Search results

1 – 10 of over 91000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Dipyaman Pal, Chandrima Chakraborty and Arpita Ghose

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13…

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13 emerging market economies as a group for the period 1980–2010. After establishing the existence of simultaneity between the above relationships, a simultaneous panel model has been formulated and estimated incorporating the nonlinearity among the variables as suggested by the existing literature. An inverted U-shape relationship is evident between (1) economic growth, income inequality, and total trade in economic growth equation, (2) income inequality, economic growth, and per capita income in income inequality equation, and (3) total trade and economic growth in total trade equation. Thus, the existence of a two-way nonlinear relationship is highlighted between economic growth, income inequality, and total trade. Apart from these nonlinear relationships, positive and significant effect of (1) gross capital formation, inflation, population growth, human capital, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and domestic credit to private sector on economic growth; (2) civil liabilities on income inequality; (3) gross capital formation and inflation on total trade; (4) total trade, population growth of those aged 65 years and above, political system on fiscal policy is highlighted. Also, negative and significant effect of (1) fiscal policy on income inequality and (2) income inequality on fiscal policy is revealed.

Details

The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Casey J. Dawkins

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two…

Abstract

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two decades of increasing economic segregation, many metropolitan neighborhoods saw declines in economic segregation, particularly those neighborhoods located within central cities and rural areas. This paper adapts the Spatial Ordering Index proposed by Dawkins (2007b) to explore these trends.

Methodology/Approach – Using US Census data, I calculate economic segregation indices for a sample of 205 US metropolitan areas in 1990 and 2000 and decompose changes in the indices into portions attributable to changes in the spatial distribution of households and portions capturing changes in the spatial distribution of aggregate income. I also examine regional variations in the decompositions.

Findings – The results suggest that changes in the spatial distribution of households and of income each influenced metropolitan economic segregation in different ways during the 1990s. Furthermore, the spatial dynamics of income segregation exhibited significant regional heterogeneity.

Originality/Value of paper – This paper presents a new approach to measuring the dynamics of economic segregation.

Details

Occupational and Residential Segregation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-786-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2003

Harvey J Iglarsh and Ronald Gage Allan

Scholars suggest that failure to include implicit taxes in analyses of vertical equity understates the progressivity of the tax system. This paper develops an analytic…

Abstract

Scholars suggest that failure to include implicit taxes in analyses of vertical equity understates the progressivity of the tax system. This paper develops an analytic expression for imputing the implicit tax associated with tax-exempt bonds using the tax-exempt interest income reported on individual income tax returns. To measure progressivity, Kakwani indices are calculated using three definitions of income and three measures of tax liability. In addition, the indices are computed by adding implicit income to the income measure. Examination of the Kakwani indices leads to the conclusion that the tax system is progressive for all measures of tax liability. Total tax (explicit plus implicit), measured against explicit plus implicit income, is more progressive than explicit tax measured against explicit income. Including the implicit tax associated with tax-exempt interest in the measurement of tax progressivity increases the level of progressivity of the tax system slightly.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-065-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2008

James F. Sepe and J. David Spiceland

This chapter provides an approach for teaching the income statement within an earnings quality framework in an intermediate accounting course. Not only is the approach…

Abstract

This chapter provides an approach for teaching the income statement within an earnings quality framework in an intermediate accounting course. Not only is the approach rich in content, but it also is an engaging pedagogical device. The article provides a broad outline and then fills in the details with discussion, information, and examples.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-519-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2003

Jeffrey A Mills and Sourushe Zandvakili

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on…

Abstract

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on the number of exemptions, which correlates with household size, and the filing status, which correlates with the common forms of household structure, i.e. married, single, head of household. Detailed household income data are used to measure income inequality for both pre-tax/transfer and post-tax/transfer definitions of income. These decompositions provide information about the degree of inequality, both before and after taxes and transfers, which is due to household size and filing status. The bootstrap is employed to construct standard errors for the inequality measures and their decompositions, and hypothesis tests are conducted to determine whether the observed changes in the distribution of income are statistically significant.

Details

Fiscal Policy, Inequality and Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-212-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Edyta Marcinkiewicz and Filip Chybalski

The authors’ empirical investigation attempts to identify the nexus between the economic well-being of Polish elderly households and their housing situation, which can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors’ empirical investigation attempts to identify the nexus between the economic well-being of Polish elderly households and their housing situation, which can be related to the impact of the mass privatization policy implemented in Poland in the early 1990s. The generation who benefited from the process at that time currently includes great majority of people at retirement age who are homeowners.

Design/methodology/approach

In the study, the authors employ micro data from the Polish Social Diagnosis household survey and analyze them in a multinomial logistic regression framework. They explore the nexus between both subjective and objective measures of income and housing circumstances.

Findings

The results imply that housing arrangements do not significantly differentiate Polish households in terms of their economic well-being when controlling for other sociodemographic factors. This may result from two independent, but possibly overlapping, reasons. The first is that housing circumstances are quite evenly distributed across elderly population as compared to income. This may be a direct effect of the “(socialist) state legacy,” as in the socialist era there was a strong focus on diminishing income and wealth inequalities in society. The second explanation is that better housing circumstances are not a sufficient means to improve the welfare of the elderly.

Originality/value

The study’s analysis is associated with little investigated area of the welfare effects of homeownership in the old age at the individual level. It explores this issue on the example of Poland, which is a typical representative of the group of post-socialist countries that share a common feature of “state legacy welfare” that is characterized by extensive mortgage-free homeownership.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 November 2021

Abdul Rashid, Farooq Ahmad, Sarir Ud Din and Shar Zaman

This paper aims to explore the impact of corruption (CP) on income inequality (IN) by considering the size of informal sector (IFS) at different levels of percentiles.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact of corruption (CP) on income inequality (IN) by considering the size of informal sector (IFS) at different levels of percentiles.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a panel quantile regression approach for a sample of 50 developing countries. The study also applies panel co-integration (Kao residual co-integration test) in order to examine the long-run relationship between CP and IN.

