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Mohammad Nurunnabi

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within…

Abstract

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within South Asia that had consistent 6% and above gross domestic product (GDP) growth from 2011 to 2013). This study adopted mixed methodology (documentary analyses and a focus group interviews with 20 participants) to reach the overall objective of the research. Using Hofstede et al.’s (2010) cultural theory, the contribution of the study is that the cultural dimension itself cannot correspond to the causes of tax evasion, the other institutional factors (e.g., political connectedness in both private and public sectors, multinational companies (MNC)’s role and corruption, and a lack of public sector accountability and enforcement) are needed to complement the causes of tax evasion. The second major contribution is that Hofstede’s last two dimensions (i.e., short-term and restraint society) can correspond to the preliminary four dimensions (i.e., uncertainty avoidance (UA), masculinity, power distance (PD), and individualism). A restraint society such as Bangladesh is short-term oriented and has established corruption norms and secretive culture. There is also a perception by corporate business that the tax system as unfair and this has major consequences for the poor and the level of trust between the tax authorities and the taxpayers. This study also questions Hofstede’s model application in other developing economies with military and democracy political regimes. The major policy implications include Income Tax Ordinance, the reform of tax administration and enforcement. The novelty of this study rests in the fact that the findings may well inform local and international policymakers (e.g., World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB)) regarding how to tackle tax evasion practices in lower-middle income economies like Bangladesh. Further, it fills a gap in the literature exploring tax evasion in a lower-middle income economy – in this case, Bangladesh.

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Article

Dilip Kumar Sen and Swapan Kumar Bala

The present paper is a brief study on the modus operandi of the existing income tax audit in Bangladesh. This study centres around: meaning of tax audit; need for tax

Abstract

The present paper is a brief study on the modus operandi of the existing income tax audit in Bangladesh. This study centres around: meaning of tax audit; need for tax audit; certain conceptual issues of tax audit; existing scenario of tax audit in Bangladesh, focusing on tax system, tax audit practice, tax audit ambit, tax auditor, tax audit report, existing extent of assessment under tax audit net; and then draws a concluding line with a few recommendations. The paper reflects that the present extent of tax audit practice of Bangladesh is extremely negligible. This paper’s policy prescriptions, if followed, will hopefully provide a great boost in expanding tax audit net, which is much needed for improvement of the internal resource mobilisation in the country.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 17 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article

Robert Beale and Howard Davey

Since 1995, the financial reports of New Zealand entities have been legally required to disclose a measure of comprehensive income known as Total Recognised Revenues and…

Abstract

Since 1995, the financial reports of New Zealand entities have been legally required to disclose a measure of comprehensive income known as Total Recognised Revenues and Expenses (TRRE). Financial analysts and members of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand were surveyed between 1994 and 1996 to investigate their views on whether TRRE is useful for financial analysis, making economic decisions, and whether it is a useful addition to the financial reports. The findings provided a reasonable level of support for the view that TRRE is useful for financial analysis, such as assessing return on investment. However, there were strong reservations over whether it is useful to use TRRE as a basis for determining remuneration packages for top management, or for predicting cash flows. Overall, there was strong support for the view that TRRE provides information that assists with making economic decisions, and that it is a useful addition to the financial reports.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article

Attiya Waris and Laila Abdul Latif

The article aims to rely on the global wealth chains theory to study the effect of tax amnesty on anti-money laundering (AML) in Bangladesh. This theory is an analytical…

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to rely on the global wealth chains theory to study the effect of tax amnesty on anti-money laundering (AML) in Bangladesh. This theory is an analytical framework intended to identify how wealth is repackaged and disguised to move it out of spheres of state oversight, regulation and taxation. It introduces the law on AML in Bangladesh, pointing out the revised Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendation that has expanded the scope of money laundering predicate offences to cover both indirect and direct tax crimes and smuggling in relation to customs and excise duties and taxes.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews in Bangladesh and desk research.

Findings

There are some gaps in the scope of the offence, the coverage of predicate offences and the types of property covered by the money laundering offence. There is also an absence of financial penalties available to effectively sanction legal persons. The current money laundering offences are derived from the ordinance issued in 2008 by the caretaker government (2006-2008). The current act contains detailed definitions of money laundering and property and a list of predicate offences and sanctions for the offence. However, there are some gaps in the physical elements of the offence, and the range of its predicate offences remains too narrow. Adding tax evasion to its list of predicate offences will, given the history of money laundering in Bangladesh, aid in combating illegal transfer of assets abroad and recovery of the same and abolish tax amnesty.

