be autonomous enablers. The important enablers like healthcare infrastructure facilities and global competition are found as the linkage enablers. Research in medicine and pharmaceutical science, medical tourism market, transplantation law, top management commitment, national healthcare policy, competent medical and para-medical staffs are found as the independent enablers. Integrated model also establishes the direct and indirect relationship among various enablers.

Originality/value

The research provides an integrated model using ISM and FMICMAC to identify and classify various key enablers of medical tourism in India. In conventional cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification analysis, binary relationship of various enablers is considered. FMICMAC analysis helps to establish possibility of relationship among various enablers so that low-key hidden factors can be identified. The low-key hidden factors may initially exhibit marginal influence but they may show significant influence later on during analysis. The uncertainty and fuzziness of relationship among various enablers can be conveniently handled by FMICMAC and expert opinions can easily be captured. This research will help medical tourism decision makers to select right enablers for the growth of medical tourism in India.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Babatunde Abiodun Balogun

The past decade has witnessed a tremendous and progressive growth in the number of Nigerians who engage in medical tourism from Nigeria to India. Various commentators have…

Abstract

Purpose

The past decade has witnessed a tremendous and progressive growth in the number of Nigerians who engage in medical tourism from Nigeria to India. Various commentators have advanced diverse reasons for this trend. However, there is a dearth of research that has sought to provide empirical insights. This paper aims to investigate the decision-making process of Nigerian medical tourists and why they prefer medical tourism to India to medical care locally.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight Nigerian medical tourists are interviewed on a one-on-one basis with open-ended questions using purposive criterion sampling technique from an interpretivist mind-set.

Findings

The paper identifies two major motivators, namely, inadequate medical infrastructure and poor medical, and customer service from health workers in Nigeria, which spurred medical tourism from Nigeria to India. Further, it finds that first timers premise their decisions on advice from reference groups, while previous personal experiences guide decisions on subsequent medical travels. Findings are explained using the template provided by the theory of planned behaviour.

Originality/value

This exploratory nature of this research provides a useful basis to elucidate the course of decision-making of Nigerian patients so that appropriate marketing communication channels can be applied. It improves the process of recruiting and engaging Nigerian patients and nurturing wholesome relationships between Nigerian patients and hospitals.

Details

Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2254-0644

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Swati Gola

The present paper aims to analyse who actually benefits from the policies to promote international trade in healthcare services through medical tourism in India. It also…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to analyse who actually benefits from the policies to promote international trade in healthcare services through medical tourism in India. It also assesses the implications of unfettered and unchecked medical tourism for public health policy-making.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology adopted in this paper is inter-disciplinary (socioeconomic and legal) and includes a mix of doctrinal and empirical qualitative research.

Findings

The present paper argues that in the absence of any baseline data in the public domain on inbound traffic of tourists visiting India on medical tourism, it is difficult to assess and evaluate the private sector claims and that the absence of any format for data collection, management and analysis results in questionable accountability and institutional fragmentation and non-coordination. Furthermore, it results in asymmetrical policy-making in areas like international trade, which may have unintended negative effects for public health.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings of the present paper will also assist other developing countries considering to promote medical tourism to learn lessons from India’s experiences.

Originality/value

The present paper uses the qualitative empirical research conducted by the author to analyse the state of affair of medical tourism in India.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Tanmay Sharma

Despite being endowed with rich culture and beautiful historic monuments, tourism performance in India has been low. The aim of the paper is to focus specifically on the…

Abstract

Despite being endowed with rich culture and beautiful historic monuments, tourism performance in India has been low. The aim of the paper is to focus specifically on the role of key institutions, i.e., the Central (Federal) and State governments that drive tourism policy development and implementation in India. As tourism policy development and implementation in India has not been well documented and understood, this paper provides an analysis of these institutions. These institutes are critical due to their role in policy making, budget allocation and project implementation in the tourism domain. This paper also helps in highlighting the key factors behind low international tourist arrivals in India.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-488-2

Keywords

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