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The sublime in scent refers to the use of language and description that excites thoughts and emotions beyond ordinary olfactory experience, and I would like to borrow this…
The sublime in scent refers to the use of language and description that excites thoughts and emotions beyond ordinary olfactory experience, and I would like to borrow this literary concept to explore the recent development of incense traditions in Japan and China from a sociocultural perspective. In order to understand how olfactory characters of incense have been verbally expressed, we can start by looking into the sublime in scent through the articulation of relevant subtle approaches since ancient times.
This paper explains how the description of scent experienced by individuals has been associated with thoughts and history and why the sublime in scent is more complicated than the aroma people can tell. The data collected for this research is mostly based on observations by participating in various events and conversations with different people.
In Japan and China, the use of incense has a long history, and relevant scent cultures have been developed not only for offerings in religious practices, but also as a kind of scent appreciation together with a poetic presentation. Again, it is important and significant to discern several interactions of incense traditions in these two countries, since the transformations became obvious in the last two decades, while Japanese Kodo participated more in international exchange, and the Chinese people's view of intangible cultural heritage has become more important in their daily social practices.
As a way of showing how the study of scent can enhance ethnographic writing and the understanding of changes in the appreciation of incense, this paper hopes to contribute to the study of art and tradition.
In an earlier article (The Electronic Library, April, 1985) a description is given of a method of making a KWOC index from article or document titles with a computer program which enables an indexer to combine words from the title in any way required to form indexing terms. Two versions of the program are described, an interactive one and one which compiles a KWOC index from a file of prepared data. The method has the drawback common to all KWOC indexes that the words in the title have to be used in the form in which they occur and this leads to certain shortcomings in the index such as a multiplicity of forms for what is the same term and the use of comprehensible but unconventional forms of a term. This article discusses these shortcomings and then describes the modifications made to the interactive version of the program which allow an indexer to edit the terms chosen as the index is being compiled so that consistency in the form of the terms is achieved and accepted conventions are observed. Modifications which effect the same improvements have been made to the other version of the program and these are also described. Examples of the use of both these new versions of the program are included.
Every year, tonnes of flower waste from religious places is dumped into India’s holiest river Ganges, polluting it to virtual death. Pesticides and insecticides used in…
Every year, tonnes of flower waste from religious places is dumped into India’s holiest river Ganges, polluting it to virtual death. Pesticides and insecticides used in growing these flowers mix with the water, affecting millions of lives through water-borne diseases. Most others may just lament these facts, Ankit Agarwal and Karan Rastogi, childhood friends from Kanpur, used them as inspiration to innovate. Two years of relentless experimentation led to a brilliant idea; that of recycling the flower waste. They founded HelpUsGreen® in 2014 to convert the waste into bio-fertilisers and lifestyle products. Widely appreciated and heavily awarded now, success has not come easy for this well-educated duo. HelpUsGreen® processes hundreds of kilos of flower waste, creating employment for hundreds of underprivileged women. An entirely bootstrapped project with no carbon foot print, the venture hopes to revive the Ganges through Flowercycling®. Currently at 8.5 tonnes per day and at the tipping point of scaling, HelpUsGreen® hopes to process over 50 tonnes of flower waste per day by 2020. Apart from the environmental impact, HelpUsGreen® has achieved huge societal impact, employing over a thousand women who did not previously have formal employment. What also makes the social entrepreneurs stand apart is their entrepreneurial market savviness. They have positioned their products not at the sympathy market but at the high-end premium market. Their products sell under the name ‘Phool’. HelpUsGreen® has set its eyes firmly on spreading operations across 2,000 kilometres along the Ganges and creating over 25,000 jobs for women.
When things were looking particularly bleak last year for UK politician, Ian Duncan Smith, a national newspaper came up with some joke headlines. These impossible stories…
When things were looking particularly bleak last year for UK politician, Ian Duncan Smith, a national newspaper came up with some joke headlines. These impossible stories were, the paper suggested facetiously, more likely than the Conservative Party Opposition leader ever becoming the UK Prime Minister. One of the best headlines, referring to the founder of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, read: “Paisley attacks incense cutbacks”. For more cynical readers, “Bank expresses concern for staff and customers” might have seemed just as unlikely. That one happens, however, to be true.
The development raises the prospect of retaliation against North American companies from Beijing, which is already incensed by US tariffs and restrictions on technology…
This article aims to discuss the results on prevalence, patterns of use and motivations for the use of legal high products/new psychoactive substances (NPS) and possible…
This article aims to discuss the results on prevalence, patterns of use and motivations for the use of legal high products/new psychoactive substances (NPS) and possible consequences for drug policy.
