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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Kenneth F. Hyde

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation…

Abstract

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation. Independent travel is an important and growing sector of worldwide tourism. Choice of vacation itinerary for the independent vacation represents a complex series of decisions regarding purchase of multiple leisure and tourism services. This chapter builds and tests a model of independent traveler decision-making for choice of vacation itinerary. The research undertaken employs a two-phase, inductive–deductive case study design. In the deductive phase, the researcher interviewed 20 travel parties vacationing in New Zealand for the first time. The researcher interviewed respondents at both the beginning and the end of their New Zealand vacations. The study compares pre-vacation research and plans, and actual vacation behaviors, on a case-by-case basis. The study examines case study narratives and quantitative measures of crucial variables. The study tests two competing models of independent traveler decision-making, using a pattern-matching procedure. This embedded research design results in high multi-source, multi-method validity for the supported model. The model of the Independent Vacation as Evolving Itinerary suggests that much of the vacation itinerary experienced in independent travel is indeed unplanned, and that a desire to experience the unplanned is a key hedonic motive for independent travel. Rather than following a fixed itinerary, the itinerary of an independent vacation evolves as the vacation proceeds. The independent traveler takes advantage of serendipitous opportunities to experience a number of locations, attractions and activities that they had neither actively researched nor planned.

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Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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Gender and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-322-3

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2015

Li-Hui Chang, Chih-Hsin Tsai, Wen-Chuan Chang and Uan-U Hsiao

This study investigates the impact of tourists’ perception of consumer-generated content (CGC) on their travel behaviors. Online questionnaire survey was conducted on the…

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of tourists’ perception of consumer-generated content (CGC) on their travel behaviors. Online questionnaire survey was conducted on the clients of travel agency along with onsite interviews of visitors at several busy tourist destinations/spots in Taiwan including Alishan, Sun-Moon Lake, and airports. In total 316 responses were generated. The findings indicate that usability of social media is the strongest factor that contributes to respondents’ perceived functional and hedonic quality. Functional quality of social media then draw respondents’ awareness that eventually increases their intention to visit a destination of interest. The results also indicate that functional quality is more important than hedonic in terms of increasing the propensity of using social media.

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Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-271-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Fatemeh Fehrest, Bahram Nekouie Sadry and Fatemeh Sepehr Pour

This research is to identify how user-generated contents (UGC) affect a pre-trip decision on the booking of a guesthouse among international travelers. Online surveys are…

Abstract

This research is to identify how user-generated contents (UGC) affect a pre-trip decision on the booking of a guesthouse among international travelers. Online surveys are conducted among social network users who have booked an ecolodge in the past year. A snowball sampling is used, which posts a questionnaire link in social networks including Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram in addition to travel blogs. This study indicates a positive relationship between UGC and lodging selection. UGC is considered as a significant predictor of booking an environmentally friendly guesthouse. Among the UGCs, travelers' review is the most important one influencing guesthouse selection. Future studies may focus on other IT potentials such as “Gamification” or other types of content such as “Podcasts” or “live videos” to engage independent travelers.

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Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-385-5

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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2014

Arch G. Woodside, Xiang (Robert) Li and Karlan Muniz

“Country-collectors” (CCs) are defined here as international leisure travelers who have visited 6 +  countries within the five most recent calendar years primarily to…

Abstract

“Country-collectors” (CCs) are defined here as international leisure travelers who have visited 6 +  countries within the five most recent calendar years primarily to pursue leisure activities. The study here contributes by offering an early workbench model of antecedents, paths, and outcomes of country-collectors’ evaluations and behavior toward countries as place-brands competing for such visitors. This study reports findings from a large-scale omnibus survey in three large Japanese cities (total n = 1,200). Key findings support the model and the following conclusions. Generally, country-collectors represent a small share of a nation’s adult population (less than 5%) but over 40% of the total leisure trips abroad; country-collectors are classifiable into distinct sub-segments according to the country place-brands that they visit; CC sub-segments, less frequent international leisure travelers, and stay-in-country travelers and non-travelers each offer unique assessments of competing countries as place-brands. National place-brand strategists planning a marketing campaign to influence a given nation’s residents to visit a specific destination (e.g., persuading Japanese nationals to visit the United States) may increase the campaign’s effectiveness by using this workbench model. The study offers a blueprint of how to appraise strengths and weaknesses of competing national place-brands among realized and potential visitors in specific national markets.

