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Book part

Jeffrey P. Bakken

Inclusion is a concept that has been around for years and is implemented in our schools. Some schools do it well and others are still working on it. Inclusion is meant to…

Abstract

Inclusion is a concept that has been around for years and is implemented in our schools. Some schools do it well and others are still working on it. Inclusion is meant to include students with disabilities in the general education classroom and curriculum. This chapter will briefly discuss special education as well as inclusion. Inclusion will be defined, and benefits and also myths of inclusion will be discussed. In addition, research that supports inclusion will be described. This chapter lays the foundation for the other chapters in this volume that will discuss inclusion and students with specific types of disabilities.

Details

General and Special Education Inclusion in an Age of Change: Impact on Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-541-6

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Book part

Peterson K. Ozili

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are…

Abstract

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are provided to members of the population at a price that is affordable and that price is also economically sufficient to encourage providers of financial services to provide such financial services on a continual basis. Any level of financial inclusion that does not meet these conditions is sub-optimal and incentive-inefficient both for users and providers of financial services.

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Article

Prabhakar Nandru, Madhavaiah Chendragiri and Arulmurugan Velayutham

The study attempts to explore the determinants of financial inclusion. Subsequently, it examines the effect of financial inclusion on financial well-being of marginalized…

Abstract

Purpose

The study attempts to explore the determinants of financial inclusion. Subsequently, it examines the effect of financial inclusion on financial well-being of marginalized street vendors in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The demand-side analysis of measuring financial inclusion with a sample of 371 marginalized street vendors is adopted. Both exploratory and descriptive research designs are employed in this study. The primary data collection is done by administering the structured interview schedule by using a convenience sampling technique. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are performed to describe the latent constructs and their hypothetical relationships with adequate empirical evidence.

Findings

Out of five dimensions of financial inclusion considered for the study, accessibility, availability, usage and affordability are found to be significant determinants of financial inclusion; however, the financial literacy dimension is found statistically insignificant. Further, the study results confirm that financial inclusion contributes substantially to the well-being of marginalized street vendors.

Research limitations/implications

The outcome of the study will facilitate all the stakeholders including policymakers and financial institutions to enact policy guidelines to ensure financial well-being of the marginalized street vendors through financial inclusion initiatives.

Originality/value

Financial well-being through financial inclusion is possible even without the effect of financial literacy from the unorganized sector perspective specifically marglianized street vendors. Thus, it adds new dimension to the existing literature on demand side analysis of measuring financial inclusion.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Ibrahim Osman Adam and Muftawu Dzang Alhassan

In an increasingly digitalised society, digital participation is reliant on information communication technology (ICT) access and the ability to use technologies for…

Abstract

Purpose

In an increasingly digitalised society, digital participation is reliant on information communication technology (ICT) access and the ability to use technologies for everyday tasks. To this end, people risk being digitally excluded if they cannot access and use ICTs. The purpose of this paper is to examine globally the effects of ICT access and ICT use on digital inclusion on one hand and the mediating role of ICT usage on the linkage between ICT access and digital inclusion on the other.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a hypothesized model based on structuration theory and secondary data drawn from multiple archival sources in 121 countries. The authors test the model using partial least squares structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results from the PLS analysis shows that while ICT usage significantly influences digital inclusion at the global level, ICT access does not. Furthermore, the mediating role of ICT usage was not supported.

Originality/value

This study to the best of the authors’ knowledge is one of the very few studies to examine the effects of ICT access and ICT use on digital inclusion at the global level. The study contributes to the discourse on digital inclusion in ICT4D research.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article

Amari Mouna and Anis Jarboui

To help inform the debate over whether socio-demographic characteristics are related to the use of digital technologies, the authors investigated the effects of age…

Abstract

Purpose

To help inform the debate over whether socio-demographic characteristics are related to the use of digital technologies, the authors investigated the effects of age, gender, education, income and being in the workforce on changes in using financial digital services using panel data collected in the MENA countries during 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This study aims to identify the impact of government policy on the determinants of financial inclusion and digital payment services in the MENA region. The authors use microdata from the 2017 Global Findex database on MENA countries to perform probit estimations. The paper focuses on the role of technology adoption by government authorities in extending financial inclusion and digital payment around different people.

