Search results

1 – 10 of over 23000
To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Advances in Accounting Education Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-868-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

António Martins and Cristina Sa

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the causes that justify the application of presumptions in corporate income taxation. The authors focus on motives showing a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the causes that justify the application of presumptions in corporate income taxation. The authors focus on motives showing a connection to errors or fraud in the recognition of operations by the financial accounting system. The research question can be framed as follows: How to define the frontier between reliable accounting records and unreliable information, the latter rendering presumptions as an admissible way of taxing income?

Design/methodology/approach

The research design of this paper rests on two analytical steps based on the legal research method. The first step enquires, at the accounting level, how to define and quantify errors that render accounting statements inappropriate to assess firms’ performance and compute taxable income. The second step explores the practical application of presumptive tax concepts by Portuguese courts, to offer some criteria that can function as guidelines to firms and tax auditors.

Findings

The judgment about the boundaries of accounting errors that allow the use of presumption-based taxation is often decided by litigation. Portuguese jurisprudence provides strong evidence that presumptions should only be applied if, even by correcting of errors and inaccuracies, corporate real income cannot be obtained. The level of contamination must be obvious, and tax audits must present a strong and documented claim that presumptions are a last-resort mechanism to compute an appropriate tax base. The Supreme Tax Court has been applying a consistent approach characterized by: presumptive taxation is a last-resort mechanism; tax audits must prove that a generalized contamination of accounting data is observed; it is not possible to correct accounting errors, given their extension and depth, and the taxpayer did not submit contradictory solid evidence.

Practical implications

Applying, in practice, legal criteria to decide that accounting manipulation is so extensive that taxation must be based on presumptions is fraught with subjectivism. However, we offer an analysis where some guidelines to this complex issue are presented in a logical way. Principles-based taxation can, nonetheless, be applied with a significant degree of fairness and consistency.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by offering an analysis of the criteria used by Portuguese tax courts when deciding that accounting data can be disregarded and presumptions used as a tax computation tool. Given that the rule, in many countries, is to base taxable income on accounting records (albeit with adjustments established in Corporate Income Tax Codes), presumptions are a notable exception to this well-established rule. As such, taxpayers have a significant interest in knowing how courts rule on tax authorities’ use of presumptions. In this light, the paper has also potential value to professionals in the accounting and tax fields. They are often confronted with tax audits that apply presumptions. Therefore, knowing jurisprudential trends in the judgment of such, usually complex, cases is an important issue.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 60 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2009

Rohaya, Noor, Nor’Azam Mastuki and Barjoyai Bardai

This study investigates the gap between financial accounting income and taxable income (i.e. book‐tax difference) and the value relevance of corporate taxable income in…

Abstract

This study investigates the gap between financial accounting income and taxable income (i.e. book‐tax difference) and the value relevance of corporate taxable income in providing information on the quality of reported earnings for Malaysian listed firms during the tax years 2000 to 2004. The large gap between the financial accounting income and taxable income resulting from tax planning activities is reflected in firms’ effective tax rates (ETRs), a proxy for firms’ actual tax burdens. Thus, lower ETRs indicate high tax planning activities undertaken by the sample firms, and vice‐versa for firms with higher ETRs. This study uses a tax‐based earnings quality indicator, that is, the ratio of after‐tax taxable income to reported income (ATTI) to investigate the quality of corporate earnings. The study provides empirical evidence that firms report higher financial accounting income to shareholders and lower taxable income to tax authorities during the years 2000 to 2004. The significant and positive relation statistical results between firms’ after‐tax taxable income (ATTI) and market value of equity provided indicate the value relevance of taxable income as both an earnings quality indicator and a performance measure. Thus, the empirical results suggest investors appear to fully comprehend the quality‐related information in taxable income. This study concludes that first, tax planning activities contribute to a large gap between financial accounting income and taxable income; and second, taxable income contains useful information on the quality of reported earnings.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Silvio Hiroshi Nakao

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the relation between tax reporting and financial reporting, their influence on transparency, and empirical implications.

