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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2018

Hongxia Li and Xiugang Yang

The argument that work engagement enhances job performance has gained wide acceptance among practitioners and human resources management literature. There is consensus in…

Abstract

Purpose

The argument that work engagement enhances job performance has gained wide acceptance among practitioners and human resources management literature. There is consensus in management literature that job crafting can affect work engagement. The concept of callings from theology has been resurrected in job behavior and continues to garner growing attention from practitioners in recent years. However, few studies examine how and why living a calling influence job crafting and work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between living a calling, job crafting and work engagement for knowledgeable employees through questionnaires.

Design/methodology/approach

The part-time MBA students were asked to reflect on present jobs. In total, 390 effective questionnaires were collected from part-time MBA students of four universities in Chongqing, China for finance, administration, manufacturing, service, technology, medication, education and others. Results were analyzed using SPSS and Amos. The measurement scale is given in Appendix.

Findings

First, the author explicitly proposes and validates the direct relationship between living a calling and job crafting. Second, this study confirms that crafting challenging job demands are significant to vigor subdimension and dedication subdimension of work engagement, whereas crafting challenging job demands not significant to absorption subdimension of work engagement. Third, this study indicates that crafting hindering job demands are nonsignificant to vigor, dedication and absorption about three subdimensions of work engagement. Fourth, this study showed living a calling can enhance work engagement for employees. Fifth, this study finds three groups (eight items) of mediation effect between living a calling, job crafting and work engagement.

Practical implications

These insights may help managers to focus on living a calling and encourage beneficial job crafting behaviors in China. The sample is original and has the potential to contribute to debate on work life balance and particularly the meaning of work/careers in China.

Social implications

This study is an interesting revisit to the old workplace sociology and organizational psychology which has become somewhat neglected these days.

Originality/value

This study has provided insight in the relationships between living a calling, job crafting and work engagement.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Domenico Berdicchia, Francesco Nicolli and Giovanni Masino

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between job enlargement and some specific job crafting behaviors and to analyze the moderating role of self-competence.

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3688

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between job enlargement and some specific job crafting behaviors and to analyze the moderating role of self-competence.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from 158 workers in a large retail company and analyzed through a regression methodology.

Findings

Job enlargement is positively related to specific job crafting behaviors, such as increasing structural and social resources. Self-competence does not moderate the relationship between job enlargement and increasing structural resources; however, it does negatively moderate the relationship between job enlargement and increasing social resources.

Research limitations/implications

This is a cross-sectional, single source study.

Practical/implications

Organizations may implement job design policies aimed at facilitating the way workers proactively craft their jobs (increasing social and structural resources) by promoting a collaborative organizational culture and decreasing the social costs of job crafting initiatives.

Originality/value

This study clarifies the role of contextual and personal antecedents to job crafting. More specifically, it shows that enlarged jobs and employees’ level of self-competence may significantly influence employees’ job crafting in the workplace.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Mansi Rastogi and Richa Chaudhary

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of job crafting behaviors in predicting work-family enrichment. It is hypothesized that employees who are able to adjust…

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2640

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of job crafting behaviors in predicting work-family enrichment. It is hypothesized that employees who are able to adjust their work environment proactively by increasing structural and social job resources, increasing challenging job demands and decreasing hindering job demands would be more engaged and experience work-family enrichment.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample for the study consisted of 496 employees working in diverse nature of organizations in India. Structural equation modeling with the help of SPSS AMOS 20 was used for testing the study hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal a strong relationship between job crafting and work-family enrichment experiences among employees. The study also established the role of work engagement as a mediator of the relationship between job crafting and work-family enrichment.

Research limitations/implications

The study significantly advances the underdeveloped literature on work-family enrichment by establishing job crafting as a predictor and illuminating the underlying psychological processes in a non-western collectivist culture. The study also contributes to theory building around the construct of job crafting which is still in its infancy.

Practical implications

The practitioners are encouraged to provide opportunities, support and freedom for job crafting to their employees for better work and home outcomes.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the pioneer attempts to examine how employees themselves can influence work-family enrichment by enhancing their work engagement using job crafting.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Bilal Afsar, Mariam Masood and Waheed Ali Umrani

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of transformational leadership on an employee’s innovative work behavior through job crafting. In addition, the study…

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3462

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of transformational leadership on an employee’s innovative work behavior through job crafting. In addition, the study explores the moderating effect of knowledge sharing behavior in the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative and cross-sectional approach was used to collect data. Data were collected from 325 subordinates and 126 supervisors working in the hotel industry. Subordinates were asked to rate transformational leadership style of their respective supervisors and their own job crafting and knowledge sharing behaviors. Supervisors were asked to rate innovative work behavior of their respective subordinates.

