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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Israel Olusegun Otemuyiwa, Mary Funmilayo Williams and Steve Adeniyi Adewusi

Tea contains high content of phenolics which are well-known to act as antioxidants. As such, there are claims that the consumption of infusion of tea could help ameliorate…

Abstract

Purpose

Tea contains high content of phenolics which are well-known to act as antioxidants. As such, there are claims that the consumption of infusion of tea could help ameliorate free radical-induced diseases; this therapeutic activity would depend on the amount of phenolics that is soluble and the amount that is absorbed and available for metabolic activity when consumed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of phenolics and antioxidant activity of some health tea and also to study the effect of addition of sugar and milk on in-vitro availability of phenolics in tea, cocoa and coffee drinks.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven brands of health tea, two brands of cocoa drink, one brand each of coffee, powdered milk and sugar were selected. The tea samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, total phenol and antioxidant activity using Folin–Ciocalteau and 202-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil 28DPPH-29-20 reagents. In-vitro simulated digestion modeling stomach and small intestine were carried out on tea infusion, coffee and cocoa drinks with or without sugar, and phenolic availability was analyzed.

Findings

The result indicated that pH, titratable acidity and total phenolics ranged from 4.5 to 5.6, 0.167 to 0.837 (as maleic acid) and 1.15 to 1.17 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, respectively. Black tea recorded the highest phenolic content, in-vitro phenolic availability and antioxidant activity. Addition of sugar to black tea and chocolate drink caused a significant decrease in the in-vitro available phenolics, while the addition of milk leads to a significant enhancement.

Research limitations/implications

The data obtained in this study can be used nutritionally and commercially to show the impact of adding sugar or milk on the content of phenolics and their bioavailability in-vitro. The study justifies the claim that tea could help ameliorate free radical-induced health defects.

Practical implications

Assessment of antioxidant activity of food should not be based only on the content of total phenolics but on the amount that is bioavailable in the body system when the food is consumed.

Social implications

Consumption of tea, cocoa and coffee drinks with milk and sugar have been found to enhance or inhibit phenolics. Therefore, the optimum level of these additives should be determined if the drinks were meant for therapeutic purposes.

Originality/value

Results obtained may provide some useful information for considering the bioavailability of phenolics present in tea and beverages in view of consumption/digestion in our body as well as interference of sugar and milk as the additives.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Neelam Yadav, Devinder Kaur, Ritika Malaviya, Pinki Saini and Saba Anjum

Iron deficiency anaemia and zinc deficiency are major public health problems across the globe. Cereals and pulses are important vegetarian source of minerals like zinc…

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency anaemia and zinc deficiency are major public health problems across the globe. Cereals and pulses are important vegetarian source of minerals like zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), however, poor digestibility impairs proper availability of micro minerals in the body. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were selected for study as they are important pulse crops consumed worldwide. Therefore, in order to remove antinutrients and enhance bioavailability of nutrients in chickpea and cowpea, extrusion cooking was selected as a technology and its impact was studied by an in vitro method. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Four chickpea cultivars, two desi (K 850 and PUSA 362) and two kabuli (PUSA 1108 and PUSA 1053) and one cowpea (Gomati) cultivars were selected for the study. Pulses were processed in a laboratory using a single screw food extruder. Raw and extruded pulses were analysed for antinutrients content, micronutrients content (Fe, Zn) and their bioavailability.

Findings

Extrusion cooking significantly decreased phytate in all cultivars of chick pea and cowpea with highest reduction (72.92 per cent) in PUSA 362; similarly, tannin and trypsin inhibitor decreased by 87.5 and 71.54 per cent, respectively, in Gomati cultivar of cowpea. All cultivars showed significant increase in protein digestibility. Iron bioavailability in all samples enhanced significantly; however, only 50 per cent cultivars (K 850, PUSA 362 and PUSA 1108) showed improvement in Zn bioavailability.