Originality/value

There is no paper that has analysed the linkages between money laundering and taxation in developing countries, especially Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article

Mohammed Obaidullah

Available zakat accounting standards as well as the laws governing business zakat suggest that the adjusted net working capital or the adjusted growth capital of a…

Abstract

Purpose

Available zakat accounting standards as well as the laws governing business zakat suggest that the adjusted net working capital or the adjusted growth capital of a business may be regarded as the base for computation of its zakat liability. The apparent consensus follows from the fiqhi prescription of imposing zakat on urud al-tijarah or the inventory of goods available for trade. Some contemporary scholars however question the rationale underlying this method and argue that the objectives of the Shariah are better met by seeking recourse to alternative methods of zakat determination for business organizations. There is therefore a need to revisit the issues and subject them to fresh scrutiny in terms of economic rationality and consistency.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the arguments of the “orthodox” school as well as those of some contemporary scholars on alternative methods of computing business zakat. It also undertakes a comprehensive review of the laws of zakat as they are related to businesses and the related accounting pronouncements along with their underlying rationale. As the issue of incentivizing zakat payment is an important one, and it is often linked to provision of tax benefits, the paper examines a few suggestions in this regard.

Findings

On examination of specific suggestions – specifically, of treating earnings as zakat base – to scrutiny in terms of economic rationality and consistency, the authors argue that the “orthodox” position is not only consistent but also makes enormous economic sense. Further, the issue of incentivizing zakat payment and that of lack of harmonization between business zakat accounting and taxation need not be and should not be resolved by making changes in the former because the same has a sound Shariah basis. It can be easily resolved, if need be, by making changes in methods of taxation (tax deduction or tax rebate) and base them on specific items in the balance sheet or the income statement.

Practical implications

The paper provides useful insights to policy makers who are concerned about the huge gap between actual and potential collection of zakat and are considering tax reforms for incentivizing business zakat mobilization. It highlights the diversity in practices relating to zakat computation and related taxation across Muslim countries.

Originality/value

The paper searches for and observes consistency and compatibility between the orthodox Shariah-legal position and several accounting and taxation-related policies relating to business zakat. The policy prescriptions are expected to rejuvenate and strengthen the global zakat sector.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article

S.M. Solaiman

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that granting general amnesty to thousands of black-money holders in Bangladesh has failed to make any positive impact on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that granting general amnesty to thousands of black-money holders in Bangladesh has failed to make any positive impact on the development of its securities market. Rather, such a move or mercy by the successive governments over the years has basically increased corruption in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The article relies on both primary and secondary materials. An archival analysis of the materials has been carried out in this research.

Findings

The major findings are that whitening black money is legally flawed, morally indefensible and economically unsound; the ultimate outcome of the whitening opportunity appears to be the protection of corruption, the prevention of which is imperative for the sustainable development of the national economy of Bangladesh; and no credible evidence has been found to support the underlying assumption that this immunity offered over the past four decades has benefited the economy.

Originality/value

Its originality is evident in the analysis of the materials in a cohesive way to prove a hypothesis that the immunity granted to the black-money holders has been a flawed initiative of the successive governments of Bangladesh to increase investment.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article

Muhammad Usman and Asmak Ab Rahman

This paper aims to study waqf practice in Pakistan with regard to its utilisation in funding for higher educational institutions (HEIs) and investigates waqf raising, waqf

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study waqf practice in Pakistan with regard to its utilisation in funding for higher educational institutions (HEIs) and investigates waqf raising, waqf management and waqf income utilisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the views of 11 participants who are actively involved in the waqf, its raising, management and income utilisation, and is divided into three subcategories: personnel of higher educational waqf institution, personnel of waqf regulatory bodies and Shari’ah and legal experts as well as archival records, documents and library sources.

Findings

In Pakistan, both public and private awqaf are existing, but the role of private awqaf is greater in higher education funding. However, due to lack of legal supervision private awqaf is considered as a part of the not-for-profit sector and legitimately registered as a society, foundation, trust or a private limited company. Waqf in Pakistan is more focusing on internal financial sources and waqf income. In terms of waqf management, they have firm guidelines for investing in real estate, the Islamic financial sector and various halal businesses. Waqf uses the income for developmental and operational expenditure, and supports academic activities for students and staff. Waqfs are also supporting some other HEIs and research agencies. Thus, it can be revealed that a waqf can cater a sufficient amount for funding higher educational institutions.

Research limitations/implications

In Pakistan, both public and private awqaf are equally serving society in different sectors, but the role of private awqaf is much greater in funding higher education. Nevertheless, the government treats private awqaf as a part of not-for-profit sector in the absence of a specific legal framework and registers such organisations as society, foundation, trust or private limited company. The waqf in Pakistan mostly relies on internal financial resources and income from waqf assets. As the waqf managers have over the time evolved firm guidelines for investment in real estate, Islamic financial sector and various other halal businesses, and utilisation of waqf income on developmental and operational expenditures, academic activities of students and educational staff, other HEIs and research agencies, it can be proved that the waqf can potentially generate sufficient amount for funding HEIs.