Findings

The results showed that job crafting behaviors (increasing structural job resources, increasing social resources and increasing job challenges) mediated the effect of transformational leadership on an employee’s innovative work behavior. Moreover, knowledge sharing moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behavior.

Practical implications

Organizations may reap the benefits of an innovative workforce by selecting, nurturing and developing transformational leaders who facilitate employees to proactively craft a challenging and resourceful work environment.

Originality/value

This is the first study to test the mediating effect of job crafting behaviors on the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Liang-Chih Huang, Cheng-Chen Lin and Szu-Chi Lu

Based on the job demands-resources model, the present study proposes viewing abusive supervision as one type of job demand causing employees' emotional exhaustion, which…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the job demands-resources model, the present study proposes viewing abusive supervision as one type of job demand causing employees' emotional exhaustion, which results in psychological withdrawal behavior. In addition, job crafting can be viewed as a means to acquire job resources, and it buffers the influence of abusive supervision on employees' emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the present study also proposes the moderating effect of job crafting on abusive supervision and psychological withdrawal behavior will be mediated by emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the issue of common method variance, data were not only collected in a multi-temporal research design but also tested by Harman's one-factor test. In addition, a series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted to ensure the discriminant validity of measures. The moderated mediation hypotheses were tested on a sample of 267 participants.

Findings

The process model analysis showed that emotional exhaustion partially mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and psychological withdrawal behavior. Moreover, job crafting buffers the detrimental effect of abusive supervision on emotional exhaustion, and the less exhausted employees exhibit less psychological withdrawal behavior than those exhausted.

Originality/value

This study proposed a moderated mediation model to examine how and when abusive supervision leads to more employees' psychological withdrawal behaviors, and found that emotional exhaustion is one potential mechanism and job crafting is one potential moderator. Specifically, it was revealed that employees view abusive supervision as a kind of social and organizational aspect of job demands which will exacerbate emotional exhaustion, and, in turn, lead to more psychological withdrawal behavior. However, when employees view themselves as job crafter, they can adopt various job crafting behaviors to decrease the emotional exhaustion, and thus less psychological withdrawal behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Jessica van Wingerden, Arnold B. Bakker and Daantje Derks

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a job demands-resources (JD-R) intervention on psychological capital (PsyCap), job crafting, work engagement, and…

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3484

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a job demands-resources (JD-R) intervention on psychological capital (PsyCap), job crafting, work engagement, and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test design with a control group. Healthcare professionals (n=67) were assigned to the JD-R intervention or a control group and filled out questionnaires before and after the intervention. To test the hypotheses, multivariate analyses of covariance were conducted.

Findings

Results showed that participants’ PsyCap, job crafting, work engagement, and self-ratings of job performance significantly increased after the JD-R intervention.

Research limitations/implications

Only healthcare professionals participated in the intervention study, which restricts the generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

The results illustrate that organizations can foster work engagement and improve performance by offering a JD-R intervention aimed at increasing PsyCap and job crafting at work. Organizations should acknowledge the importance of facilitating and stimulating a resourceful and challenging work environment.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examined a JD-R intervention. The results contribute to JD-R theory by offering a first causal test. For the first time, a significant increase of job crafting behaviors after an intervention was found.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Philipp Wolfgang Lichtenthaler and Andrea Fischbach

The purpose of this paper is to examine how promotion- and prevention-focussed job crafting impacts the motivation of older employees to continue working beyond retirement…

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3032

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how promotion- and prevention-focussed job crafting impacts the motivation of older employees to continue working beyond retirement age. The authors hypothesized that promotion-focussed job crafting (i.e. increasing social and structural job resources, and challenging job demands) relates positively and prevention-focussed job crafting (i.e. decreasing hindering job demands) relates negatively with motivation to continue working after reaching the official retirement age, and that these relationships are sequential mediated by work sense of coherence and burnout.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 229 older employees (mean age=55.77) were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Promotion-focussed job crafting was positively and prevention-focussed job crafting was negatively related with employees’ work sense of coherence, which was predictive of employees’ burnout, which in turn was predictive of motivation to continue working beyond retirement age.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the cross-sectional study design, the results unfold how promotion- and prevention-focussed job crafting are related with motivation to continue working beyond retirement age through work sense of coherence and burnout.