Originality/value

The present research therefore brought the outcome as an enhanced in vitro protein digestibility and bioavailability of micro mineral and protein in certain pulses having minimized antinutrients. Therefore, it is concluded that extrusion cooking is an effective tool in enhancing protein and micro mineral bioavailability.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Savita Rani, Rakhi Singh, Rachna Sehrawat, Barjinder Pal Kaur and Ashutosh Upadhyay

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a rich source of nutrients as compared to the major cultivated cereal crops. However, major factors which limit its utilization are…

Abstract

Purpose

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a rich source of nutrients as compared to the major cultivated cereal crops. However, major factors which limit its utilization are the presence of anti-nutritional factors (phytate, tannins and polyphenols) which lower availability of minerals and poor keeping quality because of higher lipase activity. Therefore, this paper aims to focus on the impact of different processing methods on the nutrient composition and anti-nutritional components of pearl millet.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a literature review study from 1983 to 2017, focusing on studies related to pearl millet processing and their effectiveness in the enrichment of nutritional value through reduction of anti-nutritional compounds.

Findings

From the literature reviewed, pearl millet processing through various methods including milling, malting, fermentation, blanching and acid as well as heat treatments were found to be effective in achieving the higher mineral digestibility, retardation of off flavor, bitterness as well as rancidity problems found during storage of flour.

Originality/value

Through this review paper, possible processing methods and their impact on the nutrient and anti-nutrient profile of pearl millet are discussed after detailed studied of literature from journal articles and thesis.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Yuwei Luo and Weihua Xie

The bioavailability of iron from faba bean is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytate, fiber and tannin. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The bioavailability of iron from faba bean is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytate, fiber and tannin. The purpose of this paper is to try to identify the nature of the complexes between anti‐nutritional factors and iron in faba bean and legume fractions by using simulations of gastro‐intestinal digestion.

Design/methodology/approach

To this aim, the authors evaluated the effect of the action of fiber‐ and/or phytate‐degrading enzymes on solubilization of iron from insoluble residues obtained after gastro‐intestinal digestion of faba bean flour and fractions.

Findings

In insoluble residues of raw faba bean flour, simultaneous action of cellulase and phytases made it possible to release about 28 percent units more iron than that released with the treatment without enzymes. About 49.8 percent of iron in raw faba bean flour was solubilized after in vitro digestion and simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase. In the residues of the hull fraction, a significant increase in iron solubility has not been seen (p>0.05) after action of cellulase or phytases. Simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase led to the release of more than 60 and 18 percent units of additional iron for residues of dehulled faba bean and hull fractions, respectively.

Originality/value

In dehulled faba bean, iron was chelated by phytates and fibers. In the hull of faba bean, a high proportion of iron was chelated by iron‐tannins, while the rest of iron was chelated in complexes between phytates and fibers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Sonia Arora, Sudesh Jood and N. Khetarpaul

Probiotic fermented foods are fast being recognized as health foods. Most of such foods are based on dairy products but little research work is available on coarse cereals…

Abstract

Purpose

Probiotic fermented foods are fast being recognized as health foods. Most of such foods are based on dairy products but little research work is available on coarse cereals and millets, which constitute the staple foods in developing countries. This paper aims to determine the effect of germination and fementation on nutrient composition of pearl millet based food blends.

Design/methodology/approach

Indigenously developed pearl millet based food blends containing raw and germinated pearl millet flour, whey powder and tomato pulp (2:1:1w/w) were autoclaved, cooled and fermented with 5 percent Lactobacillus acidophilus curd which supplied 106cells/ml to the slurry at 37°C for 12 h. The unfermented blends, after autoclaving, served as controls. The developed food blends were subjected to nutritional evaluation by using the standard methods of analysis. The data were statistically analysed.

Findings

Pearl millet based, germinated, autoclaved and fermented, food blend maintained adequate cell viability (8.64 cfu g‐1) as compared to non‐germinated food blend. Germination and probiotic fermentation caused significant improvement in the contents of thiamine, niacin, total lysine, protein fractions, sugars, soluble dietary fibre and in vitro availability of Ca, Fe and Zn of food blends.

Practical implications

Research is currently aimed at developing probiotic millet based food mixture, which had enhanced nutrient profile. Hence, it can be considered for commercialization after establishing its health/therapeutic implications among the population.