Findings

The authors find that poorer people (and, by association, less educated people) and the young (but less so the elderly) are disproportionately excluded from the financial system. Results confirm that better collaboration between the government and the financial sector can help to develop digital financial inclusion through the technology adoption channels. The study confirms the significant impact of the government cashless policy in advancing financial inclusion in the MENA countries, with potentially wider applicability to other developed economies.

Practical implications

Policies to advance mobile money innovations could stimulate financial inclusion by promoting digital transaction services. The role of government authorities is imperative to harness the beneficial and sustainable gains from digitizing remittances and transfers to promote a cashless economy.

Originality/value

Financial inclusion promotes equality through a broadening of the system and government cashless policy can be a major catalyst for greater financial inclusion. It helps in the overall economic development of the underprivileged population and contributes to poverty reduction.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Folorunsho M. Ajide

This study aims to investigate the possible relationship between financial inclusion and shadow economy in selected African countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the possible relationship between financial inclusion and shadow economy in selected African countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses panel data estimation technique and Toda and Yamamoto causality approach. The data of selected African counties over a period of 2005–2015 are sourced from World Bank Development Indicators, International Monetary Fund International Financial statistics database and International Country Risk Guide.

Findings

The results show that financial inclusion reduces the size of shadow economy. The causality results show that there is a unidirectional causality moving from financial inclusion to shadow economy. The results demonstrate that a country with lower level of corruption and higher level of growth can benefit more in reducing the size of shadow economy through financial inclusion.

Originality/value

This study provides the first evidence of the link between financial inclusion and shadow economy from the Sub-Saharan Africa perspective. The study suggests that financial inclusion may be useful in affecting the size of shadow economy in Africa.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article

Elhadj Ezzahid and Zakaria Elouaourti

This study has a dual purpose. The first is constructing a financial inclusion index to investigate if the reforms implemented during the last decades at the macroeconomic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has a dual purpose. The first is constructing a financial inclusion index to investigate if the reforms implemented during the last decades at the macroeconomic and sectoral levels have contributed to increase the financial inclusion level in Morocco. The second is to deepen the investigation to explore the impact of these reforms at the microeconomic level, by focusing on six major issues: determinants of financial inclusion, links between individual characteristics and barriers to financial inclusion, determinants of mobile banking use, motivations for saving, credit objectives and determinants of resorting to informal finance.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the principal component analysis methodology is mobilized to construct a financial inclusion index for Morocco. Second, the probit model methodology on a micro-level database of 5,110 Moroccan adults is used.

Findings

First, the financial inclusion index shows that financial inclusion in Morocco over the last two decades has followed different trends. The first period (1999–2004) was characterized by a slight upswing in the level of financial inclusion. In the second period (2004–2012), the level of financial inclusion increased significantly. During the third period (2012–2019), the financial inclusion maintained almost the same level. Second, empirical results showed that the determinants of formal finance and mobile banking are different from those of informal finance. Having a high educational attainment and being a participant in the labor market fosters financial inclusion. Concerning financial exclusion determinants, the results emphasized that a high educational attainment reduces the barriers leading to voluntary exclusion. As income level increases, barriers of involuntary exclusion such as “lack of money” become surmountable. Although "remoteness" and "high cost" are the major barriers to financial inclusion of all Moroccan social classes, the development of mobile banking allows to eliminate, smoothen and/or loosen all barriers sources of involuntary exclusion. As for the barriers causing voluntary exclusion, the Islamic finance model constitutes a lever for the inclusion of population segments excluded for religious reasons. As for the determinants of the recourse to informal finance, being a woman, an older person and having a low educational level (no more than secondary education) increase the probability to turn to informal finance.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the non-availability of data on the two dimensions (quality and welfare) of financial inclusion. The composite index is constructed on the basis of two dimensions (access and use) for which data are available.

Practical implications

This study has three main implications. In practice, with the launching of the National Strategy for Financial Inclusion, this work provides empirical grounded evidence that contributes to design financial inclusion policies in Morocco. In research, while the debate on financial inclusion, mobile banking and informal finance has been raging in recent years, Morocco, like many other African countries, has not received coverage on these topics at the household level.

Social implications

For society, this study provides considerable insight about the segments of population that are financially excluded and the main reasons for their exclusion.