Practical implications

Given today’s aging and shrinking workforce, older employees working beyond their official retirement age are a necessity for organizations’ functional capability. The results suggest that organizations should encourage employees’ promotion-focussed job crafting and limit prevention-focussed job crafting. Promotion-focussed job crafting facilitates employees’ work sense of coherence, which keeps them healthy and motivates older employees to continue working beyond retirement age.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literatures on job crafting and motivation to continue working beyond retirement age and explicates intervening processes in this relationship.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Maria Tims, Melissa Twemlow and Christine Yin Man Fong

In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the founding of Career Development International, a state-of-the-art overview of recent trends in job-crafting research was…

Abstract

Purpose

In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the founding of Career Development International, a state-of-the-art overview of recent trends in job-crafting research was conducted. Since job crafting was introduced twenty years ago as a type of proactive work behavior that employees engage in to adjust their jobs to their needs, skills, and preferences, research has evolved tremendously.

Design/methodology/approach

To take stock of recent developments and to unravel the latest trends in the field, this overview encompasses job-crafting research published in the years 2016–2021. The overview portrays that recent contributions have matured the theoretical and empirical advancement of job-crafting research from three perspectives (i.e. individual, team and social).

Findings

When looking at the job-crafting literature through these three perspectives, a total of six trends were uncovered that show that job-crafting research has moved to a more in-depth theory-testing approach; broadened its scope; examined team-level job crafting and social relationships; and focused on the impact of job crafting on others in the work environment and their evaluations and reactions to it.

Originality/value

The overview of recent trends within the job-crafting literature ends with a set of recommendations for how future research on job crafting could progress and create scientific impact for the coming years.

Details

Career Development International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Mohammed Yasin Ghadi

Job crafting is recently argued to have five dimensions (Nielsen et al., 2017): increasing challenging demands, decreasing social demands, increasing social job resources

Abstract

Purpose

Job crafting is recently argued to have five dimensions (Nielsen et al., 2017): increasing challenging demands, decreasing social demands, increasing social job resources, increasing quantitative demands and decreasing hindrance demands. The purpose of this study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and construct validity of the five-factor model of job crafting, introduced by using a sample of Jordanian university employees.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-determined survey on was used. Accordingly, 513 professional workers in several universities completed the survey. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess the internal consistency of the scale, whereas series of confirmatory factor (CFA) analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted to assess the scale’s factorial and discriminant validity. Other tests were also conducted.

Findings

As predicted, the proposed model best fit the data. Statistical analysis yielded several findings. First, the results of the reliability test revealed that the five sub-scales of job crafting had significant and sufficiently strong internal consistencies. Second, the results showed that the 15 items loaded significantly with a factor loadings more than 0.50. Third, the CFA results confirmed that the five-factor model best fitted the data in comparison to the one-factor model. Finally, the construct validity of JCRQ-15 was confirmed through its correlation with several validating variables.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations need to be addressed. First, the sample came from participants working in specific Jordanian universities which may limit the generalization that could be made from the results to other occupations. Second, due to the cross-sectional design of the present study, the question remains whether the JCRQ-15 are stable overtime. Third, the common methods bias might be a problem because it is one of the main sources of measurement error in validation studies using self-reported scales.

Originality/value

The present study provided an early supportive evidence for the use of the JCRQ-15 as a valid measure of job crafting in the Jordanian context.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Bogdan Oprea, Dragos Iliescu, Vlad Burtăverde and Miruna Dumitrache

Boredom at work is associated with negative consequences, therefore it is important to investigate whether employees engage in job crafting behaviors that reduce boredom…

Abstract

Purpose

Boredom at work is associated with negative consequences, therefore it is important to investigate whether employees engage in job crafting behaviors that reduce boredom and what are the individual differences associated with these behaviors. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire study was designed to examine the mediating role of job crafting in the relationship between conscientiousness and emotional stability and boredom among 252 employees (Study 1) and in the relationship between Machiavellianism and psychopathy and boredom among 216 employees (Study 2).

Findings

The results showed that conscientiousness is negatively related to work-related boredom. This relationship is mediated by job crafting. Neuroticism and psychopathy are positively associated with boredom at work, but these relationships are not mediated by job crafting behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on self-reported measures, which might raise questions of common-method bias, and the research samples contained mostly women and young employees, which raises questions about generalizability of our findings. At the same time, the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inferences.

Practical implications

Organizations can select employees based on their personality for jobs that predispose to boredom and give them enough autonomy to be able to craft them. Moreover, they can identify employees who need support to manage their boredom and include them in job crafting interventions.

Originality/value

Traditionally, boredom at work has been considered as resulting from characteristics of tasks and jobs. The findings indicate that some employees can make self-initiated changes to their work in order to reduce their boredom and possibly its negative consequences.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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