Search results

1 – 10 of 262
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2005

Toshinori Kitamura and Fusako Kitamura

Health professionals are in an ethical dilemma. The patients should be assumed as competent. Involuntary treatment is a violation of human rights. Therefore incompetent…

Abstract

Health professionals are in an ethical dilemma. The patients should be assumed as competent. Involuntary treatment is a violation of human rights. Therefore incompetent patients should be protected. However, one cannot determine a patient's incompetency without testing him/her, which is a violation of the assumption of competency. Thus, we propose two different types of uses for competency tests. One is to measure the appropriateness of information disclosed,but with a poor test result the information should be repeated. Another is to measure the competency of the patients when making major decisions. A poor test result will be followed by the designation of a proxy so that incompetent patients can be protected.

Details

Taking Life and Death Seriously - Bioethics from Japan
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-206-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2014

Julita Haber, Jeffrey M. Pollack and Ronald H. Humphrey

This chapter introduces the concept of “competency labor” and illustrates its important role in organizational life for both researchers and practitioners. In the…

Abstract

This chapter introduces the concept of “competency labor” and illustrates its important role in organizational life for both researchers and practitioners. In the contemporary workplace environment individuals face increasing expectations of competence. However, demonstrating competence is no simple task – rather, to demonstrate competence requires a concerted effort in terms of individuals’ affect, cognition, and behavior. Accordingly, new models are needed that can explain these emergent processes. The present work integrates the literatures related to emotional labor and impression management, and builds a theory-based framework for investigating the processes (affective, cognitive, and behavioral) of making desired impressions of competency at work and how these processes impact critical individual and organizational outcomes. Our conceptual model proposes how growing demands in the workplace for individuals to display competence affect how they think, feel, as well as act. In sum, our work advocates that a new research stream is needed to better understand the “competency labor” phenomenon and its theoretical as well as practical implications.

Details

Emotions and the Organizational Fabric
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-939-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

William A. Drago and Cathleen A. Folker

Considers the impact on a firm’s performance if weaknesses are not addressed. Uses SWOT analysis to show how a firm often concentrate on developing its strengths and…

Abstract

Considers the impact on a firm’s performance if weaknesses are not addressed. Uses SWOT analysis to show how a firm often concentrate on developing its strengths and opportunities, avoiding the weaknesses. Reports the findings of a survey covering 156 US Chief Executives suggesting that if firms minimised their weaknesses it makes it harder for others to differentiate themselves to gain competitive advantage. Concludes that whilst it is difficult to compare performance, any avoidance of tackling a weakness provides a vulnerable attack point for competitors, and therefore a narrow view concentrating on strength could therefore influence overall performance.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Figen Dalyan

Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are…

Abstract

Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education institutions in Turkey might present some opportunities which are not easily available for economy, society and higher education. However, to implement such a social structure the government and some of the institutions need to have some changes in their attitudes. This study has aimed to develop some solutions for the problems and incompetency of higher education and the SMSC in Turkey. The project named “Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project” can be started in one region at first, and then it can be applied throughout the country by having coordination between the institutions. That kind of coordination might be a solution for the students in higher education to have some experience related to the sector in their major, and it might be a solution for the SMSC for the problems related to creativity, research and development planning, management, manufacturing, marketing, efficiency, effectiveness, and experts.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Zara Sabeen and Faria Arshad

The purpose of the paper is to explore the meanings and effects of social undermining as described by the faculty members of public and private universities of Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to explore the meanings and effects of social undermining as described by the faculty members of public and private universities of Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes the qualitative approach using in-depth interviews of the faculty members to explore different meanings assigned to social undermining and the impact of these experiences on them.

Findings

The faculty members describe social undermining in terms of defamation and limiting of space for them at workplace. The impact of social undermining is directly felt on the emotional and overall well-being. It also affects the work performance of the faculty leading to behaviors like withdrawal and abstaining from voluntary activities.

Research limitations/implications

The research is conducted in only two universities in the capital city. The experiences and views of faculty members in other universities particularly in small cities might be different.

