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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2010

Elaine Ménard

This paper seeks to examine image retrieval within two different contexts: a monolingual context where the language of the query is the same as the indexing language and a…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine image retrieval within two different contexts: a monolingual context where the language of the query is the same as the indexing language and a multilingual context where the language of the query is different from the indexing language. The study also aims to compare two different approaches for the indexing of ordinary images representing common objects: traditional image indexing with the use of a controlled vocabulary and free image indexing using uncontrolled vocabulary.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses three data collection methods. An analysis of the indexing terms was employed in order to examine the multiplicity of term types assigned to images. A simulation of the retrieval process involving a set of 30 images was performed with 60 participants. The quantification of the retrieval performance of each indexing approach was based on the usability measures, that is, effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the user. Finally, a questionnaire was used to gather information on searcher satisfaction during and after the retrieval process.

Findings

The results of this research are twofold. The analysis of indexing terms associated with all the 3,950 images provides a comprehensive description of the characteristics of the four non‐combined indexing forms used for the study. Also, the retrieval simulation results offers information about the relative performance of the six indexing forms (combined and non‐combined) in terms of their effectiveness, efficiency (temporal and human) and the image searcher's satisfaction.

Originality/value

The findings of the study suggest that, in the near future, the information systems could benefit from allowing an increased coexistence of controlled vocabularies and uncontrolled vocabularies, resulting from collaborative image tagging, for example, and giving the users the possibility to dynamically participate in the image‐indexing process, in a more user‐centred way.

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 62 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2007

Pauline Rafferty and Rob Hidderley

The purpose of this paper is two‐fold: to examine three models of subject indexing (i.e. expert‐led indexing, author‐generated indexing, and user‐orientated indexing); and…

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3607

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is two‐fold: to examine three models of subject indexing (i.e. expert‐led indexing, author‐generated indexing, and user‐orientated indexing); and to compare and contrast two user‐orientated indexing approaches (i.e. the theoretically‐based Democratic Indexing project, and Flickr, a working system for describing photographs).

Design/methodology/approach

The approach to examining Flickr and Democratic Indexing is evaluative. The limitations of Flickr are described and examples are provided. The Democratic Indexing approach, which the authors believe offers a method of marshalling a “free” user‐indexed archive to provide useful retrieval functions, is described.

Findings

The examination of both Flickr and the Democratic Indexing approach suggests that, despite Shirky's claim of philosophical paradigm shifting for social tagging, there is a residing doubt amongst information professionals that self‐organising systems can work without there being some element of control and some form of “representative authority”.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature of user‐based indexing and social tagging.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 59 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Issam Bendib, Mohamed Ridda Laouar, Richard Hacken and Mathew Miles

The overwhelming speed and scale of digital media production greatly outpace conventional indexing methods by humans. The management of Big Data for e-library speech…

Abstract

Purpose

The overwhelming speed and scale of digital media production greatly outpace conventional indexing methods by humans. The management of Big Data for e-library speech resources requires an automated metadata solution. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model called semantic ontologies for multimedia indexing (SOMI) allows for assembly of the speech objects, encapsulation of semantic associations between phonic units and the definition of indexing techniques designed to invoke and maximize the semantic ontologies for indexing. A literature review and architectural overview are followed by evaluation techniques and a conclusion.

Findings

This approach is only possible because of recent innovations in automated speech recognition. The introduction of semantic keyword spotting allows for indexing models that disambiguate and prioritize meaning using probability algorithms within a word confusion network. By the use of AI error-training procedures, optimization is sought for each index item.

Research limitations/implications

Validation and implementation of this approach within the field of digital libraries still remain under development, but rapid developments in technology and research show rich conceptual promise for automated speech indexing.

Practical implications

The SOMI process has been preliminarily tested, showing that hybrid semantic-ontological approaches produce better accuracy than semantic automation alone.

Social implications

Even as testing proceeds on recorded conference talks at the University of Tebessa (Algeria), other digital archives can look toward similar indexing. This will mean greater access to sound file metadata.

Originality/value

Huge masses of spoken data, unmanageable for a human indexer, can prospectively find semantically sorted and prioritized indexing – not transcription, but generated metadata – automatically, quickly and accurately.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Rico C. Ancog, Carmelita M. Rebancos and Zenaida M. Sumalde

This paper aims to determine and compare the vulnerability of selected indigenous communities in the Philippines using several integrated index development approaches

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine and compare the vulnerability of selected indigenous communities in the Philippines using several integrated index development approaches. Better understanding on how negative impacts of climate change could be effectively reduced is the identification of appropriate vulnerability assessment approach that is applicable to the local and cultural contexts. Critical in the case of indigenous communities is the analyses of determinants of vulnerability by and with themselves.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the survey data of combined 169 households, vulnerability scores of two adjacent Alangan Mangyan indigenous communities were quantified utilizing a set of 31 indicators that were systematically combined via the balanced-weighted (composite index) and unbalanced-weighted (principal component analysis) approaches.

Findings

The computed vulnerability scores of the Alangan Mangyan communities using several approaches yielded varying results. In both study sites, the degree of vulnerability is differentiated even among households of indigenous communities of comparable socio-economic characteristics. The developed indices confirm that typhoons, level of education, literacy rate and monthly income were found to have direct effect on the Alangan Mangyan communities’ vulnerability.

