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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

This paper aims to investigate how employees’ perceptions of psychological contract violation or sense of organizational betrayal, might diminish their job satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how employees’ perceptions of psychological contract violation or sense of organizational betrayal, might diminish their job satisfaction, as well as how their access to two critical personal resources – emotion regulation skills and work-related self-efficacy – might buffer this negative relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-wave survey data came from employees of Pakistani-based organizations.

Findings

Perceived contract violation reduces job satisfaction, but the effect is weaker at higher levels of emotion regulation skills and work-related self-efficacy.

Practical implications

For organizations, these results show that the frustrations that come with a sense of organizational betrayal can be contained more easily to the extent that their employees can draw from relevant personal resources.

Originality/value

This investigation provides a more complete understanding of when perceived contract violation will deplete employees’ emotional resources, in the form of feelings of happiness about their job situation. A sense of organizational betrayal is less likely to escalate into reduced job satisfaction when employees can control their negative emotions and feel confident about their work-related competencies.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2018

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

With a foundation in conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to unpack the relationship between employees’ self-efficacy and job performance…

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2839

Abstract

Purpose

With a foundation in conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to unpack the relationship between employees’ self-efficacy and job performance, investigating the mediating role of job-related anxiety and the moderating role of perceived workplace incivility.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from employees and their supervisors in Pakistani organizations.

Findings

An important reason that employees’ self-efficacy enhances their job performance is that they experience less anxiety while undertaking their daily job tasks. This mediating role of job-related anxiety is particularly salient to the extent that employees believe that they are the victims of uncivil behaviors.

Practical implications

Organizations should note that the anxiety-mitigating effect of self-efficacy is particularly strong for generating adequate performance to the extent that rude and discourteous behaviors cannot be completely avoided in the workplace.

Originality/value

This study establishes a more complete understanding of the benefits of employees’ self-efficacy by revealing how reduced worries about their organizational functioning represent critical mechanisms that connect this personal resource to higher job performance, as well as by showing how employees’ perceptions of workplace incivility invigorate this process.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

This study investigates the mediating role of improvisation behavior in the relationship between employees' perceptions of procedural justice and their job performance, as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the mediating role of improvisation behavior in the relationship between employees' perceptions of procedural justice and their job performance, as evaluated by their supervisors, as well as the invigorating role of their organization-based self-esteem in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected in three rounds among employees and their supervisors in Pakistan.

Findings

An important factor that connects procedural justice with enhanced job performance is whether employees react quickly to unexpected problems while carrying out their jobs. This mediating role of improvisation is particularly salient to the extent that employees consider themselves valuable organizational members.

Practical implications

For organizations, this study pinpoints a key mechanism—willingness to respond in the moment to unanticipated organizational failures—by which fair decision-making processes can steer employees toward performance-enhancing activities. It also reveals how this mechanism can be activated, namely, by ensuring that employees feel appreciated.

Originality/value

Improvisation represents an understudied but critical behavioral factor that links employees' beliefs about fair decision-making procedures to enhanced performance outcomes. This study shows, for the first time, how this beneficial role can be reinforced by organization-based self-esteem, as a critical personal resource.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Inam Ul Haq, Usman Raja, Imtiaz Alam, Dirk De Clercq and Sharjeel Saleem

With a foundation in social exchange theory, this study examines the relationship between servant leadership and three types of workplace mistreatment – bullying…

Abstract

Purpose

With a foundation in social exchange theory, this study examines the relationship between servant leadership and three types of workplace mistreatment – bullying, incivility and ostracism – while also considering a mediating role of trust in the leader and a moderating role of the ethical climate.

Design/methodology/approach

Three time-lagged sets of data (N = 431) were collected among employees working in various sectors.

Findings

Servant leadership relates significantly to trust in the leader, as well as to workplace bullying, incivility and ostracism. In turn, trust in the leader mediates the relationship between servant leadership and all three types of workplace mistreatment. The results also indicate the presence of moderated mediation, in that the indirect effect of servant leadership on workplace mistreatment is moderated by the ethical climate.

Originality/value

This study adds to extant research by examining the mediating mechanism of trust in leaders with servant leadership and workplace mistreatment, along with interactive effects of ethical climate.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2020

Dirk De Clercq, Muhammad Umer Azeem and Inam Ul Haq

This study investigates the connection between employees' dissatisfaction with the organizational status quo and their job performance, with a particular focus on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the connection between employees' dissatisfaction with the organizational status quo and their job performance, with a particular focus on the mediating role of their problem-focused voice behavior – through which they pinpoint possible causes of organizational problem situations – and the moderating role of their Machiavellianism.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-wave survey data were collected from employees and their supervisors in Pakistani organizations.

Findings

An important reason that employees' beliefs about organizational underperformance spur their own performance, as rated by supervisors, is that they spend significant energy expressing their concerns about shortcomings. The mediating role of such constructive voice behaviors is mitigated though, to the extent that employees have stronger Machiavellian tendencies.

Practical implications

For human resource managers, the findings reveal problem-focused voice as a key mechanism by which employees' negative perceptions about how well their organization fares can be channeled into higher job performance. They also elucidate how this process is less likely among employees who are self-centered and less concerned about their organization' well-being, such that they hold back pertinent information about organizational failures from others.

Originality/value

The study pinpoints problem-focused voice as an unexplored behavioral response by which employees' beliefs about organizational underperformance can enhance their job performance. It also details how the tendency of Machiavellian employees to stay away from such voice activities may backfire in the form of lower performance evaluations.