Originality/value

This study enriches the existing literature with four essential contributions. First, it analyzes the evolution of the level of financial inclusion in the Moroccan economy through the development of a synthetic index. Second, it is the first to study the Moroccan population's financial behavior on the basis of micro-level data, which will help understand more precisely their financial behavior and the main obstacles to their inclusion. Third, this study explores the determinants of the use of mobile banking. Fourth, it sheds some light on the main determinants of the recourse to informal finance.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Anshu Singh

The purpose of this study is to explore the demand side factors affecting financial inclusion in general and credit uptake in particular.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the demand side factors affecting financial inclusion in general and credit uptake in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is descriptive and exploratory in nature and is purely based on primary data. The data collection instrument has been scientifically after thorough review of literature and seeking expert opinion. Primary data have been collected from the respondents of lower socioeconomic class in selected rural areas in the State of Maharashtra, India. Exploratory technique like factor analysis and structural equation modelling have been used to identify the inter-relations between financial inclusion and underlying barriers.

Findings

The study concludes that there are major latent issues that determine the uptake and usage of financial services, major being “operational and implementation challenges”, “financial literacy” and “affordability”. The “usage” aspect further impacts financial inclusion along with “access” variable. These are some of the most important factor for creating demand-driven approach towards financial products and services specially credit. The author concludes that the identified latent barriers with respect to the “usage” dimension of financial inclusion require greater policy attention so that it can complement the supply-side measures.

Practical implications

The study establishes that merely having “access” through bank account ownership will not fulfil the objective of financial inclusion, and it is the “usage”, which is also important to realize the full potential of financial inclusion at the bottom of the pyramid. So, policy actions should be directed toward enhancing the “usage” aspect of financial services. The “usage” dimension could be enhanced through targeted interventions to mitigate the effect of identified latent barriers.

Originality/value

Though researchers have made a mention of demand-side barriers to financial inclusion, detailed study on the topic is missing. The study is one of its kinds in exploring the severity of various demand-side barriers that determine financial inclusion. In the context of emerging economies like India, financial inclusion is often measured in terms of banking outreach and “access”. There are limited studies capturing the “usage” dimension of financial inclusion.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Nkosinathi Sithole, Gillian Sullivan Mort and Clare D'Souza

This paper aims to examine customer experience value orchestrated by non-banks' financial touchpoints to understand how they enhance the financial inclusion of low-income…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine customer experience value orchestrated by non-banks' financial touchpoints to understand how they enhance the financial inclusion of low-income consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Two independent but related studies were conducted using qualitative comparative analyses (QCA) research design with semi-structured interviews to compare and contrast customer experience value at two rural locations in Southern Africa. The interview transcripts were analysed using ATLAS.ti, which is a powerful operating system for analysing qualitative data.

Findings

The results indicate that non-banks in the two countries design financial services that include functional, economic, humanic, social and mechanic customer experience value dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

The data for this study was collected from financial services customers of retailers and mobile phone network operators in only one research setting in each country. Further research could extend the comparative context for qualitative studies across similar markets. Other limitations are discussed in the paper.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by highlighting the salient and germane dimensions and components found to be important in understanding financial inclusion using customer experience value. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that incorporates customer experience value dimensions in understanding the financial inclusion of low-income consumers at the base of the social and economic pyramid in emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article

Iftikhar Khan, Ismail Khan, Aziz Ullah Sayal and Muhammad Zubair Khan

The aim of the study is to examine the impact of financial inclusion on poverty, income inequality and financial stability using panel data of 54 African countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to examine the impact of financial inclusion on poverty, income inequality and financial stability using panel data of 54 African countries.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this objective, the current study used multiple regressions across an unbalanced panel data of 54 African countries which are based on the four years mean value for the period 2001–2019.

Findings

The results show that financial inclusion (FI) is a valuable indicator; it reduces poverty, income inequality and improves financial stability.

Research limitations/implications

The study invokes the attention of government and policymakers to build up a financially inclusive system which, in turn, leads to improve financial stability and lower poverty and income inequality. They should focus on quality and sustainable financial products and services in terms of financial inclusion to avoid dominant accounts and ensure consumer protection.

Originality/value

This adds to the scarce literature on the impact of financial inclusion on poverty, income inequality and financial stability in the context of African countries. The study contributes to the literature on the issue of financial inclusion and poverty, income inequality and financial stability by reconfirming (or otherwise) findings of previous studies.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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