Originality/value

The study has successfully tested various methodological frameworks in implementing vulnerability assessment applicable in the context of indigenous communities in the Philippines. Results highlighted the need to simultaneously implement several vulnerability assessment approaches to allow comparison of results instead of solely basing climate change vulnerability-reduction programs to be implemented to a single assessment approach.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2007

Travis D. Nesmith

Abstract

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Functional Structure Inference
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44453-061-5

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Abstract

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Using Subject Headings for Online Retrieval: Theory, Practice and Potential
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12221-570-4

Abstract

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International Comparisons of Prices, Output and Productivity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-865-0

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Automated Information Retrieval: Theory and Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12266-170-9

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2020

Yener Coskun

This paper aims to offer an extensive empirical case study analysis by investigating housing affordability in Turkey as a whole, and in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir over the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer an extensive empirical case study analysis by investigating housing affordability in Turkey as a whole, and in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir over the period of 2006 and 2017 and its sub-periods.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a theoretically informed model to assess affordability using complementary methodologies in quantitative analysis. This study seeks to help outline the nature of the problem in aggregate level and in the cities; it also seeks to offer lessons about how to address measurement and modelling challenges in emergent market contexts by constructing aggregate-/city-level housing cost-to-income (HCI) ratio, adjusted HCI (AHCI) ratio, housing affordability index (HAI) and effective HAI sensitive to multiple calculation methodologies and alternative data set involving income distribution and poverty tranches.

Findings

HCI, AHCI, HAI and EHAI models generally suggest the parallel results: housing is not affordable in Turkey and in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir except for the highest income groups. The evidence implies that besides macroeconomic instabilities, distorted interest rates and short average mortgage maturity, poverty and unequal income/wealth distributions are the main reasons of the Turkish housing affordability crisis specifically heightened in metropolitan areas such as in Istanbul.

Research limitations/implications

The evidence provides an insight on housing affordability problems in Turkey. However, small sample size and short observation period create a limit for generalisation of the findings. Further analysis would be required to illustrate how housing affordability changes in different cities of Turkey in a longer period.

Practical implications

By using empirical approaches, this paper helps to understand how serious housing affordability problems of Turkey in aggregate and urban levels. This evidence helps to explain declining ownership ratio in low-income groups and in urban areas. Reliable explanations on existing housing crisis of Turkey also help to develop affordable housing policies.

Social implications

Declining housing affordability and homeownership ratio may translate as the rising housing inequality and insecurity among Turkish households. Moreover, better affordability values of higher income groups suggest that existing inequality, economic/social segmentation, and hence social tension between high and low income groups, may further increase. In this respect, the authors suggest socially important policies such as reducing income/wealth inequalities and increasing affordable housing supply.

Originality/value

This study offers a detailed empirical case study analysis that can be used as an exemplar of how to overcome data constraints in other evolving housing market contexts. This study sets out an approach overcoming the challenges of measurement. This study also combines existing methodological approaches with the modified variables to provide a more realistic aggregate-/urban-level housing affordability picture. The authors calculated some parts of housing affordability ratio and index series using discretionary income, minimum wage and effective minimum wage to show the variations of different measurement approaches. Some constructed series are also sensitive to income distribution and poverty thresholds. Collectively, this empirical approach, developed by using emerging market data, provides a contribution to the literature.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Hadi Shirouyehzad, Farimah Mokhatab Rafiee and Negin Berjis

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for performance assessment of organizations based on integrated approach of knowledge management and safety management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for performance assessment of organizations based on integrated approach of knowledge management and safety management using data envelopment analysis, and the proposed model is then applied in the car industry in Isfahan province to be checked. Therefore, deficiencies can be highlighted and possible strategies can be evolved to improve the performance.

Design/methodology/approach

As data envelopment analysis is a robust mathematical tool, it has been used to evaluate organizational performance. For discovering the organizational performance of knowledge management and safety management by data envelopment analysis (DEA), the first step is to specify proper criteria. To this end, in this method, the indices in both approaches of knowledge management and safety management were identified. Then, inputs and outputs were specified. Knowledge management and safety management were determined as input indices, and customer satisfaction and accident indicators were the output indices. It is noteworthy that each output index was used one time. In the next stage, performance of organizations was assessed based on both determined approaches and via data envelopment analysis. Finally, the organizations were ranked.

Findings

The suggested method was implemented in the car industry in the Isfahan province. The obtained results disclosed that among 12 decision-making units, 4 units are efficient when customer satisfaction is the output and 5 units are efficient when accidents indices are the output. In ranking with customer satisfaction as the output, Sepahan Atlas Pump Company was ranked first via super efficiency method, data envelopment analysis and similarity to ideal solution. In ranking with accidents as the output, Sepahan Atlas Pump Company ranked first via strong efficiency method and Sanatgar Company ranked first via data envelopment analysis and similarity to ideal solution.

Originality/value

Knowledge has been recognized as one of the valuable resources, and knowledge management would greatly effect improvement of job quality. Knowledge level increase is led by better performance and less errors. Consequently, it can enhance the organizational health and safety. There are some studies which have been conducted on safety management or knowledge management performance analysis. The organizational performance evaluation based on integrated approach of knowledge management and safety management is an important issue which is less considered in theory and practice. Thus, the authors have proposed a method which is able to evaluate the organization based on this integrated approach with functional indices, which resulted in accurate results, and finally, ranking can show the organization status to determine proper strategies.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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