Originality/value

Dairy foods have preferentially been used as the carrier medium for probiotics. This paper explores the possibility of using staple foods as the carrier medium. The consumption of such food mixtures containing viable probiotic bacteria should be enhanced among consumers in term of their role in health maintenance and disease prevention.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Shalini Hooda and Sudesh Jood

Wheat is considered nutritionally poor, due to deficiency of essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine, whereas fenugreek (Trigonella faenum graecum L.) flour has…

Abstract

Purpose

Wheat is considered nutritionally poor, due to deficiency of essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine, whereas fenugreek (Trigonella faenum graecum L.) flour has a high protein content (25 per cent), lysins (5.7g/16gN), soluble (20 per cent) and insoluble (28 per cent) dietary fibre besides being rich in calcium, iron and beta‐carotene. Fenugreek seeds contain 20 per cent soluble fibre (gum), which can act as functional agent in wheat dough. The presence of bitter saponins in fenugreek seeds limits their acceptability in foods. However, it has been possible to debitter fenugreek seeds by using various domestic processing methods. Therefore, their use can be exploited as functional and nutritional food as well as therapeutic agents. Hence, in the present study efforts have been made to develop wheat‐fenugreek‐based health bread.

Design/methodology/approach

In commonly grown varieties of wheat, namely WH‐423, and fenugreek namely Pusa, early bunching was obtained. Fenugreek seeds were divided into three portions. One portion was left unprocessed (raw), while the other two portions were soaked (12hr at 37C) and germinated (48hr at 37C) separately. Soaked and germinated samples were dried at 55‐60C. Dried samples of raw, soaked and germinated seeds were ground to fine powder. Fenugreek seed powder (raw, soaked and germinated) was blended separately with wheat flour at different levels, namely 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent. Breads from control and supplemented flours were baked in replicates. Baking, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics were analysed in the control and supplemented breads. The data were statistically analyzed in complete randomized design for analysis of variance according to the standard method.

Findings

Supplementation of wheat flour with fenugreek flour from 5 to 20 per cent levels increased the protein, lysine, minerals and fibre contents of bread. Additions of fenugreek (raw, soaked and germinated) up to the level of 15 per cent produced bread with a satisfactory loaf volume and other sensory quality attributes (crumb colour, crumb texture, taste etc.), whereas the 20 per cent level of supplementation caused a depression effect in loaf volume and the breads were found to be bitter in taste, However, among the various supplemented breads, germinated fenugreek flour‐supplemented bread at 15 per cent level showed satisfactory baking and organoleptic characteristics and contained an appreciable amount of protein (24 per cent), total lysine (3.02g/100g protein), dietary fibre (12.04 per cent) and minerals.

Practical implications

Fast food are becoming as popular, as in developing countries. Keeping this fact in view, in the present study, health breads were prepared. The developed product had good acceptability, was nutritionally rich and had therapeutic value. So, these can be considered for commercialization.

Originality/value

As fenugreek seeds contain 20 per cent soluble fibre (gum), and 5.7g/16gN lysine contents, the soluble fibre of fenugreek seeds has been reported to reduce blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Therefore, their use can be exploited in the development of health foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Rohini Jain and Neerja Singla

Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia in children and women, the purpose of this paper is the development and nutritional evaluation of…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia in children and women, the purpose of this paper is the development and nutritional evaluation of food products supplemented with niger seeds.

Design/methodology/approach

Three products, namely, atta ladoo, mathi and salty biscuits, were developed using standardized recipes with different levels of niger seeds. These products were organoleptically evaluated by a trained panel of 12 judges using an eight-point hedonic rating scale. Nutritional evaluation was also carried out to draw comparison between the developed product and its control counterpart. Proximate composition, in vitro protein digestibility and iron estimation were carried out using standard methods.

Findings

The findings revealed that the products supplemented with niger seeds at a level of 20 per cent were acceptable. The supplemented products were found to have higher protein (13-15 per cent), fat (20-31 per cent), fibre (4.5-5.7 per cent) and iron (11.8-16.1 mg/100 g) content as compared to their control (0 per cent supplementation) counterparts. Along with that, addition of niger seeds resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increase in the in vitro protein digestibility of the supplemented products.

Research limitations/implications

Further, the feeding trials can be conducted by using formulated products so as to check the nutrient bioavailability of these products.