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the relation between tax reporting and financial reporting, their influence on transparency, and empirical implications.

Details

Transparency and Governance in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-764-2

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Isabel Gallego

The relationship between accounting and fiscal rules has long been controversial. Financial statements conform to accounting principles and methods regardless of tax

Abstract

The relationship between accounting and fiscal rules has long been controversial. Financial statements conform to accounting principles and methods regardless of tax rules. This independence generates important permanent and temporary differences between accounting and taxable income. The paper analyses the behaviour of listed Spanish firms in this accounting‐taxation relationship 1996‐1998, the extent of introduction of the inter‐period income tax allocation method, and the number and types of permanent and temporary differences reported. Most firms adopt the income tax allocation method, and report the differences, although they do not always specify which transactions provoked them. Among the long list of operations that generate differences, the most frequent are income tax expense, welfare schemes, provision for pensions, monetary correction, accelerated depreciation, or exemption for reinvestment. Although the number and kind of differences vary through time, the variation is not statistically significant. This is the first study analysing such differences for a European Union state.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

J.W. Otter and A.J.J. van Wyk

Almost all estate agencies that are involved in residential property sales recognise the commission income from a sale when the commission concerned is actually received…

Abstract

Almost all estate agencies that are involved in residential property sales recognise the commission income from a sale when the commission concerned is actually received. This practice is at variance with generally accepted accounting practice, which requires recognition of income to occur on the signing of the agreement or when the sales contract becomes firm (i.e. unconditional). The South African Revenue Services (SARS) has required the few estate agencies that apply generally accepted accounting practice in their financial statements to align their income tax accounting with their financial accounting. This alignment results in tax being paid on the commission that is due from the sale of properties that have not yet been transferred. This paper debates the issue of the recognition of income. It provides suggestions for the improvement of disclosure in estate agencies’ financial statements. Furthermore, it suggests changes to estate agencies’ standard sales contracts to the effect that income is deemed to have been earned upon the registration of the transfer of a property.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Jilnaught Wong, Norman Wong and Willow Yangliu Li

This paper aims to examine the financial statement impact resulting from the tax depreciation on buildings that was reinstated on 25 March 2020 as part of the New Zealand…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the financial statement impact resulting from the tax depreciation on buildings that was reinstated on 25 March 2020 as part of the New Zealand Government’s coronavirus (COVID-19) tax support package. The COVID-19 pandemic and the tax relief created an accounting response to map the environment to accounting reports, reversing previously recognized deferred tax liabilities and increasing reported income as a result.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory and descriptive study to understand the accounting response and impact on companies’ financial statements following a COVID-19 tax relief to support businesses in a dire financial situation as the effects of COVID-19 took hold.

Findings

First, the accounting response provided the appropriate mapping from the COVID-19 environment to accounting reports. Second, the financial statement impacts are material, especially for companies with extensive holdings of buildings that are held for use. Third, while the accounting relief was immediate, the economic (cash flow) support does not occur until a year later.

Research limitations/implications

The financial statement impacts are based on a subset of NZX 50 companies with the available information at the time of writing. However, they do not compromise the external validity of the findings because the tax depreciation relief applies to other listed companies, unlisted public and private companies, trust, partnerships and individuals.

Practical implications

The New Zealand Government could have been more helpful to businesses by allowing an immediate depreciation deduction in the 2020 year as opposed to implementing it from 2021. Further, it could have legislated a backlog depreciation deduction from 2010 – when the depreciation on buildings was disallowed – to 2020.