The main results are derived from a non‐representative quantitative online survey in Germany, focused on persons with experience in legal highs use.
The general prevalence of legal highs varies considerably in different European countries; generally, it is much lower than the lifetime prevalence of illicit drugs. Almost every legal highs user has experience in the use of illicit drugs. Several types of (repeated) users can be identified. “Herbal incense” products are used by many persons in order to compensate for a limited availability of cannabis or to remain inconspicuous for law enforcement. Current research chemicals (RC) users are mainly experienced drug users who seek to expand the range of drugs being consumed with RCs. Repressive drug policy approaches seem to contribute to the use of legal highs as replacement drugs.
Given that many NPS show side effects that are at least as serious as those associated with illicit drugs, and that long‐time risks are unpredictable, repressive drug policy enforcement may lead to increased public health risks regarding drug users.
The survey is the first published quantitative survey focusing on legal highs users. The results have not been published in English yet.
Nahua ritual specialists of northern Veracruz, Mexico, portray spirit entities by cutting their images from paper. Paper cutting is an ancient craft in Mesoamerica that…
Nahua ritual specialists of northern Veracruz, Mexico, portray spirit entities by cutting their images from paper. Paper cutting is an ancient craft in Mesoamerica that traces back to the pre-Hispanic era. The impetus to materialize the spirits in this way is the result of the highly abstract and pantheistic nature of the Nahua religious system. In pantheistic thought, the cosmos itself is the deity and all apparent diversity can be seen as different aspects or manifestations of a seamless sacred unity. The Nahua ritual specialist places the paper figures on elaborate altars where he or she dedicates special offerings to them. The fundamentally economic nature of Nahua ritual exchange is revealed – with the aid of ritual economy – through examination of multiple factors: the symbolic meanings of sacred chanting and altar construction, the role of religion in constituting Nahua ethnic identity in the face of domination by mestizo elites, and the ecological context that renders life precarious for indigenous horticulturalists of this region of Mexico.
While spending my mandatory year of fieldwork among the K’iche’ Maya of Guatemala I learned that a woman was planning to conduct a healing séance soon. So, one chilly evening my husband Dennis and I joined a small group of spirit seekers in an ancient adobe house. Its single room had a ten-foot ceiling with round rafters and tiny mica windows. Along the eastern wall, under a mass of dusty crepe-paper streamers, stood a rickety table covered with a long tapestry. In the center was an equilateral cement cross, embedded with green and blue stones. Stacked at each corner of the table and around the cross were strangely shaped quartz crystals, fulgurites, potshards, and black obsidian blades.
Cara Pils is the private label beer brand of Colruyt, the biggest supermarket retailer in Belgium. As a true private label brand, Cara Pils has never been advertised. In…
Cara Pils is the private label beer brand of Colruyt, the biggest supermarket retailer in Belgium. As a true private label brand, Cara Pils has never been advertised. In 2015, Colruyt undertook an initiative to reposition its numerous private label brands under two larger private label brands. Unexpectedly, customers were incensed by this initiative, came out in droves and took the matter to social media hoping to lament the demise of their beloved brand. This case study investigates the roots of this strong brand attachment and the consequences for its brand management.
This case is built on primary (one in-depth interview and two focus group) as well as secondary data sources (previous research and web information).
Relevant courses and levels
This case is designed to be used in a marketing management or brand strategy course for students that already followed an introduction to marketing course or for students at a master level.
This case should provide the basis of discussions on the topics of brand management, private-label brands, repositioning strategy, brand portfolio management, brand architecture, brand equity, brand elements, brand nostalgia, and consumers’ relationships with brands.
This chapter examines the historical relationship between Honduran Lenca worldview and how ecological resources are managed through ritual practice. The way in which the…
This chapter examines the historical relationship between Honduran Lenca worldview and how ecological resources are managed through ritual practice. The way in which the Lenca conceive of the biophysical environment is an active process of meaning-making that takes place through their interaction with the environment. The Lenca codify this relationship in the compostura, a complex set of ceremonial performances linked to economic practices that mediate human needs and desires with those of the ancestors who animate the landscapes surrounding households and communities. Through an examination of contemporary, historical, and archeological cases in western Honduras, this chapter explores how ritual economy shapes, and is shaped by, environmental worldview.