Practical implications

The study may be of help in terms of finding out the impacts of social undermining on faculty members in order to avoid such situations, hence, improving the motivation level of faculty. This will help managers to understand the phenomenon and find out appropriate strategies for a more harmonious and trustable work environment between people.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature by utilizing the qualitative approach that is not used much in this subject area. It is also one of the very first attempts of exploring the phenomenon in Pakistan, as per the best of authors’ knowledge.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Abbas J. Ali

In a recent interview in the Harvard Business Review. Peter Drucker argues that the best criteria for evaluating employees in Post‐Capitalism is competency…

Abstract

In a recent interview in the Harvard Business Review. Peter Drucker argues that the best criteria for evaluating employees in Post‐Capitalism is competency. Self‐knowledge, empathy, and the ability to absorb information are the major qualities of a competent person. Competent people are scarce commodities. Firms wanting to achieve a competitive place in the marketplace, must attract competent employees and nurture tendencies toward self‐knowledge. In a post‐capitalist era, this is no longer a luxury; rather, it is the only way to ensure survival.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Gunjan Sharma and Kushagra Kulshreshtha

The leaders’ perception about self and the opinion of the subordinates about them is crucial to understand why some leaders qualify for hate. Much has been discussed on…

Abstract

Purpose

The leaders’ perception about self and the opinion of the subordinates about them is crucial to understand why some leaders qualify for hate. Much has been discussed on the positive and ethical side of leadership. However, the research on the darker side of leadership needs more attention. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the factors along with their impact responsible for hate-for-leaders, a relatively scant area of leadership. This study may facilitate understanding why some leaders become subject to hate despite many efforts by the organization.

Design/methodology/approach

For exploring the different factors responsible for hate-for-leaders, a survey was conducted by developing a scale using the focus group, Delphi technique, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The results were analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The factors responsible for qualifying the leaders for hate were identified. Moreover, the results indicated that the subordinate hate the leaders for his/her unacceptable behaviour/actions which they assume the leader has control over it and exhibited otherwise intentionally on targeted employees. Moreover, some undesirable behaviour of leaders is attributed to fundamental attribution errors i.e. situational factors.

Practical implications

A fully developed scale for assessing the hate-quotient for leaders is proposed. This research will facilitate the managers/leaders as to why some of the followers/employees hate them. This scale provides an opportunity for managers and leaders to introspect themselves for improved workplace relationships and not to encourage sunflower management that seeks to get submissive and aligned-thought employees around the leader.

Originality/value

The fact that the decisions taken by managers/leaders adversely affecting the employees are not always because of malice or wrong intentions but sometimes due to situational factors i.e. fundamental attribution error. Moreover, the scale act as a reference to evaluate the hate-for-leaders in the organizational context.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Sayo O. Fakayode, Jennifer Jennings Davis, Linus Yu, Paulette Ann Meikle, Ron Darbeau and Georgia Hale

Strengthening the nation’s technological workforce, competing and expanding its relevance in the global economy, and maintaining personal as well as homeland security will…

Abstract

Strengthening the nation’s technological workforce, competing and expanding its relevance in the global economy, and maintaining personal as well as homeland security will be highly dependent on the quantity, quality, and diversity of the next generations of scientists, engineers, technologists, and mathematicians. Production of a diverse generation of human resources with relevant, competitive skills is critical. However, so too is the need to raise an enlightened citizenry with cross-cultural experience and cultural awareness competency, with a broad worldview and global perspectives. These requirements are critical to understanding the challenges and opportunities of scholarly activity in a pluralistic global environment and positioning ourselves to capitalize upon them. Scholars with cross-cultural experience and competency are empowered to adapt and work collaboratively, nationally and globally, with scholars of different races, geopolitical, socioeconomic, and cultural backgrounds. Development of effective strategies to transform science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) departments for inclusion and to broaden the participation in STEM across cultures, socioeconomic standing, race, and gender in higher education has been a dominant topic of pedagogical interest of national priority in the last several decades. However, success in these endeavors is achievable only through systemic change and a cultural shift to address the underlying root causes of socioeconomic disparity, gender, and racial disparities and a paucity of cultural awareness among all educational stakeholders. STEM departments can only be truly transformed for inclusion through the development of sensitive, creative, and student-engaging curricula and targeted recruitment and retention of underrepresented minorities in STEM. Formation of well-coordinated alliances spanning educational sectors, governmental and non-governmental organizations, and community engagement and outreach are also critical to promoting inclusive and broad participation in STEM education.