Originality/value

This paper documents the evolution of the accounting for deferred taxes when the New Zealand Government withdrew the tax depreciation in 2010, how NZ IAS 12 evolved as a result of that event and now the reversal effect with the reinstatement of the tax depreciation during COVID-19. The paper also blends in the accounting responses and considers whether they are opportunistic or efficient.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Mark P. Bauman and Cathalene Rogers Bowler

This study examines the impact of FASB Interpretation No. 48 (FIN48), Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, on earnings management (EM) activity, by focusing on…

Abstract

This study examines the impact of FASB Interpretation No. 48 (FIN48), Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, on earnings management (EM) activity, by focusing on changes in the deferred tax asset valuation allowance (DTVA). FIN48 was adopted, in part, over concerns that firms were using the reserve for uncertain tax positions (cushion) to manage earnings. However, there are reasons to believe that the adoption of FIN48 may have impacted the extent to which firms utilize DTVA changes as a strategic accounting choice. As the provision for income taxes is one of the final accounts closed prior to an earnings announcement, income tax accounting is generally regarded as a final opportunity to strategically meet earnings goals. To the extent that FIN48 reduced cushion-based EM, firms may have increasingly used DTVA changes as a substitute. Alternatively, the attention that FIN48 brought to firms’ income tax footnotes may have curbed the strategic use of income tax accounting, in general. This study employs a sample of publicly traded US firms over the period of 2003–2010. A regression model and an analysis of the frequency of DTVA-based EM reveal no evidence of a systematic change in behavior attributable to FIN48. However, further analysis reveals that firms identified as managing earnings to meet analyst forecasts increasingly used discretionary DTVA changes relative to changes in tax cushion in the post-FIN48 period. The results have implications for existing research on income tax-based EM.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Zhan Furner, Keith Walker and Jon Durrant

Krull (2004) finds that US multinational corporations (MNCs) increase amounts designated as permanently reinvested earnings (PRE) to maximize reported after-tax earnings…

Abstract

Krull (2004) finds that US multinational corporations (MNCs) increase amounts designated as permanently reinvested earnings (PRE) to maximize reported after-tax earnings and meet earnings targets. We extend this research by examining the relationship between executive equity compensation and the opportunistic use of PRE by US MNCs, and the market reaction to earnings management using PRE designations. Firms use equity compensation to incentivize executives to strive for maximum shareholder wealth. One unintended consequence is that executives may engage in earnings management activities to increase their equity compensation. In this study, we examine whether the equity incentives of management are associated with an increased use of PRE. We predict and find strong evidence that the changes in PRE are positively associated with the portion of top managers' compensation that is tied to stock performance. In addition, we find this relationship to be strongest for firms that meet or beat forecasts, but only with the use of PRE to inflate income, suggesting that equity compensation incentivizes managers to opportunistically use PRE, especially to meet analyst forecasts.

Further, we provide evidence that investors react negatively to beating analysts' forecasts with the use of PRE, suggesting that investors find this behavior opportunistic and not fully convincing. This chapter makes an important contribution to what we know about the joint effects of tax policy, generally accepted accounting principles, and incentive compensation on the earnings reporting process.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Fátima David and Isabel Gallego

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the interrelationship between corporate income tax (CIT) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the international…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the interrelationship between corporate income tax (CIT) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the international framework of the European Union (EU).

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework of the paper is based on taxation and social responsibility theories that evaluate the impact of economic, financial and social decisions taken by firms, in the area of accounting and tax harmonization in general, and of corporate income tax, in particular.

Findings

Through the connection of CIT and CSR frameworks, the paper urges for more accountability and shows that, as each EU Member State improves accounting and taxation harmonization, the result is more comparability of economic and financial information presented by the firm.

Practical implications

The paper attempts to provide an understanding of the adoption of the social responsibility posture of firms as a key factor that negatively and positively influences the tax regime of each EU Member State. In a social responsibility, accounting and taxation transnational framework, the increasing of a firm's activity and changes in its environment require new attitudes of sustainable development.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to discuss the interrelationship between CIT and CSR within the international framework of the EU. Corporate income tax can be seen as the mechanism by which governments encourage active civic duty, corporate sponsorship and CSR practices.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 23000