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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Gina Gaio Santos

Few research has addressed the factors that undermine people’s subjective perceptions of career success. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to further illuminate the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Few research has addressed the factors that undermine people’s subjective perceptions of career success. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to further illuminate the issue of career barriers in perceptions of career success for a specific group of professionals: academics.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts an interpretative-social constructionist methodology. Complementarily, it was employed a phenomenological method in data gathering and analysis – with the use of in-depth interviews and a theme analysis. The research was undertaken with a group of 87 Portuguese academics of both sexes and in different stages of their academic careers.

Findings

The findings pinpoint the existence of multi-level barriers encountered by the academics when trying to succeed in their careers. The interviewees mentioned particularly the organizational-professional career barriers pertaining to three general themes: poor collegiality and workplace relationships; the lack of organizational support and employment precariousness; and the career progression standards and expectations. At the individual life cycle level the interviewees referred to the theme of finding balance; at the same time, the gender structure was also a theme mentioned as an important career barrier in career success, particularly by the women interviewed.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of this research is related to the impossibility of generalizability of its findings for the general population. Nevertheless, the researcher provides enough detail that grants the reader with the ability to judge of its similarity to other research contexts.

Practical implications

This research highlights the role played by distinct career barriers for a specific professional group: academics. This has implications for higher education policy-makers and for human resources managers in higher education institutions.

Originality/value

The current study extends the literature on career success by offering detailed anecdotal evidence on how negative work experiences might hinder career success. This research shows that to understand career barriers to success it is useful to consider multi-level factors: organizational-level factors (e.g. poor collegiality and workplace relationships); individual-level factors (e.g. life-cycle factors such as age/career stage); and structural-level factors (e.g. gender).

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

John McManus

Discusses the need to manage a well defined TQM culture in order to ensure the future profits of many corporations. Explores the necessity for commitment to projects and…

Abstract

Discusses the need to manage a well defined TQM culture in order to ensure the future profits of many corporations. Explores the necessity for commitment to projects and examines the inevitable shift in management style which must accompany a Total Quality programme. Outlines the process of defining the organization′s aspirations, and looks at combating systematic sets of behaviours and beliefs which will stand in the way of change. Provides a guide to how to change the culture, and to applying Total Quality Management, giving a table of the seven principles of TQM

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2022

Hugo Horta

Academic inbreeding, whereby universities select their academic staff from among their own graduates, is a prevalent practice worldwide. This chapter presents a review of…

Abstract

Academic inbreeding, whereby universities select their academic staff from among their own graduates, is a prevalent practice worldwide. This chapter presents a review of academic inbreeding research and discusses its relevance to leadership. The definition of academic inbreeding is examined, including its rationale and conceptualization. Then, the mechanisms through which academic inbreeding comes to be and the mechanisms that sustain the practice are presented and elaborated upon. Empirical evidence about the effects of academic inbreeding on scholarly practices is considered. Considering that the effects of academic inbreeding tend to be mostly detrimental to a university which aims to be creative, proactive, engaged with external communities, and producing knowledge with the highest levels of quality, policies to deal with this phenomenon are needed. Leadership in this context faces often difficult challenges since the curtailing of academic inbreeding is necessary but often deeply entrenched in traditions, culture and norms, habitus and power structures of the universities.

Details

International Perspectives on Leadership in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-305-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Zbigniew Karpiński, John Skvoretz, Adam Kęska and Dariusz Przybysz

Purpose: This chapter aims: (a) to extend biased net models of homophily to complete networks; (b) to extend the scope of application of these models to processes of…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter aims: (a) to extend biased net models of homophily to complete networks; (b) to extend the scope of application of these models to processes of social exchange in a small-group laboratory setting; and (c) to link the theoretical model of attraction and repulsion with a standard statistical model of logistic regression as a way of estimating and evaluating the model.

Methods: We discuss the logic of biased net theory and show how it leads to formal mathematical models of tie formation and tie renewal under mechanisms of attraction and repulsion. We then estimate key theoretical parameters in the models by means of logistic regression.

