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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

This paper aims to investigate how employees’ perceptions of psychological contract violation or sense of organizational betrayal, might diminish their job satisfaction, as well…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how employees’ perceptions of psychological contract violation or sense of organizational betrayal, might diminish their job satisfaction, as well as how their access to two critical personal resources – emotion regulation skills and work-related self-efficacy – might buffer this negative relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-wave survey data came from employees of Pakistani-based organizations.

Findings

Perceived contract violation reduces job satisfaction, but the effect is weaker at higher levels of emotion regulation skills and work-related self-efficacy.

Practical implications

For organizations, these results show that the frustrations that come with a sense of organizational betrayal can be contained more easily to the extent that their employees can draw from relevant personal resources.

Originality/value

This investigation provides a more complete understanding of when perceived contract violation will deplete employees’ emotional resources, in the form of feelings of happiness about their job situation. A sense of organizational betrayal is less likely to escalate into reduced job satisfaction when employees can control their negative emotions and feel confident about their work-related competencies.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2018

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

With a foundation in conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to unpack the relationship between employees’ self-efficacy and job performance, investigating…

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Abstract

Purpose

With a foundation in conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to unpack the relationship between employees’ self-efficacy and job performance, investigating the mediating role of job-related anxiety and the moderating role of perceived workplace incivility.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from employees and their supervisors in Pakistani organizations.

Findings

An important reason that employees’ self-efficacy enhances their job performance is that they experience less anxiety while undertaking their daily job tasks. This mediating role of job-related anxiety is particularly salient to the extent that employees believe that they are the victims of uncivil behaviors.

Practical implications

Organizations should note that the anxiety-mitigating effect of self-efficacy is particularly strong for generating adequate performance to the extent that rude and discourteous behaviors cannot be completely avoided in the workplace.

Originality/value

This study establishes a more complete understanding of the benefits of employees’ self-efficacy by revealing how reduced worries about their organizational functioning represent critical mechanisms that connect this personal resource to higher job performance, as well as by showing how employees’ perceptions of workplace incivility invigorate this process.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2024

Muhammad Umer Azeem, Dirk De Clercq and Inam Ul Haq

This study investigates how employees' experience of resource-depleting workplace loneliness may steer them away from performance-enhancing work efforts as informed by their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how employees' experience of resource-depleting workplace loneliness may steer them away from performance-enhancing work efforts as informed by their propensity to engage in negative work rumination. It also addresses whether and how religiosity might serve as a buffer of this harmful dynamic.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses tests rely on three-round survey data collected among employees who work in various organizations in Pakistan – a relevant country context, considering the importance of people's religious faith for their professional functioning and its high-uncertainty avoidance and collectivism, which likely make workplace loneliness a particularly upsetting experience.

Findings

An important channel through which a sense of being abandoned at work compromises job performance is that employees cannot “switch off” and stop thinking about work, even after hours. The role of this explanatory mechanism is mitigated, however, when employees can draw from their religious beliefs.

Practical implications

For human resource (HR) managers, this study pinpoints a notable intrusion into the personal realm, namely, repetitive thinking about work-related issues, through which perceptions of work-related loneliness translate into a reluctance to contribute to organizational effectiveness with productive work activities. It also showcases how this translation can be subdued with personal resources that enable employees to contain the hardships they have experienced.

Originality/value

This study helps unpack the connection between workplace loneliness and job performance by detailing the unexplored roles of two important factors (negative work rumination and religiosity) in this connection.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2022

Muhammad Umer Azeem, Dirk De Clercq and Inam Ul Haq

This study aims to unpack the link between co-worker incivility and job performance, by detailing a mediating role of psychological detachment and a moderating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to unpack the link between co-worker incivility and job performance, by detailing a mediating role of psychological detachment and a moderating role of psychological capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses are tested with three-wave, time-lagged data collected from Pakistani-based employees and their supervisors.

Findings

An important reason that disrespectful co-worker treatment curtails job performance, with respect to both in-role and extra-role work efforts, is that employees detach from their work environment. This mediating role of psychological detachment is less salient to the extent that employees possess high levels of psychological capital.

Practical implications

For organizations, this study pinpoints a key mechanism, a propensity to distance oneself from work, by which convictions that co-workers do not show respect direct employees away from productive work activities. This study also shows how this mechanism can be subdued by ensuring that employees exhibit energy-enhancing personal resources.

Originality/value

This study expands extant research on the dark side of interpersonal co-worker relationships by revealing pertinent factors that explain why and when co-worker incivility can escalate into diminished performance-enhancing activities.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Ghulam Murtaza, Olivier Roques, Qurat-ul-ain Talpur, Rahman Khan and Inam Ul Haq

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effects of mindfulness on the relationships between work stressors (perceived organisational politics [POP] and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effects of mindfulness on the relationships between work stressors (perceived organisational politics [POP] and effort–reward imbalance [ERI]) and work outcomes (job burnout [JBO] and job satisfaction [JS]).

Design/methodology/approach

Time-lagged data were collected from public sector employees in France and Pakistan. The final samples (France, N = 204; Pakistan, N = 217) were tested using multiple moderating regression.

Findings

Mindfulness moderates the relationship between work stressors and work outcomes. Mindfulness serves as a personal resource for employees: it mitigates the negative influence that POP and ERI have on JBO and JS.

Originality/value

This study extends current knowledge on the relationships between work stressors and work outcomes across cultures by testing mindfulness as a valuable personal resource.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 53 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2023

Dirk De Clercq, Muhammad Umer Azeem and Inam Ul Haq

This study aims to investigate the relationship between employees' exposure to supervisor incivility and their engagement in insubordinate behavior, by detailing a mediating role…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between employees' exposure to supervisor incivility and their engagement in insubordinate behavior, by detailing a mediating role of ruminations about interpersonal offenses and a moderating role of supervisor task conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses were assessed with three rounds of data, obtained from employees and their peers, working for firms in various industries.