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Tourists’ Behaviors and Evaluations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-172-5

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Edwin N. Torres

For most customers, the vacation experience is enjoyed in the company of others; thus, studying customer-to-customer interactions becomes critical. This research aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

For most customers, the vacation experience is enjoyed in the company of others; thus, studying customer-to-customer interactions becomes critical. This research aims to explore customer-to-customer interactions and their impact on the guest experience.

Design/methodology/approach

An ethnographic approach was taken to study a tour group over the course of two weeks. The author was a covert researcher and a member of the touring group.

Findings

Individuals gained social status both among fellow travelers and also among friends and family by virtue of their travels, the stories told, pictures shared and social media postings. The group became highly cohesive in a short time span, which led to an “in” and “out” group dynamic. Informants were more prone to take risks, owing to both their status as travelers and the group dynamics. The consumption of alcohol was observed along with its positive and negative effects. It was also noted that group members influenced one another during the process of assigning gratuities to the tour guide.

Practical implications

The marketing of hospitality and tourism services can stress benefits that go beyond one single vacation. Companies can engage in more vigorous efforts to facilitate positive customer-to-customer interactions to enhance the guest experience. Finally, given the speed of group processes and formation of a cohesive environment, organizations should be vigilant of how both employees and customers interact in the early stages of group development.

Originality/value

Even though mature travelers have been the subject of much research attention, the interactions, habits and influence of young travelers in the literature is underrepresented. Furthermore, the present research challenges the previously held assumption that services are simultaneously produced and consumed. Using pictures, social media posting and stories, informants recall and continue to experience benefits from their vacation.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Chawannuch Wungrotjanarut and Olimpia C. Racela

This study investigated an appended belief-attitude-intention (BAI) model, which included two antecedent beliefs of attitude and two marketing factors as additional…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated an appended belief-attitude-intention (BAI) model, which included two antecedent beliefs of attitude and two marketing factors as additional determinants of air traveller behavioural intentions towards low-cost airlines (LCAs). The hypothesized relationships were compared across different behaviouristic groups based on flying frequency, travel purpose and travel party size.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 331 air travellers intercepted at a major international airport in Thailand were analysed using structural equation modelling and bootstrapping multiple-group comparisons to investigate the hypothesized mediation and moderation effects.

Findings

Results indicate that behavioural intention towards LCAs is largely influenced by perceived price, followed by attitude towards LCAs and subjective norm and not determined by airport accessibility. Antecedent beliefs of perceived service quality and uncertainty avoidance influence behavioural intention, as mediated by attitude towards LCAs. The role of subjective norm varied among air traveller groups.

Practical implications

Managers can manage price perceptions by focusing on LCA affordability and they should closely scrutinize these air traveller behaviouristic groups to identify opportunities to appeal to the distinctive cognitive responses of traveller segments.

Originality/value

This study tested an appended BAI model across three different air traveller behavioural characteristics, a multi-group analytical approach that can reveal meaningful implications, yet has been underused in LCA research.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Andrew Duffy

This paper aims to examine when travelers are more influenced by friends (word-of-mouth [WOM]) with limited knowledge of hotels but an understanding of the traveler, and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine when travelers are more influenced by friends (word-of-mouth [WOM]) with limited knowledge of hotels but an understanding of the traveler, and when by review sites (electronic word-of-mouth [eWOM]) which have immense experience of hotels but cannot know the individual traveler. Sites such as TripAdvisor® offer millions of reviews, and travelers often reduce that to a manageable amount by focusing on reviews by writers who show homophily, i.e. are similar to them in terms of travel interests. These sites represent a form of eWOM recommendation; what is not clear is how much they replace or augment traditional WOM.