Findings: The estimated effects of homophily in our models are moderate in strength, weaker than corresponding reciprocity effect, and processes of tie formation and tie renewal are driven more by considerations of direct reciprocity than group membership. Under attraction, homophily effects are stronger for tie renewal than tie formation. Under repulsion, the opposite holds.

Limitations: Participants in our study are divided into two groups based on a criterion that is likely to have been too weak to induce strong group identity. Measures that enhance the sense of group identity need to be introduced in future studies.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-677-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Susana Vázquez‐Cupeiro and Mary Ann Elston

The purpose of this research is to illuminate the processes that give rise to gendered career pathways in Spanish academia, tracing how individuals might move from…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to illuminate the processes that give rise to gendered career pathways in Spanish academia, tracing how individuals might move from academic “passion” to academic “consecration” in a setting in which both visible and veiled discrimination persist. By examining academics' testimony, the paper aims to explore the production and reproduction of complex dynamics of power and gender inequalities through informal processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative study, drawing on semi‐structured interviews with 33 academics (16 female and 17 male) working in academic departments of psychology (17) and engineering (16) in three Madrid universities.

Findings

Although the percentage of professors in Spanish universities who are female is relatively high, compared to many European countries, this quantitative feminization does not appear to be associated with clear institutionalization of formal gender equality policies or the elimination of tacit discriminatory practices. Despite recent measures to reform the recruitment patterns in Spanish universities towards a more meritocratic model, the tradition of a sistema endogámico (an “inbreeding” system) persists, under which appointments are frequently made on the basis of internal (departmental) networks. This was found to operate to the disadvantage of women in both disciplines studied.

Originality/value

Despite the limitations inherent in a small‐scale study, this paper is likely to help not only to increase awareness of gender bias, but also to contribute to the reevaluation of the current university culture in Spain which, through its ostensibly gender‐neutral recruitment practices rooted in internal networks, constrains women's career opportunities.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2022

Jung Cheol Shin, Futao Huang and Angela Yung Chi Hou

This chapter outlines the academic training and career characteristics of institutional leaders (presidents) in three higher education systems in East Asia. These three…

Abstract

This chapter outlines the academic training and career characteristics of institutional leaders (presidents) in three higher education systems in East Asia. These three systems have a large share of private universities, have experienced rapid massification during the last four decades, achieved a global reputation, and have experienced managerial governance since the 1990s. University presidents are elected through faculty voting in most national universities while it is optional for private universities. This chapter uncovers how these three countries differ and are similar in terms of their institutional leaders' training and career development before they were appointed as university president. We found that university presidents are “old” and “male” in these three countries. In addition, their academic disciplines are balanced between hard and soft disciplines. A large number of university presidents are drawn from alumni members in Korea and Japan while this is a relatively uncommon in Taiwan. Their international experience is relatively high in Korea and Taiwan while it is low in Japan. Most university presidents have prior experience in senior leadership positions in Taiwan but much less so in Japan and Korea. Faculty members in Taiwan perceive their senior managers to be more competent than faculty in Japan and Korea.

Details

International Perspectives on Leadership in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-305-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Cláudia S. Sarrico and Margarida M. Pinheiro

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the quality and accreditation of management education by examining the fit between the characteristics of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the quality and accreditation of management education by examining the fit between the characteristics of current management academics in Portugal and recognised accreditation standards. For purposes of comparison, the authors use both general Portuguese teaching accreditation standards and specific international standards for management education.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyse indicators of staff career positioning, tenure status, full time vs part-time, age, degree qualifications, field of training, level of academic inbreeding, internationalisation, research activity, professional activity, and the number of hours taught per week. The authors also examine the relationship between them, in light of accreditation standards, for all academic staff teaching in management degrees submitted for compulsory accreditation by the Portuguese accreditation agency.

Findings

The reality found in this study shows gaps between the actual attributes of management academics and what can be considered appropriate attributes, according to the general consensus found in the literature and which is duly mirrored in common “qualified faculties” accreditation standards by Portuguese and international standards (AACSB, AMBA and EQUIS).

Research limitations/implications

The findings relate to the Portuguese situation and the analysis developed should be extended to other contexts. Also, while the data, which were collected through a census, has a wide national scope, it only covers one academic year.