The first section of the chapter gives an introduction to various challenges, obstacles, and hindrances that prevent a successful transformation of K–12 science education as well as STEM departments in higher education for inclusion. The second section discusses historical perspectives of the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith (UAFS) – the institutional profile, missions, and visions of UAFS as a regional university. Policies and strategies for addressing the socioeconomic disparity, faculty gender, and racial disparities and cultural competency awareness at UAFS are also highlighted in this section. Other approaches including targeted efforts to recruit and retain underrepresented minority students, provision of financial assistance for students from low-income families, and a creative “Math-up” curriculum innovation to promote inclusive and broad participation in STEM at UAFS are highlighted in the latter section of the chapter. Formation of alliances between UAFS, local K–12 school districts, and governmental and non-governmental agencies to promote broad participation in STEM at UAFS are discussed. The last section of the chapter provides recommendations for adaptation and sustainability of strategies and efforts aimed at transforming national STEM departments for inclusion.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2016

Rouxelle de Villiers, Robin Hankin and Arch G. Woodside

This chapter presents a new model for developing and assessing the decision competencies of executive decision-makers. Prior models consider individual and group…

Abstract

This chapter presents a new model for developing and assessing the decision competencies of executive decision-makers. Prior models consider individual and group decision-making but neglect to consider the impact of group-interactive decision-making on real-world problem-solving and sense-making activities. In the present study experimental protocols represent an approximation of a realistic business decision-making process, where decision-makers consult with groups of stakeholders and then make decisions on their own. The model juxtaposes decision competence with the level of decision confidence with which decisions are made. The study furnishes an objective test for this phenomenon, resulting in quantitative empirical evidence of either follow-the-herd (FTH) behavior, or group-forged individual decisions (GFID), or follow-my-own-mind (FMOM) individual decision behavior. The study investigates the impact of group-interactive decision processes on hubristic behavior – decision-makers who make poor/wrong decisions, but remain confident in their choices, judgments, and decisions. The resulting management decision competency model provides an inter-disciplinary matrix, of benefit to human resource development specialists, and provides scholars in organizational behavior and leadership development with guidance for current and future research into group dynamics and decision competencies.

Details

Making Tough Decisions Well and Badly: Framing, Deciding, Implementing, Assessing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-120-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Arch G. Woodside

The traditional and still dominant logic among nearly all empirical positivist researchers in schools of management is to write symmetric (two-directional) variable…

Abstract

Synopsis

The traditional and still dominant logic among nearly all empirical positivist researchers in schools of management is to write symmetric (two-directional) variable hypotheses (SVH) even though the same researchers formulate their behavioral theories at the case (typology) identification level. Cyert and March’s (1963), Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall), Howard and Sheth’s (1969, Howard, J. A., & Sheth, J. N. (1969). The theory of buyer behavior. New York, NY: Wiley), and Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C.’s (1978, Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process. [A. D. Meyer, collaborator; H. J. Coleman Jr., contributor]. New York, NY: McGraw Hill) typologies of organizations’ strategy configurations (e.g., “Prospectors, Analyzers, and Defenders”) are iconic examples of formulating theory at the case identification level. When testing such theories, most researchers automatically, nonconsciously, switch from building theory of beliefs, attitudes, and behavior at the case identification level to empirically testing of two-directional relationships and additive net-effect influences of variables. Formulating theory focusing on creating case identification hypotheses (CIH) to describe, explain, and predict behavior and then empirically testing at SVH is a mismatch and results in shallow data analysis and frequently inaccurate contributions to theory. This chapter describes the mismatch and resulting unattractive outcomes as well as the pervasive practice of examining only fit validity in empirical studies using symmetric tests. The chapter reviews studies in the literature showing how matching both case-based theory and empirical positivist research of CIH is possible and produces findings that advance useful theory and critical thinking by executives and researchers.

Details

Case Study Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-461-4

Keywords

1 – 10 of 262