Findings

An important reason that employees' sense that their supervisor treats them disrespectfully escalates into defiance of supervisor authority is that the employees cannot stop thinking about how they have been wronged. The mediating role of such ruminations is particularly prominent when employees' viewpoints clash with those of their supervisor.

Practical implications

A critical danger exists for employees who are annoyed with a rude supervisor: They ponder their negative treatment, which prompts them to disobey, a response that likely diminishes the chances that supervisors might change their behaviors. This detrimental process is particularly salient when employee–supervisor interactions are marked by unpleasant task-related fights.

Originality/value

This study unpacks an unexplored link between supervisor incivility and supervisor-directed insubordination by explicating the pertinent roles of two critical factors (rumination and task conflict) in this link.

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2022

Muhammad Umer Azeem, Dirk De Clercq and Inam Ul Haq

This study investigates how and when employees' exposure to organizational leaders who propose major changes might direct those employees toward efforts to mobilize support for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how and when employees' exposure to organizational leaders who propose major changes might direct those employees toward efforts to mobilize support for innovative ideas. It specifically theorizes a mediating role of performance pressure beliefs and a moderating role of perceived organizational underperformance in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-wave, multi-rater survey data were collected among employees and their supervisors across various industries.

Findings

A critical explanatory mechanism that links change-oriented leadership with enhanced championing efforts is that employees experience performance-related hardships. The extent to which employees perceive that their organization is unable to meet its own performance targets triggers this process.

Practical implications

For organizational decision makers, the findings identify results-driven pressures as key mechanisms by which employees' exposures to change-oriented leadership can be leveraged to promote novel ideas. This translation is more likely among employees who are convinced that there is significant room for organizational improvement.

Originality/value

This study unravels the previously unexplored link between change-oriented leadership and idea championing, pinpointing the influences of two performance-related aspects: beliefs about strenuous organization-induced performance expectations and perceptions of an underperforming employer.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 61 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2023

Dirk De Clercq, Muhammad Umer Azeem and Inam Ul Haq

This study investigates how leaders react when they perceive a threat to their hierarchical position, such as by engaging in abusive supervision in ways that diminish followers’…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how leaders react when they perceive a threat to their hierarchical position, such as by engaging in abusive supervision in ways that diminish followers’ organizational citizenship behavior. It also tests for a dual harmful role of leaders’ dispositional contempt in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-wave survey data were collected among 231 leader–follower dyads across different industry sectors.

Findings

Leaders’ beliefs that their authority is being threatened by high-performing followers can lead followers to halt their voluntary work behaviors, because leaders engage in verbal abuse. The harmful role of leaders’ dispositional contempt in this process is twofold: It enhances abusive supervision directly, and it operates as an indirect catalyst of the mediating role of abusive supervision.

Practical implications

Organizations would be better placed to decrease the risk that disruptions of the hierarchical order, as perceived by leaders, escalate into diminished work-related voluntarism among employee bases by promoting leadership approaches that consider employees deserving of respect instead of disdain.

Originality/value

This study details how and when leaders who fear they may lose authority, evoked by the strong performance of their followers, actually discourage followers from doing anything more than their formal job duties.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2023

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq and Muhammad Umer Azeem

This study aims to detail how employees’ experience of distributive injustice may compromise their job performance, with specific attention to how this detrimental process may be…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to detail how employees’ experience of distributive injustice may compromise their job performance, with specific attention to how this detrimental process may be explained in part by their beliefs about organization-level underperformance and moderated by their own psychological entitlement.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses were tested with three-round, time-lagged data collected among employees and their supervisors.

Findings

A critical channel through which employees’ perceptions that their organization’s reward system is unfair translates into thwarted job performance is a conviction that their organization does not meet its own performance targets. As a mediator, such organizational underperformance beliefs have particularly salient effects on employees who believe they are more deserving than others.

Practical implications

This study gives HR managers insights into how they can reduce the danger that unfair reward practices escalate into a reduced propensity by employees to complete their job tasks diligently. HR managers should make employees aware of their possible entitlement and discourage them from expecting that things always must go their way.

Originality/value

This research unpacks the connection between distributive injustice and job performance, by delineating the unique roles of two pertinent factors (organizational underperformance beliefs and psychological entitlement) in this connection.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2022

Dirk De Clercq, Muhammad Umer Azeem and Inam Ul Haq

This study seeks to unpack the negative relationship between employees' political ineptness and their job performance, by proposing a mediating role of organization-induced…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to unpack the negative relationship between employees' political ineptness and their job performance, by proposing a mediating role of organization-induced emotional exhaustion and a moderating role of perceived organizational unforgiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses were tested with three-round survey data collected among employees and their supervisors across multiple industry sectors.

Findings

Political ineptness diminishes the likelihood that employees undertake performance-enhancing work behaviors because they perceive that their employer is draining their emotional resources. This mediating role of organization-induced emotional exhaustion is particularly salient when they perceive that organizational authorities do not forgive mistakes.

Practical implications

This study reveals a critical risk for employees who find it difficult to exert influence on others: They become complacent in their job duties, which then might further compromise their ability to leave a positive impression on others. This counterproductive process is especially prominent if organizational leaders appear unforgiving.

Originality/value

This study contributes to extant research by explicating an unexplored mechanism (organization-induced emotional exhaustion) and catalyst (organizational unforgiveness) related to the escalation of political ineptness into diminished job performance.

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