Practical implications

This work has policy setting implications for degree accreditation and for developing capacity during the transitional periods when universities implement the mandatory minimum standards. It can also help universities to benchmark themselves against their peers as a diagnostic tool for elaborating improvement plans.

Social implications

The massification of higher education has led to legitimate concerns about the quality of the services provided, and consequently accreditation procedures were devised to restore trust. However, policy makers must be aware of the impacts of their actions, namely the effects of degree accreditation, as their goals need to be achieved with the minimum negative impact on academic work.

Originality/value

The authors work sheds light on the characteristics of those who teach management and how they align with the current accreditation policies that affect academia globally and, in the process, presents empirical evidence from Portugal, which is at a relatively early stage in the accreditation process.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Taran Patel

The purpose of this paper is to address four questions: what are the drawbacks of an over reliance on the objectivist tradition in culture in international business (CIB…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address four questions: what are the drawbacks of an over reliance on the objectivist tradition in culture in international business (CIB) scholarship? Is a shift from mono-paradigmatic to multi-paradigmatic cultural research justified? What explains scholars’ hesitation in engaging in multi-paradigmatic studies? What arguments can we offer to convince them otherwise?

Design/methodology/approach

Informed by the critical perspective, this paper encourages a shift from mono-paradigmatic to multi-paradigmatic cultural studies. Guided by an emancipatory interest, and treating the field of culture studies as a complex system, this paper offers an integrative complexity (IC) based argument in favor of multi-paradigmatic studies. It argues that multi-paradigmatic studies allow scholars to employ higher IC than mono-paradigmatic studies, resulting in more innovative research outputs.

Findings

While mono-paradigmatic studies can achieve either predictability of output or in-depth understanding of cultural phenomena, multi-paradigmatic studies are capable of attaining both. The authors illustrate this through the example of a recent multi-paradigmatic study.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not offer insights for operationalizing multi-paradigmatic research, nor does it address factors other than IC that may impede scholars from engaging in such studies.

Practical implications

Shifting from mono-paradigmatic to multi-paradigmatic studies will enable scholars to address questions hitherto left unaddressed in CIB literature, facilitate a better understanding of new organizational forms, and redress the power disequilibrium between different paradigmatic schools. Implications are also offered for the training of cultural researchers in business schools.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind to relate IC to merits of multi-paradigmatic cultural studies.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Kivanc Inelmen, Nisan Selekler-Goksen and Özlem Yildirim-Öktem

The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of university tradition, justice perceptions and quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) on the faculty members…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of university tradition, justice perceptions and quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) on the faculty members’ tendency to engage in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) from the perspective of social exchange theory (SET). Attention is drawn to the need to contextualize the established relationships between OCB and its antecedents, as direction and strength of relationships may vary in different contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sequential mixed method design comprising a survey of 203 faculty members, and 15 semi-structured interviews both undertaken in several universities in Turkey. Hierarchical regression and discriminant analyses were used for the quantitative phase, followed by the qualitative phase that includes compiled quotes and content analysis.

Findings

Analyses provide strong support for the impacts of university tradition and LMX on OCB. The compiled quotes largely support the quantitative findings. Additionally, content analysis reveals sources and consequences of injustice and mechanisms to cope with it among academics.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for university administrators who are looking for ways to increase OCB and enhance justice perception. LMX emerges as a significant factor in encouraging OCB regardless of university tradition. In order to enhance justice perceptions, Continental European-modeled universities should allocate workload and resources in a fair manner, while American-modeled universities should apply procedures consistently across people and time.

Originality/value

The inclusion of university tradition as an independent variable is a contribution as it contextualizes the relationship between OCB and its antecedents, verifying SET for both contexts. Using a mixed method design, the study provides an enriched understanding of OCB.

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1938

STANLEY SNAITH

WHEN Mr. Auden writes: “Me, March, you do with your movements master and rock With wing‐whirl, whale‐wallow . . .”

Abstract

WHEN Mr. Auden writes: “Me, March, you do with your movements master and rock With wing‐whirl, whale‐wallow . . .”

Details

Library Review, vol. 6 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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