Practical implications

The study presents the waqf as a social finance institution and the best alternative fiscal instrument for funding works of public good, including higher education, with the help of three selected waqf cases. Hence, the paper’s findings offer some generalisations, both for the ummah at large and Pakistan.

Social implications

The paper makes several policy recommendations for policymakers, legislators and academicians, especially the government. As an Islamic social finance institution, the waqf can help finance higher education anywhere around the world in view of the fact that most countries grapple with huge fiscal deficits and are hence financially constrained to meet growing needs of HEIs.

Originality/value

The study confirms that the waqf can be an alternative source for funding higher education institutions whether it is managed by the government or is privately controlled.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article

S.M. Solaiman

The main purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of black money whitening opportunity on the Bangladesh housing market and its ramifications for honest…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of black money whitening opportunity on the Bangladesh housing market and its ramifications for honest taxpayers and criminal conduct of the people in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on both primary and secondary materials and carries out an archival analysis of the resources available in libraries and online databases.

Findings

It demonstrates that black money whitening opportunity has failed to create additional demands for housing property, rather it encourages money laundering, corruption and other criminal activities. Hence, a set of specific recommendations have been submitted to effectively deal with the prevention of generation of black money instead of allowing them to be invested in properties with impunity.

Research limitations/implications

The discussions are concentrated on the legality of offering amnesty to black money holders and the impact of such indemnities on the housing market in Bangladesh; hence, it does not consider impacts on other economic sectors. It is expected that the publication of this paper will stimulate the government of Bangladesh to discontinue the disputed amnesty in Bangladesh, and other nations having similar problems with black money will be encouraged to follow suit.

Practical implications

It is anticipated that the implementation of the recommendations furnished in this paper will contribute to significantly decreasing money laundering, corruption and other offences involving money in Bangladesh and in other countries.

Social implications

Prevention of corruption and other financial crimes.

Originality/value

This paper represents its originality in its critical analysis of frequent offerings of the opportunity for whitening black money and their unfair impacts on honest taxpayers and resultant stimulation for engaging in money laundering, corruption and other felonies. It evidently justifies the assumption that such amnesties to wrongdoers are contrary to the national constitution, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering legislation and they wound the sense of ethical behaviour of human beings. Moreover, it proves the hypothesis that such opportunities being offered to black money holders have no positive contribution towards creating additional demands in the country’s property markets.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part

Md Mohibul Islam, Anders Isaksson and Mohammad Ali Tareq

This study investigates the ex-dividend day stock prices of the firms listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) where the tax rate is higher on dividends than on capital…

Abstract

This study investigates the ex-dividend day stock prices of the firms listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) where the tax rate is higher on dividends than on capital gains. The results help to explain what impact taxes have on the ex-day stock prices behavior in an emerging market.

To examine the tax effect on the ex-day stock prices behavior, this study considers after-tax dividends and computes the raw price ratio, market-adjusted price ratio, raw price drop, market-adjusted price drop. The market-adjusted ex-dividend day abnormal returns and relative trading volume are also examined to determine the direction of investor trading around the ex-day.

The main hypotheses examine whether the mean (median) differs from its theoretical value by using a t-test and nonparametric sign-rank test. The findings suggest that the drop of stock prices on the ex-day on the DSE is not due to taxes or transaction costs but to valuation assumptions made by investors in determining the equilibrium stock price.

Findings of this study will be useful for investors and traders in their valuation assumption to trade around the ex-dividend day.

Market participant’s preference of dividends, and exempted tax and its ultimate contribution to the equity value explain the ex-day stock prices behavior in the Dhaka Stock Exchange.

Details

Overlaps of Private Sector with Public Sector around the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-956-1

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Article

Siew Kien Sia and Boon Siong Neo

This paper provides a comprehensive account of how the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) successfully managed organizational transformation to achieve…

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive account of how the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) successfully managed organizational transformation to achieve significantly increased customer satisfaction, enhanced organizational agility, and dramatic reduction in tax arrears. The case study reaffirms that the soft issues are the hard issues in reengineering. Indeed, the recognition by IRAS that people resource issues are at the heart of change is the major factor for its success. In addition to tackling people issues, the transformation experience of IRAS also reveals the need to integrate the traditional change models more tightly in managing large‐scale change. The inability of IRAS in anticipating all major consequences of their change actions suggests an improvisational model of change management. Organizations embarking on large‐scale transformation should consciously build their internal capabilities to tackle emergent changes (e.g. establishing the information systems for change, nurturing people resources, and providing slack resources).

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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