Findings

This paper using a panel quantile regression approach shows that the high incidence of IFS in an economy marginalizes CP's positive effect because it works as a source of poor peoples' livelihood and skillful individuals. The spread of IFSs in the developing economies may raise earnings among groups and individuals who remain unemployed. Moreover, the results show that CP creates asymmetry in income distribution; fascinatingly, the asymmetric income distribution is high when CP is at higher percentiles.

Research limitations/implications

Due to non-availability of IFS, we restrict our analysis up to 50 developing countries.

Practical implications

CP devastates the effectiveness of institutions over time. Therefore, the government should have to take bold steps to reduce CP in society. Another policy implication of this study is that the government should reduce CP to decrease IN in less developing countries. Moreover, to increase the net base, the authorities need to bring IFS under the umbrella of regulation to avoid inequality in society. In developing economies, a higher part of labor force is related to IFS; therefore, our findings suggest a dire need to reduce labor exploitation in IFS. The policymakers can reduce labor exploitation by reducing the size of IFS, which ultimately reduces IN.

Social implications

On the basis of the authors’ findings, this paper further suggests that it is mandatory for government to reduce CP in order to reduce IN. Moreover, to reduce IN, one needs to reduce the size of IFS.

Originality/value

This study is unique as it is the first that examined the role of IFS in establishing the effect of CP on IN for developing countries at different percentiles.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Wilkista Lore Obiero and Seher Gülşah Topuz

This study aims to determine whether there is an effect of internal and public debt on income inequality in Kenya for the period 1970–2018.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine whether there is an effect of internal and public debt on income inequality in Kenya for the period 1970–2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship is examined by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model by Pesaran et al. (2001) and Toda Yamamoto causality by Toda and Yamamoto (1995).

Findings

Our findings suggest that both internal and public debt harm inequality in Kenya in the long term. Furthermore, a one-way causality from internal debt to income inequality is also obtained while no causality relationship is found to exist between public debt and income inequality. Based on these findings, the study recommends that to reduce income inequality levels in Kenya, other methods of financing other than debt financing should be preferred because debt financing is not pro-poor.

Originality/value

This study is unique based on the fact that no previous paper has analysed the debt and inequality relationship in Kenya. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first study to analyse the applicability of redistribution effect of debt in Kenya. The study is also different in that it provides separate analysis for public debt and internal debt on their effects on income inequality.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 November 2021

Stefan Jestl, Mathias Moser and Anna Katharina Raggl

Using aggregated data at the municipality level allows the authors to assess the role of relative deprivation (RD) – a measure of income inequality – on top of absolute…

Abstract

Purpose

Using aggregated data at the municipality level allows the authors to assess the role of relative deprivation (RD) – a measure of income inequality – on top of absolute income in shaping internal migration in Austria.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors analyse the effect of regional income inequality on emigration rates of Austrian municipalities using a unique spatial dataset that is constructed based on Austrian administrative register data. The register-based data contain information on the municipality of residence of all individuals aged 16 and over that have their main residency in Austria, as well as their income and socio-demographic characteristics.

Findings

The authors find that increases in relative deprivation in a municipality are related to higher emigration from the municipality. Allowing for heterogeneous effects across income, education and age groups reveals that the effect is stronger among those with comparably low levels of income and among low-skilled and young individuals.

Originality/value

The unique spatially disaggregated perspective is based on novel data from Austrian administrative registers, which comprehensively capture the economic situation and geographic movements of the whole Austrian population. Most importantly, this approach allows for measuring income inequality within local communities and for a direct identification of social groups that are more sensitive to inequality.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Panayiota Lyssiotou and Elena Savva

An important concern of economic policy analysis is how income taxes affect labor supply since this is crucial in assessing the efficiency costs of taxation and designing…

Abstract

Purpose

An important concern of economic policy analysis is how income taxes affect labor supply since this is crucial in assessing the efficiency costs of taxation and designing labor income taxation. The focus in the literature has been mostly to study the responses of high earners and women. The authors contribute to this literature by focusing more on how middle earners respond to financial incentives and whether the responses are different between men and women.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors exploit substantial expansions in the level of individual income exempt from taxation and taxed at a lower marginal tax rate while the schedule of marginal tax rates remained the same. The authors adopt an empirical framework that is similar to Bosch and van der Klaauw (2012) and condition on the effects of other factors, such as inflows of foreign workers that may have affected the wages, participation and working hours of native males and females. The authors also conduct various sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates.

Findings

The authors find robust evidence that the tax reforms increased the wages of medium and high educated married males and females significantly. They also had a positive impact on work participation that was more substantial for married women, especially the medium educated. The authors estimate significant positive own wage labor supply elasticities that are small and about the same for men and women when the authors condition on the labor outcome effects of inflows of EU and non-EU foreign workers, which changed the skill distribution of the economy and had a more significant impact on female labor outcomes. Smaller wage labor supply elasticities indicate lower disincentive effects and deadweight losses from the imposition of taxes and have implications on the design of optimal taxation of men and women.

Originality/value

Previous investigations of the labor supply responses of both men and women to a given policy change have been identified mostly by exploiting changes in joint income taxation and marginal tax rates. The authors exploit substantial expansions in the level of individual income exempt from taxation and taxed at a lower marginal tax rate while the schedule of marginal tax rates remained the same. The income effects of these reforms could be limited since the reduced marginal tax rates apply to only part of the income.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 91000