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2020

Dirk De Clercq, Muhammad Umer Azeem and Inam Ul Haq

This study unpacks the relationship between violations of organizational promises, as perceived by employees and their job performance, considering the mediating effects…

Abstract

Purpose

This study unpacks the relationship between violations of organizational promises, as perceived by employees and their job performance, considering the mediating effects of job-related anxiety and moderating effects of psychological contract type.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-source, multi-wave data were collected from employees and their supervisors in Pakistan.

Findings

Feelings of organizational betrayal may reduce job performance due to the higher anxiety that employees experience in their daily work. This mediating role of enhanced job-related anxiety in turn is stronger to the extent that employees believe that their psychological contract contains relational obligations but weaker when it contains transactional obligations.

Practical implications

The study gives organizational decision makers pertinent insights into how they can mitigate the risk that employees who are angry about broken organizational promises stay away from performance-enhancing work activities, namely, by managing the expectations that come along with psychological contracts. In so doing, they can avoid imposing dual harms on employees, from both a sense that they have been betrayed and the risk of lower performance ratings.

Originality/value

This study offers expanded insights into the process that underpins the translation of psychological contract violations into diminished job performance, by pinpointing the simultaneous roles of experienced job-related anxiety and beliefs about employer obligations.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Shazia Nauman, Usman Raja, Inam Ul Haq and Waqas Bilal

The extant research on emotional labor (EL) has focused on positive and negative outcomes observed in the workplace; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered…

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1491

Abstract

Purpose

The extant research on emotional labor (EL) has focused on positive and negative outcomes observed in the workplace; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. The research has yet to consider what factors buffer the negative outcomes of EL. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between workload job demand and employee well-being with mediating effects of surface acting (SA) and moderating effects of emotional intelligence (EI) in service organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two wave data from a sample of 207 emergency medical technicians to test the hypotheses.

Findings

By integrating SA, EI and employee well-being with the conservation of resource theory, the authors found evidence of an indirect effect of workload job demand on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction via SA. The results of moderated mediation show that the negative relationship between SA and job satisfaction was low when EI was high and the positive relationship between SA and emotional exhaustion was low when EI was high.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of the present study is that all the participants were male and drawn from a single profession within the same organization. Another limitation is that the data were collected through self-reports.

Practical implications

This research has important theoretical and practical implications for service organizations wishing to buffer the harmful effects of SA on employees. This study presents key theoretical implications for the EL and well-being literatures. An important practical implication is that EI is a good resource for managing SA’s negative outcomes.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the extant research by showing that workload job demands have negative effects on employee well-being via SA resulting in reduced job satisfaction and increased emotional exhaustion. Further, the negative outcomes of SA on employee well-being can be buffered through EI by taking EI as an emotional resource. High level of EI helps employees to mitigate the harmful effects of SA.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

With a basis in the conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between employees’ experience of time-related work…

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1484

Abstract

Purpose

With a basis in the conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between employees’ experience of time-related work stress and their engagement in counterproductive work behavior (CWB), as well as the invigorating roles that different deviant personality traits might play in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-wave survey data with a time lag of three weeks were collected from 127 employees in Pakistani organizations.

Findings

Employees’ sense that they have insufficient time to do their job tasks spurs their CWB, and this effect is particularly strong if they have strong Machiavellian, narcissistic or psychopathic tendencies.

Originality/value

This study adds to extant research by identifying employees’ time-related work stress as an understudied driver of their CWB and the three personality traits that constitute the dark triad as triggers of the translation of time-related work stress into CWB.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

Drawing from conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and helping behaviour, and…

Downloads
1374

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and helping behaviour, and, particularly, how it may be moderated by two personal resources (work meaningfulness and collectivistic orientation) and one organisational resource (organisational support).

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative data were collected from a survey administered to employees and their supervisors in a Pakistani-based organisation.

Findings

The usefulness of job satisfaction for stimulating helping behaviour is greater when employees believe that their work activities are meaningful, emphasise collective over individual interests, and believe that their employer cares for their well-being.

Practical implications

The results inform organisations about the circumstances in which they can best leverage employees’ positive job energy, which arises from their job satisfaction, to encourage their voluntary assistance of other organisational members.

Originality/value

This study extends research on positive work behaviours by examining the concurrent roles that job satisfaction and several contingent factors play in promoting employee helping behaviour. In particular, it highlights the invigorating effects of these factors on the usefulness of the enthusiasm that employees feel about their job situation for increasing their willingness to extend help to other members, on a voluntary basis.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2019

Inam Ul Haq, Dirk De Clercq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

With a basis in conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of championing behaviour in the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

With a basis in conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of championing behaviour in the relationship between employees’ fear of terror and their job performance, as well as the buffering role of their passion for work, as a personal resource, in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

The tests of the hypotheses rely on three-wave, time-lagged data collected from employees and their supervisors in Pakistan.

Findings

An important reason that concerns about terrorist attacks diminish performance is that employees refrain from championing their own entrepreneurial ideas. This mediating role of idea championing is less salient, however, to the extent that employees feel a strong passion for their work.

Practical implications

For human resource managers, this study pinpoints a key mechanism – a reluctance to mobilize active support for entrepreneurial ideas – by which fears about terrorism attacks can spill over into the workplace and undermine employees’ ability to meet their performance requirements. It also reveals how this mechanism can be better contained by the presence of adequate personal resources.

Originality/value

This study adds to burgeoning research on the interplay between terrorism and organizational life by specifying how and when employees’ ruminations about terrorism threats might escalate into diminished performance outcomes at work.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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