Originality/value

Keeping in view the economic and nutritional benefits of niger seeds, the products supplemented with them can be incorporated in daily diet so as to enhance the nutritional status of an individual. While niger seeds have been used in the animal’s and bird’s feed, limited research has focused on their use in food products used for human consumption in daily diet. Further, their nutritional role in the human diet has not been explored much.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Rejaul Hoque Bepary, Dadasaheb D. Wadikar and Prakash E. Patki

The purpose of this paper was to analyse the present status of the information available on rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.)] cultivars with respect to its nutritional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to analyse the present status of the information available on rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.)] cultivars with respect to its nutritional and functional characteristics. It is one of the non-conventional and under-utilized beans of South and Southeast Asia. In northeastern regions of India, it is an important crop for shifting cultivation or kitchen garden which is consumed as vegetable (tender pod) and pulse. The information gaps filling could be useful for several work proposals and for consumers and cultivators to know the nutritional strength and varied usability of the grain which in-turn can help in its commercialization.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach to information collection was emphasized on nutritional strength of the grain compared to other beans of Vigna family and the varied usability among the rice bean varieties of the Himalayan Belt.

Findings

The average carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fibre and ash content of 75 genotypes of rice bean was found 59.96 ± 2.81, 20.78 ± 2.65, 1.74 ± 1.42, 5.07 ± 1.17 and 4.44 ± 1.03 per cent, respectively. It has high quality protein with all essential amino acid in balance manner. Among the minerals, it contains calcium, iron, zinc and potassium with high bio-availability of calcium (59.8 ± 0.3 per cent). The factors such as flatulence producing saccharides, trypsin inhibitors, polyphenols, phytic acid, saponin and tannins of rice bean were reported to be in the range of 3.28-5.87 per cent, 55.12-163.98 TIU/g, 0.58-1.82 1.88-8.17, 1.2-3.1 and 0.24-1.55 per cent, respectively. The toxic compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (0.09 mg/100 g) and L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (0.36 mg/100 g) is lowest in rice bean. The nutritional advantages of rice bean over the other beans of Vigna family were required to emphasize to induce interest among the researchers, producers and consumers.

Research limitations/implications

In view of the recommended daily requirements with respect of amino acids, vitamin-B and minerals, rice bean could be a major component of the diet to fulfill them. However, the scanty information available on nutritional and functional components of rice bean varieties grown in northeastern India calls for the gap filing research to explore full potential of the bean.

Originality/value

The information about differences among the northeastern varieties of rice bean available on nutritional functional components essentially required the updating of research data to explore full potential and utility of the bean.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2010

Pravin Singare, Ram Lokhande, Mahadeo Andhale and Raghunath Acharya

Elemental analysis of these medicinal plants was performed by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS…

Abstract

Elemental analysis of these medicinal plants was performed by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radio activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plant samples collected from different regions was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed. The study was also extended further to estimate the level of toxic elements like Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb and Hg in medicinal plants which arises due to environmental pollution. The results were discussed with careful reference to established role of essential and rare elements to the physiology and pathology of plant and human life.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Parminder Singh

The aim of the paper is to shed light on the use of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides as biopreservatives in various foods animal. Foods of animal and aquatic origin…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to shed light on the use of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides as biopreservatives in various foods animal. Foods of animal and aquatic origin (milk, meat, fish, eggs, sea foods, etc) become contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, molds and yeasts) during harvesting, transporting, processing, handling and storage operations. Due to the perishable nature of these foods, their preservation is of utmost importance. Though many synthetic chemicals are available, yet their use is quite restricted due to their hazardous effects on human health.

Design/methodology/approach

Within the domain of food industry, traditionally chitosan is used for biopreservation of foods, which is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties in human nutrition. However, chitooligosaccharides also possess a number of nutraceutical and health promoting properties in addition to their preservative effect and shelf-life extension of foods. In this study, the comparative effects of both chitosan and chitooligosaccharides on preservation of foods of animal and aquatic origin have been summarized.

Findings

Though chitosan has been extensively studied in various foods, yet the use of chitooligosaccharides has been relatively less explored. Chitooligosaccharides are bioactive molecules generated from chitosan and have several advantages over the traditional use of chitosan both in food products and on human health. But unfortunately, little or no literature is available on the use of chitooligosaccharides for preservation of some of the foods of animal origin. Notable examples in this category include cheese, beef, pork, chicken, fish, sea foods, etc.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the effects of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides on the processing and storage quality of foods of animal and aquatic origin, which offers a promising future for the development of functional foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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