Design/methodology/approach

Dual-method content analysis of semi-structured interviews with a heterogeneous purposive sample of regular users of TripAdvisor (N = 30), followed by a survey of TripAdvisor users (N = 237).

Findings

Friends were considered the most credible information source, although friends showing greater homophily were more valued than others. However, in some circumstances, subjects found eWOM more credible: when they wanted greater certainty in their hotel choice, so complete information was important; when the hotel was for a special occasion or special people; and for feelings of empowerment. Most subjects compared all sources rather than relying on one.

Originality/value

This study reminds hotel managers that while eWOM is accessible and analyzable, it may not fully represent guests’ opinions; hotels’ marketing strategy should balance it with other recommendation networks. As guests compare sources, consistency in all forms of customer engagement is also essential.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2013

Albert Barreda and Anil Bilgihan

The broad goal of the study is to determine how travelers communicate in the cyberspace in relation to their positive and negative experiences they had when staying in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The broad goal of the study is to determine how travelers communicate in the cyberspace in relation to their positive and negative experiences they had when staying in a particular hotel. Further goals of this study include identifying the main themes that motivate consumers to evaluate hotel experiences in online environments and categorize the most frequently mentioned areas in the online hotel reviews.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis techniques were applied by using the software tool NVivo 8 in order to analyze comments extracted using an automated web spider. The spider extracted qualitative data in the form of reviews and comments and quantitative data in the form of demographic information and ratings. The reviews were considered as a primary data for analysis, these reviews portrayed both positive and negative experiences. During this process, the spider collected data on 3,124 hotels and 17,357 traveler reviews from the TripAdvisor site.

Findings

By reviewing and understanding traveler comments of their hotel experiences, managers could gain knowledge concerning which element influence to form a positive brand image. Cleanliness of the hotel generally is a common concern in traveler's expectations. Words about deficiency of cleanliness (dirty) appeared more regularly when travelers write negative reviews about the hotel. Travelers showed to be more likely to write positive reviews of hotels with convenient location to good areas such as attractions, shopping, airports, and restaurants. The data in this research shows that travelers can be positively influenced by quality of service received a friendly and well trained staff. When travelers are pleased with the quality of human contact offerings of a well‐trained employee, they tend to feel more satisfied and to form a positive brand image that it is translated into a positive review.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations could be listed using a relatively small sample size, and a relatively limited geographical capacity. Future studies are advised to include bigger sample sizes and also advised to explore a diverse pool of geographical.

Originality/value

The study identifies the possible areas that hoteliers need to pay close attention to improve service. Further, it is one of the first studies in hospitality that highlights strategies to create and reinforce brand image by using online reviews.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Fang Meng

The article aims to discuss the relationship of culture and tourist behavior. The focus of the study is to propose an extended research framework related to…

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to discuss the relationship of culture and tourist behavior. The focus of the study is to propose an extended research framework related to individualism/collectivism culture and group travel intention. The article seeks to argue that group travel intention and behavior is not only influenced by the cultural background of individualism or collectivism, but also a function of several factors including social, political, and economic influence, as well as personal background of individual travelers.

Design/methodology/approach

The article investigates the major current research and methodological issues in cross‐cultural tourist behavior studies. By reviewing and assessing important concepts related to this particular theoretical topic, the study proposes a conceptual framework based on the extensive literature review and discussion.

Findings

The study proposes that personal background, as well as social, political, and economic factors all moderate the relationship between culture and group travel behavior, making tourist behavior in collectivism or individualism cultures more similar or different from one another. The research also tests whether social conditions of marginality contribute to the differences.

Practical implications

The study helps avoid the stereotypes of individualism/collectivism culture related to group travel behavior, and provides better understanding of the function of various personal, social, political, and economic factors on tourist behavior.

Originality/value

Cross‐cultural studies in tourism are limited, especially in the tourist behavior sector. The article offers insights into the cultural differences and tourist behaviors on a more detailed market basis.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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